coffee shop and coffee manufacturing industry overview

This industry overview will discuss the latest statistics and trends for those interested in the coffee business.

  • Limited-service eating places: In Canada, this is the industry category for coffee shops. In this category, food and drinks are paid for prior to consumption and typically picked up at the counter to eat at the retail location or as takeout.
  • Snack and Non-alcoholic Beverage Bars: In the US, this is the coffee shop industry category; do not confuse this with limited-service restaurants, which excludes coffee shops.
  • Coffee and Tea Manufacturing: This is the industry category for coffee roasters and tea blenders. This has been included as some independent coffee shops roast their own coffee beans.

For more specific information about researching the coffee shop industry, please see our Coffee Shops and Coffee Manufacturing Guide. For an overview of the overall Restaurant industry, please see our Restaurant Industry Overview.

For information about related industries please see our industry guides for restaurants, caterers, bakeries, specialty foods, and street food vendors.

Industry Status

Industry phase: Mature

Concentration: Medium

Competition: High

Regulation: Medium and Increasing

(Sayler, 2018; Ozelkan, 2018)

Starting a coffee shop has a low barrier to entry due to the lower amount of capital required to start a business.

Coffee roasting has a very high barrier to entry; but if you are not planning to sell your roasted coffee on the mass market in places such as grocery stores, this barrier is significantly lower (Ozelkan, 2018).

BC Industry Snapshot

  • Overall profit margin for limited-service eating places is around 5% (Statistics Canada)
  • Sales were up by 8.0% in British Columbia in the third quarter in food services and drinking places (Statistics Canada)
  • High rental costs are increasing the barrier to entry for new coffee shop owners (Sagan, 2019)
  • Only Ontario and BC have significant coffee and tea manufacturing industries in Canada (Statistics Canada)

Graph of sales total for BC Limited-service eating places

Statistics Canada. Table 21-10-0019-01 Monthly survey of food services and drinking places (x 1,000)

Graph of sales totals for coffee manufacturing in BC

Statistics Canada. Table 16-10-0048-01 Manufacturing sales by industry and province, monthly (dollars unless otherwise noted) (x 1,000)

Employment Numbers

Most limited-service eating places and coffee and tea manufacturing companies in British Columbia have fewer than 50 employees, as shown in the charts below.

Limited-service eating places encompasses eating places beyond coffee shops, but most are not large chains, contributing to the high competition in the industry. There are fewer coffee and tea manufacturing companies, and they tend have no employees because of the local and small markets they serve as well as the high barriers to entry.

Graph of employee numbers at limited-service eating places in BC

Statistics Canada. Table 33-10-0092-01 Canadian Business Counts, with employees, June 2018; Table 33-10-0094-01 Canadian Business Counts, without employees, June 2018

Graph of employee numbers at coffee manufacturing businesses in BC

Statistics Canada. Table 33-10-0092-01 Canadian Business Counts, with employees, June 2018; Table 33-10-0094-01 Canadian Business Counts, without employees, June 2018

Industry Trends and Challenges

Continuing Growth

Both coffee shops and coffee and tea production will see their growth trend of the past five years continue, at a slightly slower rate than previously. The growth rate is being negatively impacted by economic stagnation and a stronger Canadian dollar (Sayler, 2018; Ozelkan, 2018).

  • Coffee shops are expected to grow at an annualized rate of 3.1% (Sayler, 2018)
  • Coffee and tea production expected to grow at an annualized rate of 2.1% (Ozelkan, 2018)

Canada is one of the largest consumers of coffee in the world (the conversation), with 82% of Canadians drink coffee every week (Coffee Association of Canada, 2018).

Climate Change

In coffee and tea production, low harvest yields have resulted in more expensive coffee beans and tea leaves (Ozelkan, 2018). It is expected that many of the areas in which coffee is grown will no longer be able to grow coffee due to climate change (Charlebois, 2018).

Third-Wave Coffee

An increasing number of consumers are purchasing specialty coffee, in which the coffee is considered an artisanal product and is analyzed in a similar way to wine (Draper, 2019); the focus is on offering consumers a particular experience with a product (Schalk, 2018).

This segment has grown over the past five years (Sayler, 2018), and it now represents about 60% of coffee consumed in the US (First Research Industry Profile, 2018). Offering specialty coffee that cannot be obtained in other shops also provides small coffee shops with a competitive advantage over large chains (First Research Industry Profile, 2018).

Canadian Revenue Spending Breakdown

These charts show how revenue in both limited-service eating places and coffee and tea manufacturing is spent. Overall, 67.9% of limited-service eating places and 69.0% of coffee and tea manufacturing businesses are profitable (Statistics Canada, 2018).

Graph of revenue and expenditures at limited-service eating places in Canada

Statistics Canada. (2018). Report for: NAICS 722512 - Limited-service eating places - Financial Performance Data.

Graph of revenue and expenditures for coffee manufacturing in Canada

Statistics Canada. (2018). Report for: NAICS 311920 - Coffee and Tea Manufacturing - Financial Performance Data

Bibliography

Charlebois, Sylvain. (2018). How the coffee industry is about to get roasted by climate change. The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/how-the-coffee-industry-is-about-to-get-roasted-by-climate-change-85054

 

Coffee Association of Canada. (2018). Canadian coffee drinking study – 2018 infographic. Retrieved from http://www.coffeeassoc.com/media-coffee-facts/

Draper, James. (2019). From the grounds up: Coffee aficionado works to perfect craft. Longview News Journal. Retrieved from https://www.news-journal.com/features/taste/from-the-grounds-up-coffee-a...

First Research Industry Profile. (2018). Coffee shops - quarterly update 11/19/2018. Fort Mill, South Carolina: Mergent. Retrieved from Business Market Research Collection

First Research Industry Profile. (2018). Coffee & tea manufacturing - quarterly update 11/19/2018. Fort Mill, South Carolina: Mergent. Retrieved from Business Market Research Collection

Sayler, B (2017). Coffee and snack shops in Canada (IBISWorld Industry Report 72221bCA). Retrieved from IBISWorld Inc.

Ozelkan, E. (2018). Coffee and tea production in Canada (IBISWorld Industry Report 31192CA). Retrieved from IBISWorld Inc.

