Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is a diverse field that encompasses health care practices and products not considered to be conventional or mainstream. This industry overview will highlight statistics and trends for CAM in Canada. Data has primarily been drawn from the Fraser Institute, Canada’s top think-tank and the only organization in the country that has conducted a comprehensive study of CAM usage in Canada. For a definition of CAM please click here.

Photo Credit: Photo by Monika

Key Takeaways

  • Domestic Demand: Canadians spent a total of $8.8 billion on CAM in 2015-2016. This was an $800 million increase from 2005-2006 (Esmail, 2017).
  • Regional Variation: CAM usage is generally higher in Western Canada than in Eastern Canada (Esmail, 2017).
  • Health Product Exports: Health product exports nearly doubled (93%) during 2015-2016. Natural health products (NHP) were the key drivers of this growth (CHPA, 2016).
  • Strong Global Reputation: Canada continues to have an excellent global reputation as a supplier of high quality Functional Foods and Natural health Products (FFNHP) (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2014).

Industry Performance Snapshot

According to the Fraser Institute’s most recent survey on CAM usage in Canada:

  • Canadians spent $6.5 billion on providers of CAM, and an additional $2.3 billion on natural health products (eg. herbs and vitamins), dietary programs, books, classes during 2015-2016 (Esmail, 2017).
  • Approximately 56% of Canadians used at least one CAM therapy during 2015-2016 (Esmail Institute, 2017).
  • Massage (24%), relaxation techniques (19%), chiropractic care and yoga (16%), and spiritual healing (15%) were the most commonly used CAM therapies during 2015-2016 (Esmail, 2017).
  • Approximately 65% of British Columbians and Albertans used CAM therapies in 2016, compared to 52% of Atlantic Canadians and 46% of Quebecers (Esmail, 2017).

For more information on Cannabis in Canada, see our Cannabis Legalization Series.

Industry Outlook

For the period 2019-2024:

  • Canadians are expected to benefit from a 2.7% increase in disposable income. As a result they will have more money to spend on their well-being (Couillard, 2019).
  • Total health expenditure is forecasted to increase at an annualized rate of 3% to 190.3 billion (Couillard, 2019).
  • Rising expenditure is expected to result in more Canadians choosing preventative care as well as CAM therapies like homeopathy (Couillard, 2019).
  • Growth in CAM, combined with the growing health consciousness of Canadians and their willingness to spend more on their well-being will boost revenues for related industries like the Health Store industry (Couillard, 2019).

Products and Services

This image from the Fraser Institute’s most recent study on CAM shows the various types of treatments/therapies and their usage in Canada. Data for the territories was not provided by the Fraser Institute.


Source: Esmail, N. (2017). Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Use and Public Attitudes 1997, 2006, 2016. Fraser Institute.

Key Markets

The Fraser Institute estimates that in 2016 most CAM users were between 35-44 years of age (Esmail, 2017). The average age of first time CAM users is shown below.


Source: Esmail, N. (2017). Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Use and Public Attitudes 1997, 2006, 2016. Fraser Institute.

Trends and Changes

Rising Health Care Expenditure

  • Total health expenditure is expected to rise by 4.2% to reach $6,839 per person in 2018 (CIHI, 2018).
  • Total health expenditure per person will vary from $6,597 in British Columbia and $6,584 in Ontario to $7,552 in Alberta and $7,443 in Newfoundland and Labrador (CIHI, 2018).
  • Approximately 70% of total health expenditure in 2018 will come from public-sector funding. The remaining 30% will be privately funded and will include complementary and alternative therapies and medicinal products (CIHI, 2018).
  • Hospitals (28.3%), drugs (15.7%) and physician services (15.1%) are expected to account for the largest share of health dollars moving forward (CIHI, 2018).

Healthy Eating

  • 84% of Canadians believe that what they eat has a direct impact on their physical health (Powell, 2017).
  • 63% believe that what they eat affects their emotional well-being (Powell, 2017).
  • 80% of women compared to 72% of men say they eat healthy (Powell, 2017).
  • 45% of Canadians are interested in trying the latest foods that claim to boost health. This bodes well for the Complementary and Alternative Medicine industry (Powell, 2017).
     


