Did you know that mountains cover 75 per cent of British Columbia[i]? Like the beaches we introduced in April, mountains offer beautiful scenery in summer. Today, we will focus on the Canadian Rockies depicted and described in our digitized photographs, illustrations, and books in Open Collections.

 

Uno Langmann Family Collection of British Columbia Photographs

In the Uno Langmann Family Collection of British Columbia Photographs, you can find postcards of the Rockies:

Mt. Robson

This is a postcard of Mt. Robson, the highest peak (3,954 m; 12,972 ft) in British Columbia and of all the Canadian Rockies mountains:

Frank, Leonard. Mt. Robson, highest peak, Canadian Rockies, 1927

 

Mt. Field

Another postcard depicts Mt. Field (2,643 m; 8,671 ft), located within the Yoho National Park.

Mt. Field, Rockies, 1920

 

Mt. Stephen

The Langmann Collection has a photograph album titled, “20 real photographs of Canadian Rocky Mountains”. This is the photo of Field, BC and Mt. Stephen (3,199 m; 10,496 ft), which is also located within Yoho National Park. Mt. Stephen is the tallest of the mountains surrounding the town:

Field and Mount Stephen, [between 1920 and 1925?].

Chung Collection

Castle Mountain (Miistsukskoowa)

The Chung Collection also has numerous photographs of the Canadian Rockies mountains. Castle Mountain (Miistsukskoowa), a traditional territory of Siksika First Nation[ii], is located within Banff National park. It has numerous rock-climbing routes:

R. H. Trueman & Company. [Castle Mountain, Banff, Alberta], [between 1890 and 1899?].

The Three Sisters mountains

William Notman & Sons photography. [Three Sisters mountain range at Canmore, Alberta], 1899.

Mt. Assiniboine

Mt. Assiniboine (3,618 m; 11,870 ft) is located on the British Columbia/Alberta border.

Mt. Assiniboine, [between 1930 and 1939?].

Canadian Pacific Railway’s Advertisements

In the Chung Collection, we have digitized many advertising pamphlets of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company’s hotels and train tours which have beautiful illustrations on their front pages.

This 100-page booklet includes the detailed descriptions of each sightseeing spot in the Canadian Rockies:

The challenge of the mountains, 1904.

This five-page pamphlet also summarizes the resorts in the Rockies:

Through the Canadian Rockies, 1931.

 

BC Historical Books collection

BC Historical Books collection has books from the late 19th century and the early 19th century about the Canadian Rockies:

Outram, James, Sir. In the heart of the Canadian Rockies, 1905.

Coleman, A. P. The Canadian Rockies : new and old trails. With 3 maps and 41 illustrations, 1911.

 

We hope you have a chance to enjoy the mountain views this summer. If you want to explore more mountains in Open Collections, here are some items and keywords you can access:


[i] Geography of B.C. (Welcome BC)

[ii] Siksika Nation, federal government to honour Blackhoot traditions with Castle Mountain Settlement (Jan 25, 2017 in CBC News)

The BC Historical Books collection contains the digitized bibliographies of British Columbia. In the collection, there are 35 dictionaries related to BC History. Here, we will introduce some of our favourite ones!

City Directories

Do you have the White or Yellow Pages at home? UBC Rare Books and Special Collections has a collection of city directories for British Columbia and Greater Vancouver area. For various reasons, the directories cannot be photocopied in RBSC. UBC Library has published microforms for the directories, which are available in the Koerner Library Microforms area.

In Open Collections, you can find 19 digitized directories that are used as the White or Yellow Pages by residents between 1877 and 1923.

Henderson Publishing. Henderson’s city of Vancouver directory. Comprising an improved street and avenue guide, showing a complete index to system of house numbering and a complete street directory of the city, an alphabetically arranged list of business firms and companies, professional men and private citizens. And a classified business directory. Vol. XII, 1905.