Sagan, Aleksandra. (2019). Tiny coffeeshops help owners save on rent in high-cost Toronto, Vancouver. CTV News Vancouver. Retrieved from https://bc.ctvnews.ca/tiny-coffeeshops-help-owners-save-on-rent-in-high-cost-toronto-vancouver-1.4251127

Schalk, Danielle. (2018). The 2018 coffee and tea report. Food Service and Hospitality. Retrieved from https://www.foodserviceandhospitality.com/the-coffee-and-tea-report/

Statistics Canada. (2018). Report for: NAICS 311920 - coffee and tea manufacturing - financial performance data. Small business profiles, 2016. Retrieved from https://www.ic.gc.ca/app/sme-pme/bnchmrkngtl/rprt-flw.pub?execution=e1s2

Statistics Canada. (2018). Report for: NAICS 722512 - limited-service eating places - financial performance data. Small business profiles, 2016. Retrieved from https://www.ic.gc.ca/app/sme-pme/bnchmrkngtl/rprt-flw.pub?execution=e1s2

Statistics Canada. (2017). Table 21-10-0171-01 Food services and drinking places, summary statistics. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=2110017101

Statistics Canada. (2018). Table 16-10-0048-01 Manufacturing sales by industry and province, monthly (dollars unless otherwise noted) (x 1,000). Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=2110001901

Statistics Canada. (2018). Table 21-10-0019-01 Monthly survey of food services and drinking places (x 1,000). Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=2110001901

Statistics Canada. (2018). Table 33-10-0092-01 Canadian Business Counts, with employees, June 2018. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=3310009201

Statistics Canada. (2018). Table 33-10-0094-01 Canadian Business Counts, without employees, June 2018 Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=3310009401

Industry Trends

coffee shop and coffee manufacturing industry overview

This industry overview will discuss the latest statistics and trends for those interested in the coffee business.

  • Limited-service eating places: In Canada, this is the industry category for coffee shops. In this category, food and drinks are paid for prior to consumption and typically picked up at the counter to eat at the retail location or as takeout.
  • Snack and Non-alcoholic Beverage Bars: In the US, this is the coffee shop industry category; do not confuse this with limited-service restaurants, which excludes coffee shops.
  • Coffee and Tea Manufacturing: This is the industry category for coffee roasters and tea blenders. This has been included as some independent coffee shops roast their own coffee beans.

For more specific information about researching the coffee shop industry, please see our Coffee Shops and Coffee Manufacturing Guide. For an overview of the overall Restaurant industry, please see our Restaurant Industry Overview.

For information about related industries please see our industry guides for restaurants, caterers, bakeries, specialty foods, and street food vendors.

Industry Status

Industry phase: Mature

Concentration: Medium

Competition: High

Regulation: Medium and Increasing

(Sayler, 2018; Ozelkan, 2018)

Starting a coffee shop has a low barrier to entry due to the lower amount of capital required to start a business.

Coffee roasting has a very high barrier to entry; but if you are not planning to sell your roasted coffee on the mass market in places such as grocery stores, this barrier is significantly lower (Ozelkan, 2018).

BC Industry Snapshot

  • Overall profit margin for limited-service eating places is around 5% (Statistics Canada)
  • Sales were up by 8.0% in British Columbia in the third quarter in food services and drinking places (Statistics Canada)
  • High rental costs are increasing the barrier to entry for new coffee shop owners (Sagan, 2019)
  • Only Ontario and BC have significant coffee and tea manufacturing industries in Canada (Statistics Canada)

Graph of sales total for BC Limited-service eating places

Statistics Canada. Table 21-10-0019-01 Monthly survey of food services and drinking places (x 1,000)

Graph of sales totals for coffee manufacturing in BC

Statistics Canada. Table 16-10-0048-01 Manufacturing sales by industry and province, monthly (dollars unless otherwise noted) (x 1,000)

Employment Numbers

Most limited-service eating places and coffee and tea manufacturing companies in British Columbia have fewer than 50 employees, as shown in the charts below.

Limited-service eating places encompasses eating places beyond coffee shops, but most are not large chains, contributing to the high competition in the industry. There are fewer coffee and tea manufacturing companies, and they tend have no employees because of the local and small markets they serve as well as the high barriers to entry.

Graph of employee numbers at limited-service eating places in BC

Statistics Canada. Table 33-10-0092-01 Canadian Business Counts, with employees, June 2018; Table 33-10-0094-01 Canadian Business Counts, without employees, June 2018

Graph of employee numbers at coffee manufacturing businesses in BC

Statistics Canada. Table 33-10-0092-01 Canadian Business Counts, with employees, June 2018; Table 33-10-0094-01 Canadian Business Counts, without employees, June 2018

Industry Trends and Challenges

Continuing Growth

Both coffee shops and coffee and tea production will see their growth trend of the past five years continue, at a slightly slower rate than previously. The growth rate is being negatively impacted by economic stagnation and a stronger Canadian dollar (Sayler, 2018; Ozelkan, 2018).

  • Coffee shops are expected to grow at an annualized rate of 3.1% (Sayler, 2018)
  • Coffee and tea production expected to grow at an annualized rate of 2.1% (Ozelkan, 2018)

Canada is one of the largest consumers of coffee in the world (the conversation), with 82% of Canadians drink coffee every week (Coffee Association of Canada, 2018).

Climate Change

In coffee and tea production, low harvest yields have resulted in more expensive coffee beans and tea leaves (Ozelkan, 2018). It is expected that many of the areas in which coffee is grown will no longer be able to grow coffee due to climate change (Charlebois, 2018).

Third-Wave Coffee

An increasing number of consumers are purchasing specialty coffee, in which the coffee is considered an artisanal product and is analyzed in a similar way to wine (Draper, 2019); the focus is on offering consumers a particular experience with a product (Schalk, 2018).

This segment has grown over the past five years (Sayler, 2018), and it now represents about 60% of coffee consumed in the US (First Research Industry Profile, 2018). Offering specialty coffee that cannot be obtained in other shops also provides small coffee shops with a competitive advantage over large chains (First Research Industry Profile, 2018).