Photo Credit: Photo by Silvia Rita

Consumer Preferences

  • Canadians prefer to buy products that are linked to specific health outcomes (eg. cardiovascular health) (Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, 2015).
  • Canadians place a premium on products that align with their personal values (eg. animal welfare) and are less willing to purchase those that do not (Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, 2015).
  • Canadians value transparency and clear labels that clearly communicate a product’s benefits (Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, 2015).
  • More Canadians are wary of dubious health claims online (Lindsay, 2018).

Cannabis Industry Experiences Growing Pains

  • Cannabis market has suffered a 20% fall since legalization in October 2018 (PWC Canada’s Cannabis Series, Chapter 6, n.d.).

  • Canadian cannabis industry continues to struggle with overcapacity, weak business structures, and inexperienced management teams (PWC Canada’s Cannabis Series, Chapter 6, n.d.).
  • More licensed producers are looking to expand into international markets. The extent to which these exports will support overcapacity in Canada is unclear. (PWC Canada’s Cannabis Series, Chapter 6, n.d.).

Sources

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (2015). Emerging Food Innovation: Trends and Opportunities. Retrieved from: http://www.agr.gc.ca/resources/prod/doc/pdf/emerging_food_innovations_innovations_alimentaires_emergentes-eng.pdf

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (2014). Opportunities and Challenges Facing the Canadian Functional Foods and Natural Health Products Sector. Retrieved from: http://www.agr.gc.ca/resources/prod/doc/pdf/ffnhp_opportunities_challenges_afpsn_possibilites_defis-eng.pdf

CHPA. (2016). North American Trends in the Consumer Health Product Industry. Retrieved from: https://www.chpcanada.ca/wp-system/uploads/2017/12/CHPC-CHPA-RCC-Submission-2016-FINAL.pdf

CIHI. (2018). National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.cihi.ca/sites/default/files/document/nhex-trends-narrative-report-2018-en-web.pdf

Couillard, L. (2019). IBISWorld Industry Report 44619CA: Health Stores in Canada. Retrieved from IBISWorld Industry Reports database.

Esmail, N. (2017). Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Use and Public Attitudes 1997, 2006, and 2016. Retrieved from: https://www.fraserinstitute.org/sites/default/files/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-2017.pdf

Lindsay, B. (2018, June 9). There’s an Epidemic of Bogus Health Claims Online, and No Easy Cure. CBC. Retrieved from: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/there-s-an-epidemic-of-bogus-health-claims-online-and-no-easy-cure-1.4695898

Powell, C. (2017, March 3). Healthy Eating Becoming Increasingly Important to Canadians: Study. Canadian Grocer. http://www.canadiangrocer.com/research/healthy-eating-becoming-increasingly-important-to-canadians-study-71343

PwC Canada. (n.d). Chapter 6 – Restructuring: The Growing Pains of a New Industry. Retrieved from: https://www.pwc.com/ca/en/industries/cannabis/pwc-cannabis-series-chapter-6-restructuring.html

The Conference Board of Canada. (2015). Healthy Growth: Estimating the Economic Footprint of the Fast Growing Consumer Health Products Industry. Retrieved from: https://www.chpcanada.ca/sites/default/files/healthy_growth_final_report.pdf

Industry Trends

Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is a diverse field that encompasses health care practices and products not considered to be conventional or mainstream. This industry overview will highlight statistics and trends for CAM in Canada. Data has primarily been drawn from the Fraser Institute, Canada’s top think-tank and the only organization in the country that has conducted a comprehensive study of CAM usage in Canada. For a definition of CAM please click here.

Photo Credit: Photo by Monika

Key Takeaways

  • Domestic Demand: Canadians spent a total of $8.8 billion on CAM in 2015-2016. This was an $800 million increase from 2005-2006 (Esmail, 2017).
  • Regional Variation: CAM usage is generally higher in Western Canada than in Eastern Canada (Esmail, 2017).
  • Health Product Exports: Health product exports nearly doubled (93%) during 2015-2016. Natural health products (NHP) were the key drivers of this growth (CHPA, 2016).
  • Strong Global Reputation: Canada continues to have an excellent global reputation as a supplier of high quality Functional Foods and Natural health Products (FFNHP) (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2014).