 

The Geographical and Historical Dictionary of America and the West Indies by Antonio de Alcedo (1735-1812)

We have digitized volume 2 to 5 of The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies written by Antonio de Alcedo (1735-1812) in Spanish and translated by George Alexander Thompson (1797-1828) in 1812. The Spanish soldier, who resided in Panama for part of his childhood while his father was the provincial governor, was interested in American geography and history, and wrote about his observation of “New World” into the 5-volume books. He called the reference books “a dictionary”.

In volume 3 from pp.214 to 223, you can find Antonio’s observation of Vancouver Island:

Alcedo, Antonio de & Thompson, George Alexander. The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies. Containing an entire translation of the Spanish work of Colonel Don Antonio de Alcedo, captain of the Royal Spanish Guards, and member of the Royal Academy of History: with large additions and compilations from modern voyages and travels, and from original and authentic information. In five volumes. Vol. III, 1812.

 

Dictionaries for Indigenous languages

You can find dictionaries for three Indigenous languages: Chinook, Nuučaan̓uɫ (Nuu-chah-nulth, Nootka, Tahkaht) and Secwepemctsín (Shuswap language).

Chinook

Chinook language is spoken by Chinookan peoples who reside in the Pacific Northwest in the United States, present-day Oregon and Washington State. Open Collections has 8 language dictionaries:

Lindley, Jo. Three years in Cariboo: being the experience and observations of a packer, what I saw and know of the country; its traveled routes, distances, villages, mines, trade and prospects. With distances, notes and facts, relative to the Salmon River and Nez Perces gold fields, 1862.

 

Thomas, Edward Harper. Chinook: a history and dictionary of the Northwest coast trade jargon. The centuries-old trade language of the Indians of the pacific. A history of its origin and its adoption and use by the traders, trappers, pioneers and early settlers of the northwest coast, 1935.

 

Nuučaan̓uɫ (Nuu-chah-nulth, Nootka, Tahkaht) language

Nuučaan̓uɫ (Nuu-chah-nulth, Nootka, Tahkaht) language is spoken by 13 Indigenous nations residing in western Vancouver Island. Open Collections contains a digitized Tahkaht-English/English-Tahkaht dictionary published in 1868:

Kripe, C. Some account of the Tahkaht language, as spoken by several tribes on the western coast of Vancouver Island, 1868.

Secwepemctsín (Shuswap language)

Secwepemctsín (Shuswap language) is spoken by Secwépemc (Shuswap) people, Indigenous people residing in the south central part of present-day British Columbia. We have one dictionary known to be written in 1925 by Jean-Marie-Raphaël Le Jeune, a Canadian Roman Catholic priest who traveled the Kamloops region.

[Le Jeune, J. M. R.]. Studies on Shuswap, 1925.

About Canada

Who’s who in western Canada (volume 1-2) by Charles Wallace Parker (1864-1932)

Charles Wallace Parker (1864-1932) was a great showman, and famous for the C. W. Parker Carousel operating in the Burnaby Village Museum. He compiled portraits and biographies of people who had contributed to Western Canada, such as politicians, railroaders, litterateurs, and merchants.

Parker, C. W. Who’s who in western Canada: a biographical dictionary of notable living men and women in Western Canada Volume 1, 1911.

 

Volume 2, 1912.

 

The makers of Canada by Sir Arthur George Doughty (1860-1936) and Lawrence Johnstone Burpee (1873-1946)

The dictionary about Canada before confederation consists of three sections: Index and dictionary, Manuscript sources in the Dominion Archives, and A partial list of scarce maps and plans relating to Canada. One of the authors, Sir Arthur George Doughty (1860-1936) was a Dominion Archivist (the head of Canada’s national archives, the present Library and Archives Canada). Another author, Lawrence Johnstone Burpee (1873-1946) was a historian, a civil servant, a librarian and a writer, and specialized in Canadian bibliography, geography and history.

Doughty, Arthur G. & Burpee, Lawrence J. The makers of Canada. Index and dictionary of Canadian history, 1911.

 

If you want to get historical references to Greater Vancouver/BC/Canada, please find our digitized dictionaries in the BC Historical Books collection!

