Early Childhood Intervention: Module Three – The Professionals

Category — 3.2 The “O” Professionals

Orthopaedic Surgeon (“Bones and Muscle” Surgeon)

An orthopaedic surgeon is involved in the care of patients with conditions in their bones and muscles, known as musculoskeletal problems (Fig. 1). These include congenital deformities, trauma, infections, tumors, metabolic disturbances (see full Glossary) of the musculoskeletal system, deformities, injuries and degenerative diseases of the spine, hands, feet, knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow in children and adults. He or she has been trained on how to repair and treat conditions related to the limbs (arms and legs) and spine, and to how to restore these through surgery so that they can function to the fullest capacity (Fig. 2).

spinal deformities
Figure 1.  Examples of spinal deformities in a child (The child on the left has normal spine)



Figure 2. Knee Surgery

An orthopaedic surgeon is also concerned with primary and secondary muscular problems and the effects of the central or peripheral nervous system lesions of the musculoskeletal system.

January 30, 2012   No Comments

Ophthalmologist or Eye Doctor

An ophthalmologist is an MD that has specialized in the examination, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions of the eye (Fig. 1). This includes problems affecting the eye itself and its related structures, the eyelids, the orbit, and the visual pathways. An ophthalmologist prescribes vision services (Fig. 2), including glasses and contact lenses.

Figure 1. Eye
Figure 2. Prescription


Ophthalmologists (Fig. 3). are medically trained to diagnose, monitor, and medically or surgically treat all ocular and visual disorders, including vision loss.

Figure 3. Ophthalmologist examining a child

This specialist has the knowledge and professional skills needed to provide comprehensive eye and vision care for patients of all ages. They also provide consultation services for the diagnosis and management of eye and vision related manifestation of systemic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and infectious and noninfectious inflammation.

January 30, 2012   No Comments

Occupational Therapist

Occupational therapists are health-science professionals with a Master’s or PhD degree in occupational therapy.


An occupational therapist (Fig. 1) works with children to improve coordination, motor skills, and skills to play, function in school, and perform routine activities. Kids in occupational therapy may be coping with birth defects, autism, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, developmental delays, burns, amputations, or severe injuries.

Figure 1. Occupational therapist

January 29, 2012   No Comments