Canadian Revenue Spending Breakdown

These charts show how revenue in both limited-service eating places and coffee and tea manufacturing is spent. Overall, 67.9% of limited-service eating places and 69.0% of coffee and tea manufacturing businesses are profitable (Statistics Canada, 2018).

Graph of revenue and expenditures at limited-service eating places in Canada

Statistics Canada. (2018). Report for: NAICS 722512 - Limited-service eating places - Financial Performance Data.

Graph of revenue and expenditures for coffee manufacturing in Canada

Statistics Canada. (2018). Report for: NAICS 311920 - Coffee and Tea Manufacturing - Financial Performance Data

Bibliography

Charlebois, Sylvain. (2018). How the coffee industry is about to get roasted by climate change. The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/how-the-coffee-industry-is-about-to-get-roasted-by-climate-change-85054

 

Coffee Association of Canada. (2018). Canadian coffee drinking study – 2018 infographic. Retrieved from http://www.coffeeassoc.com/media-coffee-facts/

Draper, James. (2019). From the grounds up: Coffee aficionado works to perfect craft. Longview News Journal. Retrieved from https://www.news-journal.com/features/taste/from-the-grounds-up-coffee-a...

First Research Industry Profile. (2018). Coffee shops - quarterly update 11/19/2018. Fort Mill, South Carolina: Mergent. Retrieved from Business Market Research Collection

First Research Industry Profile. (2018). Coffee & tea manufacturing - quarterly update 11/19/2018. Fort Mill, South Carolina: Mergent. Retrieved from Business Market Research Collection

Sayler, B (2017). Coffee and snack shops in Canada (IBISWorld Industry Report 72221bCA). Retrieved from IBISWorld Inc.

Ozelkan, E. (2018). Coffee and tea production in Canada (IBISWorld Industry Report 31192CA). Retrieved from IBISWorld Inc.

Sagan, Aleksandra. (2019). Tiny coffeeshops help owners save on rent in high-cost Toronto, Vancouver. CTV News Vancouver. Retrieved from https://bc.ctvnews.ca/tiny-coffeeshops-help-owners-save-on-rent-in-high-cost-toronto-vancouver-1.4251127

Schalk, Danielle. (2018). The 2018 coffee and tea report. Food Service and Hospitality. Retrieved from https://www.foodserviceandhospitality.com/the-coffee-and-tea-report/

Statistics Canada. (2018). Report for: NAICS 311920 - coffee and tea manufacturing - financial performance data. Small business profiles, 2016. Retrieved from https://www.ic.gc.ca/app/sme-pme/bnchmrkngtl/rprt-flw.pub?execution=e1s2

Statistics Canada. (2018). Report for: NAICS 722512 - limited-service eating places - financial performance data. Small business profiles, 2016. Retrieved from https://www.ic.gc.ca/app/sme-pme/bnchmrkngtl/rprt-flw.pub?execution=e1s2

Statistics Canada. (2017). Table 21-10-0171-01 Food services and drinking places, summary statistics. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=2110017101

Statistics Canada. (2018). Table 16-10-0048-01 Manufacturing sales by industry and province, monthly (dollars unless otherwise noted) (x 1,000). Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=2110001901

Statistics Canada. (2018). Table 21-10-0019-01 Monthly survey of food services and drinking places (x 1,000). Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=2110001901

Statistics Canada. (2018). Table 33-10-0092-01 Canadian Business Counts, with employees, June 2018. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=3310009201

Statistics Canada. (2018). Table 33-10-0094-01 Canadian Business Counts, without employees, June 2018 Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=3310009401

Industry Trends

Bed and breakfast industry overview

Bed and breakfasts are small inns that offer personal service, often in private homes, and include a breakfast in the room price. This post will provide those interested in the bed and breakfast industry information about current industry trends and challenges.

Market reports that include information about bed and breakfast often include information about all facilities that offer short-term lodging, including hotels and motels. Key external factors that influence businesses in this industry include per capita disposable income, travel, and corporate profit (Couillard, 2018). Entrepreneurs who are interested in entering this industry should consider whether they have access to a workforce, enjoying working with customers closely, and if they are located in a market that attracts tourism (Couillard, 2018). Recommendations are a very important success factor in this industry (Couillard, 2018).

Canada

There are a variety of accommodation services that compete with bed and breakfasts, including hotels, motels, cottages and cabins, and others. All together, Canada has 12,313 business that fall into these categories. Within the larger umbrella category of “Traveller Accommodation”, in 2016, there were 14,218 businesses, which made an average yearly revenue of 571.4 thousand dollars (Government of Canada, 2018). In addition, 74% of these businesses were profitable. Most bed and breakfasts have no employees, which you can see in comparison of the two charts below.

This chart below show how the number of bed and breakfast with employees, in grey, compares to the number of other accommodation services in each province/territory.

bar chart displaying number of accommodations services in different provinces with employees

Statistics Canada.Table 33-10-0092-01   Canadian Business Counts, with employees, June 2018

The chart below show how the number of bed and breakfast without employees, in grey, compares to the number of other accommodation services in each province/territory.  As you can see, most bed and breakfast establishments have no employees aside from the owners.

bar chart displaying number of accommodations services in different provinces without employees

Statistics Canada. Table 33-10-0094-01 Canadian Business Counts, without employees, June 2018

British Columbia

The prevalence of bed and breakfast accommodations without employees continues in BC, as you can see from this side by side comparison:

two pie charts side by side showing number of accommodation services in BC with and without employees

In British Columbia, 88% of bed and breakfast accommodations do not have employees; there are a total of 686 bed and breakfast accommodations in the province (Statistics Canada.Table 33-10-0092-01   Canadian Business Counts, with employees, June 2018, Statistics Canada. Table 33-10-0094-01 Canadian Business Counts, without employees, June 2018).

Airbnb vs Bed and Breakfasts: What’s the Difference?

Airbnb is a booking platform that is part of the sharing economy, allowing home owners and renters to put their extra space on the market for short term rentals through their website. This presents a large source of competition to bed and breakfast owners, as they are offering a similar service; however, Airbnb hosts do not typically include breakfast with their room bookings.