Industry Performance Snapshot

According to the Fraser Institute’s most recent survey on CAM usage in Canada:

  • Canadians spent $6.5 billion on providers of CAM, and an additional $2.3 billion on natural health products (eg. herbs and vitamins), dietary programs, books, classes during 2015-2016 (Esmail, 2017).
  • Approximately 56% of Canadians used at least one CAM therapy during 2015-2016 (Esmail Institute, 2017).
  • Massage (24%), relaxation techniques (19%), chiropractic care and yoga (16%), and spiritual healing (15%) were the most commonly used CAM therapies during 2015-2016 (Esmail, 2017).
  • Approximately 65% of British Columbians and Albertans used CAM therapies in 2016, compared to 52% of Atlantic Canadians and 46% of Quebecers (Esmail, 2017).

For more information on Cannabis in Canada, see our Cannabis Legalization Series.

Industry Outlook

For the period 2019-2024:

  • Canadians are expected to benefit from a 2.7% increase in disposable income. As a result they will have more money to spend on their well-being (Couillard, 2019).
  • Total health expenditure is forecasted to increase at an annualized rate of 3% to 190.3 billion (Couillard, 2019).
  • Rising expenditure is expected to result in more Canadians choosing preventative care as well as CAM therapies like homeopathy (Couillard, 2019).
  • Growth in CAM, combined with the growing health consciousness of Canadians and their willingness to spend more on their well-being will boost revenues for related industries like the Health Store industry (Couillard, 2019).

Products and Services

This image from the Fraser Institute’s most recent study on CAM shows the various types of treatments/therapies and their usage in Canada. Data for the territories was not provided by the Fraser Institute.


Source: Esmail, N. (2017). Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Use and Public Attitudes 1997, 2006, 2016. Fraser Institute.

Key Markets

The Fraser Institute estimates that in 2016 most CAM users were between 35-44 years of age (Esmail, 2017). The average age of first time CAM users is shown below.


Source: Esmail, N. (2017). Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Use and Public Attitudes 1997, 2006, 2016. Fraser Institute.

Trends and Changes

Rising Health Care Expenditure

  • Total health expenditure is expected to rise by 4.2% to reach $6,839 per person in 2018 (CIHI, 2018).
  • Total health expenditure per person will vary from $6,597 in British Columbia and $6,584 in Ontario to $7,552 in Alberta and $7,443 in Newfoundland and Labrador (CIHI, 2018).
  • Approximately 70% of total health expenditure in 2018 will come from public-sector funding. The remaining 30% will be privately funded and will include complementary and alternative therapies and medicinal products (CIHI, 2018).
  • Hospitals (28.3%), drugs (15.7%) and physician services (15.1%) are expected to account for the largest share of health dollars moving forward (CIHI, 2018).

Healthy Eating

  • 84% of Canadians believe that what they eat has a direct impact on their physical health (Powell, 2017).
  • 63% believe that what they eat affects their emotional well-being (Powell, 2017).
  • 80% of women compared to 72% of men say they eat healthy (Powell, 2017).
  • 45% of Canadians are interested in trying the latest foods that claim to boost health. This bodes well for the Complementary and Alternative Medicine industry (Powell, 2017).
     


Photo Credit: Photo by Silvia Rita

Consumer Preferences

  • Canadians prefer to buy products that are linked to specific health outcomes (eg. cardiovascular health) (Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, 2015).
  • Canadians place a premium on products that align with their personal values (eg. animal welfare) and are less willing to purchase those that do not (Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, 2015).
  • Canadians value transparency and clear labels that clearly communicate a product’s benefits (Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, 2015).
  • More Canadians are wary of dubious health claims online (Lindsay, 2018).

Cannabis Industry Experiences Growing Pains

  • Cannabis market has suffered a 20% fall since legalization in October 2018 (PWC Canada’s Cannabis Series, Chapter 6, n.d.).

  • Canadian cannabis industry continues to struggle with overcapacity, weak business structures, and inexperienced management teams (PWC Canada’s Cannabis Series, Chapter 6, n.d.).
  • More licensed producers are looking to expand into international markets. The extent to which these exports will support overcapacity in Canada is unclear. (PWC Canada’s Cannabis Series, Chapter 6, n.d.).