 

References

 

 

Since this April is National Poetry Month, we’ve gathered together selected poetry and related items from Open Collections for your enjoyment!

Our recently added Historical Children’s Literature Collection includes several poetry chapbooks. This chapbook, The butterfly’s ball, and the grasshopper’s feast, includes beautiful engraved illustrations:

Roscoe, William. The butterfly’s ball, and the grasshopper’s feast, 1807.

 

Roscoe, William. The butterfly’s ball, and the grasshopper’s feast, 1807, p. 7.

 

Our BC Historical Books collection also contains several collections of poetry. Eric Duncan’s Rural rhymes and the sheep thief begins with the following disclaimer:

Duncan, Eric. Rural rhymes and the sheep thief, 1896, p. 7.

 

Here’s the first page of the first poem from the book, “A mosquito song”:

Duncan, Eric. “A mosquito song”. From Rural rhymes and the sheep thief, 1896, p. 11.

 

If you’re interested in Japanese poetry, check out our One Hundred Poets collection. This collection contains 74 books and 20 different card sets relating to the poetry anthology Hyakunin Isshu 百人一首 (One Hundred Poets, One Poem Each). You can read more about the collection in this previous blog post.

[Kinoya Hisomaro ; illustrated by Utagawa Kunisada, Utagawa Kuniyoshi], [Nishikie chūiri hyakunin isshu], [1849].

 

You may also be interested in the utagaruta card sets within this collection. You can find them here, and check out our previous blog post to learn more about how this game is played.

[One hundred poets card sheets], [Meiji period [1868-1912]].

 

This month is a great time to seek out poetry readings. We found this photo of Allen Ginsberg reading at UBC in 1963:

UBC 1.1/11341-2. Holborne, Peter. Allen Ginsberg reading poetry at UBC. August 2nd, 1963. Allen Ginsberg reading poetry at UBC.

 

Finally, check out this adorable poem about a cat interrupting a game of croquet:

Playing croquet, 1875.

The Digitization Centre has digitized several collections of maps, as well as several collections that contain maps among other materials. This post provides a summary of those collections, showcasing some of our favourite maps from Open Collections!


Greater Vancouver Regional District Planning Department Land Use Maps

This collection contains more than 1,800 maps of the greater Vancouver area from 1965, 1980, and 1983. There are two index maps that help to navigate the collection:

Index – Land Use Series: The numbers on this map correspond to the “Identifier” field for each map. For example, you can search within the collection for Identifier:(V92) to find maps showing the north side of UBC campus.

Greater Vancouver Regional District Planning Department. Index – Land Use Series.

 

Greater Vancouver Regional District Planning Department. Land Use : U.E.L., 1979.

 

Index Map: Subdivision and Land Use Maps: This index map includes the Lower Mainland outside of Vancouver. Similarly, you can search by “Identifier” to locate the maps referenced by this index.

For more information on this collection, check out our previous blog post about it!


Japanese Maps of the Tokugawa Era

This collection contains Japanese maps from the Edo period, or Tokugawa period (1603-1868). The majority of the maps are rare or even unique.

Many of the maps show all or part of Japan:

Okamoto, Chikusō, active 19th century. Shinkoku Dai Nihon zenzu [Newly engraved map of Great Japan], 1865.

Utagawa, Sadahide, 1807-1873. Dai Nihon Fujisan zetchō no zu [Panoramic view of the summit of Mt. Fuji], 1857.

There are also some Japanese world maps included in the collection:

Bankoku enzu [Round map of all nations], 1675.

For a more detailed overview of this collection, see our previous blog post: Explore Open Collections: Japanese Maps of the Tokugawa Era.


Andrew McCormick Maps and Prints

This collection contains world maps dating from 1503 to 1910, with a focus on European maps and maritime exploration. Here is a selection of maps from the collection:

Moll, Herman, -1732. A map of the North Pole with all the territories that lye near it, known to us &c. according to the latest discoveries, and most exact observations, Agreeable to modern history, [1732].