In the past, Airbnb hosts were operating as unregulated businesses, with no formal requirements placed on their ability to provide short-term rentals (Mangione, 2018). BC has recently introduced regulation for Airbnb rentals. Airbnb hosts must collect sales taxes (Harper, 2018), and, as of April 2018, must be licensed and comply with a number of safety regulations (Mangione, 2018). This makes the operating requirements for Airbnb hosts similar to bed and breakfast operating requirements. In both cases, hosts must live on the property.

For more information about Airbnb licensing in BC, please check your municipality’s requirements. References to Vancouver’s licensing processes (City of Vancouver, n.d.), Airbnb’s information page (Airbnb, Inc., n.d.), and BC’s strata by-laws (Government of British Columbia, 2018) are included at the bottom of the page.

Industry Trends

This industry has a high rate of competition, which is only increasing with the infiltration of Airbnb listings into the market. However, part of the appeal of Airbnb is the home feel of the accommodation, which bed and breakfasts already provide to their guests (Couillard, 2018). It is essential that bed and breakfasts are aware of the prices that other accommodations are offering for their rooms so that they can price or offer discounts to their guests accordingly. In addition, because there are many large hotel chains that travellers may already have membership to, bed and breakfasts should distinguish themselves from the competition by providing something unique to the industry or the area they operate in (Couillard, 2018). Many bed and breakfasts are also adopting Airbnb to run their online booking services, turning the platform from competition to their business into a tool for booking customers. 

Additional trends in the industry include:

  • Flexible check-out times;
  • Smart room keys: allowing guests to use their phones to open their rooms
  • Increasing use of analytics: analyzing customer behaviour is allowing those in the accommodation business to improve the services they offer
  • Wellness vacations: increasingly, people are interested in incorporating activities such as cycling and yoga into their travel plans
  • Personalization of services: increased collection of customer information is allowing hotels to offer personalized services and promotions

(The Business Research Company, 2017)

Financially, this industry is considered mature and industry revenue is expected to grow at roughly the same rate as the economy over the next 5 years (Couillard, 2018).

Below is a breakdown of how industry revenue is generally divided in comparison with sector revenue, which includes all accommodation and food services.

sector vs industry costs vsual breakdown from Couillard 2018

(Couillard, 2018)

Additional Resources

Below are some resources to help you get started on your business research.

Associations

Magazines and Trade Journals

InnFocus Magazine
A publication from the BC Hotel Association, available for free online. Published quarterly.

Hospitality Today
An online multimedia publication for owners in the hospitality industry.

Directories

If you would like to access more resources, the Bed and Breakfast Guide is designed to help prospective and existing bed and breakfast business owners gather information for their secondary market research. The guide is broken down into four main sections that cover how to start your research, industry information, competitive information and customer information. Depending on your needs you can spend as much or as little time as necessary in each section.

If you find that you need more guidance before starting your secondary research, check out The Beginner's Guide to Business Research; it will help you focus on what types of information you will need to gather and why they are important. The SBA is also available to provide assistance through our Contact Us page.

References

Industry Trends

Bed and breakfast industry overview

Bed and breakfasts are small inns that offer personal service, often in private homes, and include a breakfast in the room price. This post will provide those interested in the bed and breakfast industry information about current industry trends and challenges.

Market reports that include information about bed and breakfast often include information about all facilities that offer short-term lodging, including hotels and motels. Key external factors that influence businesses in this industry include per capita disposable income, travel, and corporate profit (Couillard, 2018). Entrepreneurs who are interested in entering this industry should consider whether they have access to a workforce, enjoying working with customers closely, and if they are located in a market that attracts tourism (Couillard, 2018). Recommendations are a very important success factor in this industry (Couillard, 2018).

Canada

There are a variety of accommodation services that compete with bed and breakfasts, including hotels, motels, cottages and cabins, and others. All together, Canada has 12,313 business that fall into these categories. Within the larger umbrella category of “Traveller Accommodation”, in 2016, there were 14,218 businesses, which made an average yearly revenue of 571.4 thousand dollars (Government of Canada, 2018). In addition, 74% of these businesses were profitable. Most bed and breakfasts have no employees, which you can see in comparison of the two charts below.

This chart below show how the number of bed and breakfast with employees, in grey, compares to the number of other accommodation services in each province/territory.

bar chart displaying number of accommodations services in different provinces with employees

Statistics Canada.Table 33-10-0092-01   Canadian Business Counts, with employees, June 2018

The chart below show how the number of bed and breakfast without employees, in grey, compares to the number of other accommodation services in each province/territory.  As you can see, most bed and breakfast establishments have no employees aside from the owners.

bar chart displaying number of accommodations services in different provinces without employees

Statistics Canada. Table 33-10-0094-01 Canadian Business Counts, without employees, June 2018

British Columbia

The prevalence of bed and breakfast accommodations without employees continues in BC, as you can see from this side by side comparison:

two pie charts side by side showing number of accommodation services in BC with and without employees

In British Columbia, 88% of bed and breakfast accommodations do not have employees; there are a total of 686 bed and breakfast accommodations in the province (Statistics Canada.Table 33-10-0092-01   Canadian Business Counts, with employees, June 2018, Statistics Canada. Table 33-10-0094-01 Canadian Business Counts, without employees, June 2018).

Airbnb vs Bed and Breakfasts: What’s the Difference?

Airbnb is a booking platform that is part of the sharing economy, allowing home owners and renters to put their extra space on the market for short term rentals through their website. This presents a large source of competition to bed and breakfast owners, as they are offering a similar service; however, Airbnb hosts do not typically include breakfast with their room bookings.

In the past, Airbnb hosts were operating as unregulated businesses, with no formal requirements placed on their ability to provide short-term rentals (Mangione, 2018). BC has recently introduced regulation for Airbnb rentals. Airbnb hosts must collect sales taxes (Harper, 2018), and, as of April 2018, must be licensed and comply with a number of safety regulations (Mangione, 2018). This makes the operating requirements for Airbnb hosts similar to bed and breakfast operating requirements. In both cases, hosts must live on the property.

For more information about Airbnb licensing in BC, please check your municipality’s requirements. References to Vancouver’s licensing processes (City of Vancouver, n.d.), Airbnb’s information page (Airbnb, Inc., n.d.), and BC’s strata by-laws (Government of British Columbia, 2018) are included at the bottom of the page.

