A glossary for web 3.0 & the semantic web

In my last post, I mentioned that Allan and I were working on a book chapter, which we have finally finished.  For those of you who want to learn more about Web 3.0 or the Semantic web why not start with some simple definitions?

Dublin Core (DC) <http://dublincore.org/> is a metadata standard created by the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI); it provides a semantic vocabulary for describing the “core” properties of digital objects.

Friend of a Friend (FOAF) is an ontology language used to create machine-readable pages of metadata to describe people, the links between them and the things they create and do.

Metadata is a set of descriptive elements about data (literally data about data) designed to facilitate resource discovery. There are three types of metadata: descriptive/content, structure/format or administrative/copyright.

Ontology is a description of characteristics of data elements and the relationships among them in a domain. Ontologies describe many more relationships between terms than thesauri, and multiple kinds of relationships among elements. Taxonomies tend to reveal hierarchical relationships only.

Resource Description and Access (RDA) is the new bibliographic description standard for libraries, archives, museums and information organizations. Built on the foundations of AACR2, RDA is a comprehensive set of guidelines for the description and access of print materials and digital media.

Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a data model that allows relationships between data elements to be described in graph form and so that large-scale federation of data sources, taxonomies and ontologies are possible. It is also a model to define “resources” (objects), the relationships between them and a semantic framework (‘classification system’). RDF metadata is used in cataloguing to describe content and content relationships found on websites, webpages or in digital libraries.

Semantic Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) is the W3C’s recommended standard for querying web data in RDF graphs. In RDF-based environments, graphical tools with SPARQL engines query hundreds of sources through a point-and-click interface.

Semantic web is a term coined by the W3C and Sir Tim Berners-Lee in which data descriptions make it possible to federate, query, browse, and gather information from disparate internal and external sources. The result is a more complete and relevant set of data elements which are defined in statements called triplets, which contain a subject, predicate, and object.

Semantics is from the Greek to give signs, meaning, or to make significant. Semantics refers to aspects of meaning as expressed in language or other systems of signs.

Web 3.0 is a contested term used by some to describe the third generation of the web from 2011-2020

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is developing “interoperable technologies (specifications, standards, software, and tools)” for enhancing the web including HTML, DHTML, XML and many others. See also W3C’s Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences (HCLS) Interest Group <http://esw.w3.org/HCLSIG>.

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