Bolter- Chapter 3
Hypertext and the Remediation of Print
I like to think of myself as a strong reader with a fairly good understanding of technology. When faced with the question of having a book in my hand or reading on a screen – nine times out of ten I would choose to have a book in my hand. Hypertext is non-linear, one must navigate through different layers to find the information they are looking for and troll through many documents. Personally, hypertext still takes significantly longer to read and make sense of then picking up a book and reading chapter through chapter. However, we are thrown into a world of hypertext and I think as a critical reader, I can gather a deeper understanding from this type of writing then the typical, linear book. As a teacher, I must broaden my horizons around hypertext so I am better able to provide the essential skills of finding information for my students. There is fear however, being a digital immigrant – that my digital native students may perhaps have a better understanding of hypertext then myself. This commentary will look at the challenges and merits of hypertext through the eyes of an educator.
Hypertext has opened the door for students to make connections and create deeper meaning from their readings at a rapid rate. In Chapter 3 of Bolter’s book he addresses the important issue of information overload. “In the late age of print, however, we are concerned not that there is too much in our minds to get down on paper, but rather that there is too much information held in electronic media for our minds to assimilate.” (Bolter, 2001,p.33) As an educator, the mass amount of information available presents a large challenge and a gift to teaching. Students must be explicitly taught about how to read hypertext, sort through the pertinent information and create meaning and connections from reliable sources. Currently, I am exploring how to teach these skills and am finding that many students have an innate understanding that I don’t have. They have all grown up in the digital age and many of them have the natural ability to navigate hypertext. Above I spoke about the availability of information is as a gift to teaching. Gone are the days of answering boring comprehension questions out of a text book. Reading through hypertext gives students a strong context and easier access to create connections. Learning is more focused on the process and the ability to problem solve then just answering a question correctly today. They are exposed to a unique visual piece that is not as advanced in print.The associative nature of hypertext often takes students along a path of visual and text features.
Although I believe that students learn and comprehend at a deeper level reading hypertext; some research tells a different story. The Dobson and Willinsky article Digital Literacy looks at just that. ” Dillon (1996), however, has pointed out that these notions are seriously flawed: first, there is no definitive evidence supporting the hypothesis that facilitating associative thinking might improve comprehension” (Dobson & Willinsky, p.7) I disagree with Dillon’s claim. First, when students search for information through hypertext they create their own personal connections to the text and are able to draw them between different texts they have researched. How can this not lead to deeper comprehension? The evidence is in the classroom discussion and quality of work they turn in. Teachers are constantly working with students to create connections to what they read- be it a book or digital text. These connections help students digest the information in a way that is personal and relevant to their lives. Learning happens through associative links.
As Bolter points out hypertext remediates print. The fear of hypertext is that it could create a decline in student writing or writing may be oversimplified. Teachers often speak about the impact of media, email, text messages and the internet on students writing ability. These tools are often used for informal communication that is reflected in classroom work As educators, we expect creative, well written compositions that are free of abbreviations and the like. Hypertext relies heavily of visual components to complement or even provide the message to readers. Bolter refers to this as reverse ekphrasis remediation. Ekphrasis refers to using words to paint a picture – hypertext does the opposite and replaces the written word with an image. Perhaps it is us who must adjust of expectations and what we believe writing should look like. Will students writing continue to be oversimplified with the increased exposure to hypertext or will it enhance student performance in the areas of reading and writing?
In conclusion, I have realized that I must push forward and engage with hypertext as much as possible to fulfil my role as a teacher. We can’t expect kids to learn the same way that we did as the 21st century learner attends school in the information age. I wonder if there will ever be a day when I prefer to read hypertext over the traditional book or if it will be a gradual process I do without thinking. One day, I will look back at this commentary and think about the days when I thought hypertext was a challenge to understand. As hypertext continues to remediate print it will evolve into the new “book” and become the common medium for reading just as the codex remediated the papyrus roll. Although it presents challenges, the benefits of hypertext far outweigh the negatives. I believe hypertext will continue to challenge students to a deeper level of thinking and comprehension through its associative links contrary to what some research says. The future of literacy is exciting!
Bolter, Jay David. (2001). Writing Space: Computers, Hypertext, and the remediation of print. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Dobson, T. and Willinsky, J. (2009). Digital literacy (draft). The Cambridge Handbook on Literacy. Retrieved: November 10,2010 http://pkp.sfu.ca/files/Digital%20Literacy.pdf
Englebart, Douglas. (1963). “A conceptual framework for the augmentation of man’s intellect.” In Hawerton, P.W. and Weeks, D.C. (Eds), Vistas in information handling, Volume I: The augmentation of man’s intellect by machine. Washington, DC: Spartan Books. Available (as “Augmentation of human intellect: A conceptual framework”):