Industry Trends

This industry has a high rate of competition, which is only increasing with the infiltration of Airbnb listings into the market. However, part of the appeal of Airbnb is the home feel of the accommodation, which bed and breakfasts already provide to their guests (Couillard, 2018). It is essential that bed and breakfasts are aware of the prices that other accommodations are offering for their rooms so that they can price or offer discounts to their guests accordingly. In addition, because there are many large hotel chains that travellers may already have membership to, bed and breakfasts should distinguish themselves from the competition by providing something unique to the industry or the area they operate in (Couillard, 2018). Many bed and breakfasts are also adopting Airbnb to run their online booking services, turning the platform from competition to their business into a tool for booking customers. 

Additional trends in the industry include:

  • Flexible check-out times;
  • Smart room keys: allowing guests to use their phones to open their rooms
  • Increasing use of analytics: analyzing customer behaviour is allowing those in the accommodation business to improve the services they offer
  • Wellness vacations: increasingly, people are interested in incorporating activities such as cycling and yoga into their travel plans
  • Personalization of services: increased collection of customer information is allowing hotels to offer personalized services and promotions

(The Business Research Company, 2017)

Financially, this industry is considered mature and industry revenue is expected to grow at roughly the same rate as the economy over the next 5 years (Couillard, 2018).

Below is a breakdown of how industry revenue is generally divided in comparison with sector revenue, which includes all accommodation and food services.

sector vs industry costs vsual breakdown from Couillard 2018

(Couillard, 2018)

Additional Resources

Below are some resources to help you get started on your business research.

Associations

Magazines and Trade Journals

InnFocus Magazine
A publication from the BC Hotel Association, available for free online. Published quarterly.

Hospitality Today
An online multimedia publication for owners in the hospitality industry.

Directories

If you would like to access more resources, the Bed and Breakfast Guide is designed to help prospective and existing bed and breakfast business owners gather information for their secondary market research. The guide is broken down into four main sections that cover how to start your research, industry information, competitive information and customer information. Depending on your needs you can spend as much or as little time as necessary in each section.

If you find that you need more guidance before starting your secondary research, check out The Beginner's Guide to Business Research; it will help you focus on what types of information you will need to gather and why they are important. The SBA is also available to provide assistance through our Contact Us page.

References

Industry Trends

Marco Pasqua is a speaker, writer, and entrepreneur. He sits down to talk with us about founding the CUBE Principle in Vancouver, BC., and his journey from having a concept to creation and explore challenges and lessons along the way.

Tell us about your business (i.e. Mentoring, the CUBE Principle).

Essentially what I do is help businesses, institutions, and individuals understand how to utilize the strengths of the people in their social networks, the people that they actually know (not necessarily through the internet) to overcome a goal or a challenge to elevate themselves to get where they want to go in life. I customize my approach to every event to deliver the message that my client wants.

How did you go about understanding the potential and market for your business idea? Which were/are your most useful market research tools?

The first step I took was researching whether there were mentors, such as The Wheelchair Mentor, or programs like SEEDS, Self Employment & Entrepreneur Development Society, that could guide me and give me advice on being a professional speaker and what I would need to do to determine what my competition was. A lot of the things that I learned were through trial and error and for me doing a SWOT analysis was probably one of the best ways to determine who was in my market and what I was going to do to elevate my brand.

What are the most valuable lessons you have learned throughout this process?

I learned that an in-depth business plan is very important. My business plan was a 65-page document that included all the accounting needs, my understanding of the market, and how to listen to it so that I could adapt according to what the market was telling me. Adaptability is key to finding partnerships and people that are strong in your network. And being able to put something down and trust someone to handle an aspect of things is important. This delegation can help you advance and help you see more clients or sell more product, if that’s your goal. It is important not to stay stubborn in your business. Remember that you're not tailoring it for you, you’re tailoring it for your customer base.

Could you walk us through the stages of the start-up process?

I went out and surveyed people that I thought would be the demographics of my market and would be most likely utilizing my services on three topics that I could be potentially speaking on. Getting this insight allowed me to focus in on what people were saying were the most important. It was vital in my early stages to get the expertise of people that have already carved a path. I asked people out for a coffee to pick their brains. If you tell them that you appreciate what they do and you approach them as more of a mentor, they’re more likely to say yes to a one-off or two-off meeting. It was important to learn from my mistakes to avoid repeating mistakes that should be easy to overcome.

Is there a resource you wish you would have known about before you launched your business? If so, what did you find most effective?

It is important to know how to do a speaker’s contract. A tip that The Wheelchair Mentor gave me was not to undersell my value as a person. He told me to invoice an organization that I gifted my services to the amount that they would have paid if they had been charged for my services. Maintaining this perceived value allows current and future clients to know the value of my services.

Do you have any advice for people starting out in your line of work?

Find those key people in your social circle that can really help you to elevate where you want to go. Go to meet up groups that are for hobbies or interests of yours, things that you do in your extracurricular time, and you would be surprised at the number of people that could turn into clients because you’re connecting on more of a personal, authentic level. Find a unique and creative way to offer your services but you can do it in such a way that the people will see the value based on the interactions with you as a person.

What does the future hold for your business?

I enjoy radio, TV work, podcasts, and the personal engagement and connection involved in one-on-one mentorship. I love the feeling that I get when I know that I have helped someone who’s personally struggling with something to overcome a particular challenge. It’s understanding that you have to plant many seeds and not just put your eggs in one basket. Know that as long as you’re utilizing your strengths in different capacities, you’re always creating new opportunities that you can interconnect people with. That’s honestly what the CUBE Principle is all about.

To learn more about Marco Pasqua and his CUBE Principle visit www.marcopasqua.com

Read the full interview:

Marco Pasqua is a speaker, writer, and entrepreneur. He sits down to talk with us about founding the CUBE Principle in Vancouver, BC., and his journey from having a concept to creation and explore challenges and lessons along the way.

Tell us about your business (i.e. Mentoring, the CUBE Principle).

Essentially what I do is help businesses, institutions, and individuals understand how to utilize the strengths of the people in their social networks, the people that they actually know (not necessarily through the internet) to overcome a goal or a challenge to elevate themselves to get where they want to go in life. I customize my approach to every event to deliver the message that my client wants.