Sources

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (2015). Emerging Food Innovation: Trends and Opportunities. Retrieved from: http://www.agr.gc.ca/resources/prod/doc/pdf/emerging_food_innovations_innovations_alimentaires_emergentes-eng.pdf

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (2014). Opportunities and Challenges Facing the Canadian Functional Foods and Natural Health Products Sector. Retrieved from: http://www.agr.gc.ca/resources/prod/doc/pdf/ffnhp_opportunities_challenges_afpsn_possibilites_defis-eng.pdf

CHPA. (2016). North American Trends in the Consumer Health Product Industry. Retrieved from: https://www.chpcanada.ca/wp-system/uploads/2017/12/CHPC-CHPA-RCC-Submission-2016-FINAL.pdf

CIHI. (2018). National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.cihi.ca/sites/default/files/document/nhex-trends-narrative-report-2018-en-web.pdf

Couillard, L. (2019). IBISWorld Industry Report 44619CA: Health Stores in Canada. Retrieved from IBISWorld Industry Reports database.

Esmail, N. (2017). Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Use and Public Attitudes 1997, 2006, and 2016. Retrieved from: https://www.fraserinstitute.org/sites/default/files/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-2017.pdf

Lindsay, B. (2018, June 9). There’s an Epidemic of Bogus Health Claims Online, and No Easy Cure. CBC. Retrieved from: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/there-s-an-epidemic-of-bogus-health-claims-online-and-no-easy-cure-1.4695898

Powell, C. (2017, March 3). Healthy Eating Becoming Increasingly Important to Canadians: Study. Canadian Grocer. http://www.canadiangrocer.com/research/healthy-eating-becoming-increasingly-important-to-canadians-study-71343

PwC Canada. (n.d). Chapter 6 – Restructuring: The Growing Pains of a New Industry. Retrieved from: https://www.pwc.com/ca/en/industries/cannabis/pwc-cannabis-series-chapter-6-restructuring.html

The Conference Board of Canada. (2015). Healthy Growth: Estimating the Economic Footprint of the Fast Growing Consumer Health Products Industry. Retrieved from: https://www.chpcanada.ca/sites/default/files/healthy_growth_final_report.pdf

Industry Trends

The latest collection spotlight is up!  “Yay, You! Moving Up and Moving On.” features books with a graduation, last day of school, life’s journey, or other related theme.

Yay, you! : moving out, moving up, moving on / written and illustrated by Sandra Boynton      PZ8.3.B7 Yy 2001  (image for this month’s display is based on this book!)

Journey / Aaron Becker          PZ4.9.B396 Jr 2013

What do you do with a chance? / written by Kobi Yamada ; illustrated by Mae Besom.     PZ7.Y18 Wg 2017

Sometimes you fly / by Newbery Medalist Katherine Applegate  PZ7.A644 Sm 2018

If you hold a seed / by Elly MacKay.          PZ7.M19124 If 2013  (stacks & CCBC)

Dream : a tale of wonder, wisdom & wishes / Susan V. Bosak       PZ4.9.B6789 Dr 2004

The three questions / written and illustrated by Jon J. Muth.        PZ4.9.M97 Th 2002

Reach for the stars : and other advice for life’s journey / by Serge Bloch. PZ4.9.B5664 Rc 2010

Once upon a memory / written by Nina Laden     PZ4.9.L115 On 2013

Teacup / Rebecca Young, Matt Ottley.    PZ7.1.Y76 Tc 2016

Happy dreamer / by Peter H. Reynolds   PZ7.R337645 Hp 2017 CCBC

Hope you’re happy / story by Mary Clendenning Genge  PZ4.9.C5464 Hp 2002

Oh, the places you’ll go! / Seuss      PZ4.9.S487 Oh 1990

Going places  / written by Peter H. Reynolds & Paul A. Reynolds PZ7.R337645 Gn 2014

Come with me : poems for a journey / by Naomi Shihab Nye        PS3564.Y44 C66 2000

How to catch a star / Oliver Jeffers           PZ4.9.J4 Hw 2004

Move it, Miss Macintosh! / by Peggy Robbins Janousky   PZ4.9.J3588 Mv 2016  CCBC

Because you are my teacher / by Sherry North    PZ8.3.N8135 Bc 2012

Because of Mr. Terupt / Rob Buyea      PZ7.B98316 Bc 2010

Teacher Appreciation Day / by Lynne Plourde      PZ4.9.P626174 Tc 2003

Last day blues / Julie Danneberg               PZ4.9.D35517 Ls 2006

What do you do with an idea?    PZ7.Y18 Wh 2013

Miss Bindergarten celebrates the last day of kindergarten     PZ4.9.S585 Mc 2005

The day you begin           PZ7.W8642 Dy 2018

We are all dots : a big plan for a better world       PZ7.1.M25874 We 2018

The wish tree     PZ4.9.M222943 Ws 2016 CCBC

It’s okay to make mistakes           PZ4.9.P2267 Is 2014

Junie B. Jones is a graduation girl               PZ7.P2192 Jn 2001

For every one    PZ8.3.R3327 Fr 2018

Open Collections has several collections related to fishing. Today, we will introduce a few of these collections and our favourite digitized items!

