6. Monitoring and Evaluation

As we finish this module, let’s remember that we are looking at Monitoring and Evaluation indicators but we are looking at them using particular techniques that encourage participatory practices. We selected specific participatory technologies and then we defined what an indicator is. We select three acronyms SMART, SPICE and CREAM that guide us in monitoring and evaluation activities.

Learning objectives

  • Monitor and evaluate a programme and the methods that are required to do so in a participatory manner
  • Better understand what an indicator is and how to use indicators in monitoring and evaluation
  • Present three ideas – SMART, SPICED, CREAM as particular types of indicators that can be used

Key concepts

Monitoring and evaluation, indicators, SMART, SPICED, CREAM

1. Review this presentation (pdf format) on using participatory techniques in monitoring and evaluation

Key Readings

Key Readings

Discussion Questions

Discussion Questions

  • What are the three shifts in participation that we refer to in the beginning of this sub-module and in what way do these shifts inform the choice of SPICED, SMART and CREAM?
  • We have selected these three acronyms for indicators, SPICED, SMART and CREAM.  Decide on your own acronyms and indicator typology that is catchy, easily memorable and helpful when selecting indicators
  • Slide 28 has a saying from Einstein which says – not everything that counts can be counted and not everything that is counted counts. Expand on this idea and think of what can and can’t be counted that matters or the other way around – what is counted but really doesn’t count for much at all when thinking about development and the larger scheme of things

Further Readings

Further readings

  • Estrella M and Gaventa J. 1998. Who counts reality? Participatory monitoring and evaluation: A literature review. IDS Working Paper 70, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, UK.
  • Roche C. 1999. Impact assessment for development agencies: Learning to value change. Oxfam, Oxford, UK.

Other related International Waters Lessons and Submodules


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