How did you go about understanding the potential and market for your business idea? Which were/are your most useful market research tools?

The first step I took was researching whether there were mentors, such as The Wheelchair Mentor, or programs like SEEDS, Self Employment & Entrepreneur Development Society, that could guide me and give me advice on being a professional speaker and what I would need to do to determine what my competition was. A lot of the things that I learned were through trial and error and for me doing a SWOT analysis was probably one of the best ways to determine who was in my market and what I was going to do to elevate my brand.

What are the most valuable lessons you have learned throughout this process?

I learned that an in-depth business plan is very important. My business plan was a 65-page document that included all the accounting needs, my understanding of the market, and how to listen to it so that I could adapt according to what the market was telling me. Adaptability is key to finding partnerships and people that are strong in your network. And being able to put something down and trust someone to handle an aspect of things is important. This delegation can help you advance and help you see more clients or sell more product, if that’s your goal. It is important not to stay stubborn in your business. Remember that you're not tailoring it for you, you’re tailoring it for your customer base.

Could you walk us through the stages of the start-up process?

I went out and surveyed people that I thought would be the demographics of my market and would be most likely utilizing my services on three topics that I could be potentially speaking on. Getting this insight allowed me to focus in on what people were saying were the most important. It was vital in my early stages to get the expertise of people that have already carved a path. I asked people out for a coffee to pick their brains. If you tell them that you appreciate what they do and you approach them as more of a mentor, they’re more likely to say yes to a one-off or two-off meeting. It was important to learn from my mistakes to avoid repeating mistakes that should be easy to overcome.

Is there a resource you wish you would have known about before you launched your business? If so, what did you find most effective?

It is important to know how to do a speaker’s contract. A tip that The Wheelchair Mentor gave me was not to undersell my value as a person. He told me to invoice an organization that I gifted my services to the amount that they would have paid if they had been charged for my services. Maintaining this perceived value allows current and future clients to know the value of my services.

Do you have any advice for people starting out in your line of work?

Find those key people in your social circle that can really help you to elevate where you want to go. Go to meet up groups that are for hobbies or interests of yours, things that you do in your extracurricular time, and you would be surprised at the number of people that could turn into clients because you’re connecting on more of a personal, authentic level. Find a unique and creative way to offer your services but you can do it in such a way that the people will see the value based on the interactions with you as a person.

What does the future hold for your business?

I enjoy radio, TV work, podcasts, and the personal engagement and connection involved in one-on-one mentorship. I love the feeling that I get when I know that I have helped someone who’s personally struggling with something to overcome a particular challenge. It’s understanding that you have to plant many seeds and not just put your eggs in one basket. Know that as long as you’re utilizing your strengths in different capacities, you’re always creating new opportunities that you can interconnect people with. That’s honestly what the CUBE Principle is all about.

To learn more about Marco Pasqua and his CUBE Principle visit www.marcopasqua.com

Read the full interview:

A florist shop is a retail establishment that sells cut flowers and ornamental plants. The floral trade involves activities such as flower care, flower arranging, floral design, merchandising, and often flower delivery. Florist shops are an ever popular industry. As such, we want to provide you with snapshots of the current industry overview, trends and challenges as well as provide some research resources for those interested in the florist shop business.

Canada

  • There are 3,143 florists in Canada or 8.94 per 100,000 population.
  • “Prince Edward Island (10.50) and Ontario (9.51) have the most florist shops per 100,000 population.”
  • “Nova Scotia (6.39) and New Brunswick (7.63) have the least florist shops per 100,000 population.”

Note. Source(s): CANSIM tables 552-007, 553-007 and the Data tables, 2016 Census

Number of Miscellaneous Retail Stores and Florists by Province and Territory 

The table below shows that out of all the provinces, Manitoba (12.81%), Quebec (12.53%), Alberta (12.11%), and Saskatchewan (12.04%) have the highest percentages of their Miscellaneous Retail Stores being Flower Shops in 2017, and the Yukon (4.08%), Nunavut (7.14%), and Nova Scotia (7.14%) have the lowest percentages.

Province / Territory Miscellaneous Retail Stores Florists Percentage of Miscellaneous Retail Stores that are Flower Shops
Newfoundland and Labrador 372 44 11.83%
Prince Edward Island 159 15 9.43%
Nova Scotia 826 59 7.14%
New Brunswick 543 57 10.50%
Quebec 5,892 738 12.53%
Ontario 10,862 1,279 11.77%
Manitoba 773 99 12.81%
Saskatchewan 739 89 12.04%
Alberta 2,931 355 12.11%
British Columbia 4,357 403 9.25%
Yukon 49 2 4.08%
Northwest Territories  26 2 7.69%
Nunavut 14 1 7.14%

Note. Source(s): CANSIM tables 552-007, 553-007 and the Data tables, 2016 Census

The table below shows the breakdown between employer and non-employer or indeterminate establishments for the provinces with the highest number in each category in 2016. In the Florist Industry 1,450 of the establishments were non-employers or indeterminate and 1,734 had one or more employees. Ontario, Quebec, Alberta and British Columbia had the highest number of employers and non-employers/indeterminate as shown in the table below. More information can be found by clicking on the source link below the table.

Establishments by employment type and province / territory / country (2016)
Province / Territory / Country  Employers Non-employers / Indeterminate 
Ontario 639 640
Quebec 389 358
Alberta 235 128
British Columbia 216 193
Canada 1,734 1,450

Note. Source: Businesses – Canadian Industry Statistics

"In 2016, the breakdown of employer establishments in [the florist] industry was as follows: 65.7% of them were considered micro, employing less than five employees; small establishments accounted for 34.3%; and medium-sized establishments accounted for an additional 0.1% of the total number of establishments. Large employers, those with more than five hundred persons on payroll, accounted for 0% of the total establishments" (Canadian Industry Statistics, 2018).

Based on Canadian Industry Statistics from 2016, 65.7% of the employer establishments in Canada fall within the micro employee size category (i.e. 1-4 employees), and 34.3% fall within the small employee size category (i.e. 5-99 employees).  More information about employer establishments by employer size category (i.e. micro, small, medium, large) by province/territory in Canada from 2016 can be found at Businesses – Canadian Industry Statistics.