Fisherman Publishing Society Collection

In the Fisherman Publishing Society Collection, we have digitized around 4,000 photographs taken from 1862 to 1989. The Fisherman Publishing Society formed in 1937 and had published a bi-weekly newspaper, The Fisherman, for the Salmon Purse Seiners Union and its successor, the United Fisherman and Allied Workers’ Union. The paper was about the fishing industry and union events to promote unity among West Coast fishermen. The photographs depict labour and union activity, fish and fishing vessels, and the men and women who worked in the fishing industry. The archival collections are housed in UBC Rare Books and Special Collections, with other correspondence, a scrapbook, meeting minutes, ships’ logs and the Harry Allison papers.

 

View of Dave Carlson’s boat the Spirit of B.C. at launching June, 1968.

 

Herring sale by Fishers Union at New Westminster to aid CKNW orphans fund December, 1968.

 

Hawthorn Fly Fishing & Angling Collection

UBC Library has more than 2,200 books on angling and fly-fishing, known as the Harry Hawthorn Collection. The collection started when a group of UBC professors went fishing for a holiday in 1953. They decided to launch a foundation with the accumulated money from various bets and fines for alleged illegal or non-ethical fishing methods. The current members of the Foundation are continuing this tradition to go fly-fishing in early August, and the increased funding has gone towards developing the collection.

In Open Collections, we have digitized around 50 representative titles as Hawthorn Fly Fishing & Angling Collection with generous support by the Harry Hawthorn Foundation.

 

Sparrow, Walter Shaw. Angling in British art through five centuries: prints, pictures, books, 1923.

 

[Lang, Cecil]. The mighty mahseer and other fish : or hints to beginners on Indian fishing, 1906.

 

Traité général des pesches

Traité général des pesches consists of a digitized book with two volumes, Traité général des pesches, et histoire des poissons qu’elles fournissent, tant pour la subsistance des hommes, que pour plusieurs autres usages qui on rapport aux arts et au commerce, [between 1769-1782]. These volumes, written by a French physician and botanist, Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau (1700-1782) and Jean-Louis De La Marre between 1769 and 1782, were considered one of the finest works on fishing and fisheries.

Duhamel du Monceau, M. Traité général des pesches, et histoire des poissons qu’elles fournissent, tant pour la subsistance des hommes, que pour plusieurs autres usages qui on rapport aux arts et au commerce, [between 1769-1782].

Duhamel du Monceau, M. Traité général des pesches, et histoire des poissons qu’elles fournissent, tant pour la subsistance des hommes, que pour plusieurs autres usages qui on rapport aux arts et au commerce. Seconde partie, [between 1769-1782].

Along with the entire volumes, we also separately digitized all of the illustrated plates in the books:

 

Duhamel du Monceau, M. Part 1, Section 1, Plate 2, [between 1769-1782].

Duhamel du Monceau, M. Part 2, Section 1, Plate 10, [between 1769-1782].

UBC Institute of Fisheries Field Records

UBC Institute of Fisheries Field Records have more than 10,000 digitized records on fish specimens in the UBC Fish Collection housed in the Beaty Biodiversity Museum, which is the third-largest fish collection in Canada.

The fish records include information about where and what kinds of fish were caught. This data has been used in environmental assessments, conservation efforts and research projects in an aquatic ecosystem.

The oldest record in 1877, for instance, shows the record of Hyperoplus lanceolatus (Greater sand eel) caught in Estonia:

UBC Institute of Fisheries Field Record B.C. 63-943, 1877.

 

The latest record in 1991 have 13 different types of fishes caught near Helby Island, BC:

UBC Institute of Fisheries Filed Record B.C. 90-191, 1991.

 

If you want to explore more about these collections, please visit our past blog posts:

 

References

UBC Library’s annual Senate Report (2018/19) is now available. Read our highlights from the past fiscal year which include advancing research, learning and scholarship, engaging with communities, creating and delivering responsive collections, inspiring with innovative spaces and services, and stewarding the organization.

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