According to 2016 Canadian Industry Statistics for the florist industry, the average revenue of incorporated businesses with a revenue range of $30,000 to $5,000,000 was $273.4 thousands of dollars; and 72.5% of businesses were profitable.

British Columbia

Based on the preceding section regarding Canadian data above, this next section will list the statistics that are relevant to British Columbia.

  • In 2016, there were 8.67 flower shops per 100,000 population in BC. This makes it the fourth highest province in Canada in terms of the number of flower shops per 100,000 population by province/territory (see chart above).
  • In 2016, 9.25% of the Miscellaneous Retail Stores in BC were flower shops (see table above). 
  • In 2016, 216 of the establishments by employer type were employers, and 193 were non-employer/indeterminate. This makes it the fourth province with the highest number of employers and non-employer/indeterminate (see table above).
  • In 2016, there were 140 micro employer establishments (i.e. 1-4 employees) in BC, and 76 small employer establishments (i.e. 5-99 employees) in BC. This makes BC the fourth highest province with employer micro and small establishments (Canadian Industry Statistics, 2018).

Industry Trends and Challenges                                           

According to a Florists-Canadian Market Research Report by IBIS World in 2017, the industry revenue has declined over the last five years due to external competition from retailers that are not included in the florist industry, such as e-commerce stores and supermarkets. It is suggested that consumers prefer the convenience and the lower prices that these alternative retailers have to offer. This report also suggests that “Improving economic conditions will encourage consumers to purchase more discretionary items" (IBIS World, 2017).

The most important success factors for the Florist Industry identified in the IBIS World report include:

  • Effective quality control
  • Ability to control stock on hand
  • Ability to attract local support/patronage

To learn more about florist industry performance, outlook, products and markets, competitive landscape, major companies, operating conditions, and key statistics, view the full IBIS World Industry Report 45311CA – Florists in Canada

Below are some resources to help you get started on your business research.

Associations

Flowers Canada Growers

Fairtrade Canada

Society of American Florists (SAF)

OFA – An Association of Floriculture Professionals

Association of Specialty Cut Flower Growers

Magazines & Trade Journals

Canadian Florist Magazine

Flower Magazine

Fusion Flowers Magazine

Florist Review Magazine

Directories

Frasers

Canada One – Canadian Business Directory

ThomasNet

Federal Corporations Data Online

Hoovers

>> See latest flower industry – design shows, conferences, conventions, trade shows and educational sessions.

Additional Resources

If you would like to access more resources, the Florist Shop Guide is designed to help prospective and existing wedding business owners gather information for their secondary market research. The guide is broken down into four main sections that cover how to start your research, industry information, competitive information and customer information. Depending on your needs you can spend as much or as little time as necessary in each section.

If you find that you need more guidance before starting your secondary research, check out our Business Research Basics, it will help you focus on what types of information you will need to gather and why it is important.

References

Cohen, A. (2017). IBISWorld Industry Report 45311CA Florists in Canada. IBIS World. Retrieved from http://clients1.ibisworld.ca/reports/ca/industry/default.aspx?entid=1096

Government of Canada. (2018). Businesses - Canadian Industry Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.ic.gc.ca/app/scr/app/cis/businesses-entreprises/45311

Government of Canada. (2018). Summary - Canadian Industry Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.ic.gc.ca/app/scr/app/cis/summary-sommaire/45311;jsessionid=0001pDILXxn8unBkBZrEl2pt5Qg:-803S94https:/www.ic.gc.ca/app/scr/app/cis/summary-sommaire/45311;jsessionid=0001pDILXxn8unBkBZrEl2pt5Qg:-803S94

Statistics Canada. (2016). Data tables, 2016 Census. Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016001. Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/dt-td/Rp-eng.cfm?LANG=E&APATH=3&DETAIL=0&DIM=0&FL=A&FREE=0&GC=0&GID=0&GK=0&GRP=1&PID=109523&PRID=10&PTYPE=109445&S=0&SHOWALL=0&SUB=0&Temporal=2016&THEME=115&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF=

Statistics Canada. (2018). Table 552-0007 Canadian business counts, location counts with employees, by employment size and North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), Canada and provinces, December 2017. Retrieved from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=5520007&pattern=Canadian+business+counts&csid=

Statistics Canada. (2018). Table 553-0007 Canadian business counts, location counts without employees, by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), Canada and provinces, December 2017. Retrieved from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=5530007&pattern=florists&csid=

 

Industry Trends

A florist shop is a retail establishment that sells cut flowers and ornamental plants. The floral trade involves activities such as flower care, flower arranging, floral design, merchandising, and often flower delivery. Florist shops are an ever popular industry. As such, we want to provide you with snapshots of the current industry overview, trends and challenges as well as provide some research resources for those interested in the florist shop business.

Canada

  • There are 3,143 florists in Canada or 8.94 per 100,000 population.
  • “Prince Edward Island (10.50) and Ontario (9.51) have the most florist shops per 100,000 population.”
  • “Nova Scotia (6.39) and New Brunswick (7.63) have the least florist shops per 100,000 population.”

Note. Source(s): CANSIM tables 552-007, 553-007 and the Data tables, 2016 Census

Number of Miscellaneous Retail Stores and Florists by Province and Territory 

The table below shows that out of all the provinces, Manitoba (12.81%), Quebec (12.53%), Alberta (12.11%), and Saskatchewan (12.04%) have the highest percentages of their Miscellaneous Retail Stores being Flower Shops in 2017, and the Yukon (4.08%), Nunavut (7.14%), and Nova Scotia (7.14%) have the lowest percentages.

Province / Territory Miscellaneous Retail Stores Florists Percentage of Miscellaneous Retail Stores that are Flower Shops
Newfoundland and Labrador 372 44 11.83%
Prince Edward Island 159 15 9.43%
Nova Scotia 826 59 7.14%
New Brunswick 543 57 10.50%
Quebec 5,892 738 12.53%
Ontario 10,862 1,279 11.77%
Manitoba 773 99 12.81%
Saskatchewan 739 89 12.04%
Alberta 2,931 355 12.11%
British Columbia 4,357 403 9.25%
Yukon 49 2 4.08%
Northwest Territories  26 2 7.69%
Nunavut 14 1 7.14%

Note. Source(s): CANSIM tables 552-007, 553-007 and the Data tables, 2016 Census

The table below shows the breakdown between employer and non-employer or indeterminate establishments for the provinces with the highest number in each category in 2016. In the Florist Industry 1,450 of the establishments were non-employers or indeterminate and 1,734 had one or more employees. Ontario, Quebec, Alberta and British Columbia had the highest number of employers and non-employers/indeterminate as shown in the table below. More information can be found by clicking on the source link below the table.

Establishments by employment type and province / territory / country (2016)
Province / Territory / Country  Employers Non-employers / Indeterminate 
Ontario 639 640
Quebec 389 358
Alberta 235 128
British Columbia 216 193
Canada 1,734 1,450

Note. Source: Businesses – Canadian Industry Statistics

"In 2016, the breakdown of employer establishments in [the florist] industry was as follows: 65.7% of them were considered micro, employing less than five employees; small establishments accounted for 34.3%; and medium-sized establishments accounted for an additional 0.1% of the total number of establishments. Large employers, those with more than five hundred persons on payroll, accounted for 0% of the total establishments" (Canadian Industry Statistics, 2018).

Based on Canadian Industry Statistics from 2016, 65.7% of the employer establishments in Canada fall within the micro employee size category (i.e. 1-4 employees), and 34.3% fall within the small employee size category (i.e. 5-99 employees).  More information about employer establishments by employer size category (i.e. micro, small, medium, large) by province/territory in Canada from 2016 can be found at Businesses – Canadian Industry Statistics.

According to 2016 Canadian Industry Statistics for the florist industry, the average revenue of incorporated businesses with a revenue range of $30,000 to $5,000,000 was $273.4 thousands of dollars; and 72.5% of businesses were profitable.

British Columbia

Based on the preceding section regarding Canadian data above, this next section will list the statistics that are relevant to British Columbia.

  • In 2016, there were 8.67 flower shops per 100,000 population in BC. This makes it the fourth highest province in Canada in terms of the number of flower shops per 100,000 population by province/territory (see chart above).
  • In 2016, 9.25% of the Miscellaneous Retail Stores in BC were flower shops (see table above). 
  • In 2016, 216 of the establishments by employer type were employers, and 193 were non-employer/indeterminate. This makes it the fourth province with the highest number of employers and non-employer/indeterminate (see table above).
  • In 2016, there were 140 micro employer establishments (i.e. 1-4 employees) in BC, and 76 small employer establishments (i.e. 5-99 employees) in BC. This makes BC the fourth highest province with employer micro and small establishments (Canadian Industry Statistics, 2018).

Industry Trends and Challenges                                           

According to a Florists-Canadian Market Research Report by IBIS World in 2017, the industry revenue has declined over the last five years due to external competition from retailers that are not included in the florist industry, such as e-commerce stores and supermarkets. It is suggested that consumers prefer the convenience and the lower prices that these alternative retailers have to offer. This report also suggests that “Improving economic conditions will encourage consumers to purchase more discretionary items" (IBIS World, 2017).

The most important success factors for the Florist Industry identified in the IBIS World report include:

  • Effective quality control
  • Ability to control stock on hand
  • Ability to attract local support/patronage

To learn more about florist industry performance, outlook, products and markets, competitive landscape, major companies, operating conditions, and key statistics, view the full IBIS World Industry Report 45311CA – Florists in Canada

Below are some resources to help you get started on your business research.

Associations

Flowers Canada Growers

Fairtrade Canada

Society of American Florists (SAF)

OFA – An Association of Floriculture Professionals

Association of Specialty Cut Flower Growers

Magazines & Trade Journals

Canadian Florist Magazine

Flower Magazine

Fusion Flowers Magazine

Florist Review Magazine

Directories

Frasers

Canada One – Canadian Business Directory

ThomasNet

Federal Corporations Data Online

Hoovers

>> See latest flower industry – design shows, conferences, conventions, trade shows and educational sessions.

Additional Resources

If you would like to access more resources, the Florist Shop Guide is designed to help prospective and existing wedding business owners gather information for their secondary market research. The guide is broken down into four main sections that cover how to start your research, industry information, competitive information and customer information. Depending on your needs you can spend as much or as little time as necessary in each section.

If you find that you need more guidance before starting your secondary research, check out our Business Research Basics, it will help you focus on what types of information you will need to gather and why it is important.

References

Cohen, A. (2017). IBISWorld Industry Report 45311CA Florists in Canada. IBIS World. Retrieved from http://clients1.ibisworld.ca/reports/ca/industry/default.aspx?entid=1096

Government of Canada. (2018). Businesses - Canadian Industry Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.ic.gc.ca/app/scr/app/cis/businesses-entreprises/45311

Government of Canada. (2018). Summary - Canadian Industry Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.ic.gc.ca/app/scr/app/cis/summary-sommaire/45311;jsessionid=0001pDILXxn8unBkBZrEl2pt5Qg:-803S94https:/www.ic.gc.ca/app/scr/app/cis/summary-sommaire/45311;jsessionid=0001pDILXxn8unBkBZrEl2pt5Qg:-803S94

Statistics Canada. (2016). Data tables, 2016 Census. Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016001. Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/dt-td/Rp-eng.cfm?LANG=E&APATH=3&DETAIL=0&DIM=0&FL=A&FREE=0&GC=0&GID=0&GK=0&GRP=1&PID=109523&PRID=10&PTYPE=109445&S=0&SHOWALL=0&SUB=0&Temporal=2016&THEME=115&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF=

Statistics Canada. (2018). Table 552-0007 Canadian business counts, location counts with employees, by employment size and North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), Canada and provinces, December 2017. Retrieved from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=5520007&pattern=Canadian+business+counts&csid=

Statistics Canada. (2018). Table 553-0007 Canadian business counts, location counts without employees, by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), Canada and provinces, December 2017. Retrieved from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=5530007&pattern=florists&csid=

 

Industry Trends

a place of mind, The University of British Columbia

UBC Library

Info:

604.822.6375

Renewals: 

604.822.3115
604.822.2883
250.807.9107

Emergency Procedures | Accessibility | Contact UBC | © Copyright The University of British Columbia

Spam prevention powered by Akismet