Pond, Peter, 1740-1807. A map shewing the communication of the lakes and the rivers between Lake Superior and Slave Lake in North America, 1790.

 

You can read more about the collection and view other highlights in this previous blog post: Explore Open Collections: Andrew McCormick Maps and Prints.


Maps in other collections

In addition to the above three collections, there are many digital collections that contain maps along with other items.

The Chung Collection contains several maps of Canada released by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company. This “sportsman’s map” of Canada shows the terrain and wildlife for different regions:

Canadian Pacific Railway Company. Sportsman’s map of the Dominion of Canada, 1898.

 

This map from 1943 shows the air routes serviced by Canadian Pacific Air Lines at the time:

Canadian Pacific Air Lines. Map of Canada showing air routes, 1943.

 

In the UBC Library Digitization Centre Special Projects collection, there are over 60 maps that do not belong to other collections, including this map of southeastern Vancouver Island from 1860:

D’Heureuse, Rudolph. Map of the south-eastern districts of Vancouver Island, 1860.

 

The BC Historical Books collection is an excellent source of early British Columbia maps, like this map of the Lower Mainland:

Hill, Albert James, 1836-1918. Map of the municipalities of New Westminster city and district, British Columbia, 1889.

 

Finally, the Western Manuscripts and Early Printed Books collection contains several 16th century maps, like this beautiful map of the Americas from 1588:

Ortelius, Abraham, 1527-1598. Americae sive novi orbis, nova descriptio, [1588].

You can find more maps by searching for the keyword “map” in a given collection, or by perusing the Maps genre in Open Collections.

References

Now that spring is well underway, we’re thinking about ways to enjoy the beautiful sunshine! For this post, we’ve gathered together our favourite images of bicycles from Open Collections.

Recently added to the Uno Langmann Family Collection of British Columbia Photographs, this photograph album documents Clara Wilson’s cycling trips across Canada. Check out the full album for many more photos of her adventures!

Sproat Lake, 1940. From Clara Wilson’s photo album, [Ten Annual Cycling Trips, 1938-1947].

1st Bike Riding Lesson, July 1943. From Clara Wilson’s photo album, [Ten Annual Cycling Trips, 1938-1947].

 

As well as providing transportation, cycling can be a great social activity. Here’s a photograph of a women’s cycling club from 1907:

Cycling club and croquet lawn, 1907.

 

We enjoyed looking at this bicycle route map of Victoria, B.C., from 1897:

The Province pocket road map of Victoria and surroundings: compiled for the use of bicyclists from the government map, 1897.

 

Of course, with bikes, you don’t have to stay on the road. These postcards from the Tremaine Arkley Croquet Collection depict cyclists on the beach and in the woods:

La plage à marée basse, 1919.

Le bois, 1906.

 

We found photos featuring tricycles, unicycles, and even a 15-wheel bicycle in Open Collections:

UBC 44.1/510. Dee, Martin. Participants in Science Week tricycle race, 1990.

Kong, Vincent. [Photograph of Stanley Kong].

UBC 44.1/2454. UBC engineering students on 15-seat bicycle built for Manulife Ride for Heart to raise funds for research, May 1991.

 

Finally, we loved finding these photos of bicyclists on and around campus – from the UBC Archives Photograph Collection:

UBC 41.1/1446-2. Lindner, Franz. Bicyclists on University Boulevard, 1978.

UBC 44.1/1886. Woman on bicycle, 2005.

Have you ever wondered about what library catalogues used to look like – or what books were in your local library’s collection many decades ago?

We’ve come across a handful of historical library catalogues in Open Collections, which we’ve gathered here for your perusal. You can click on the title or cover of any of the catalogues below to explore the full list of titles from each library.

Catalogue of books in the Free Public Library of Victoria City (Victoria, B.C., 1890)

 

The Free Public Library of Victoria City library catalogue demonstrates the library’s unique classification system. The library had the following classifications:

  • Arts and Science – Class A
  • Travels and Voyages – Class B
  • Biography – Class M
  • Religious – Class R
  • Poetry – Class P
  • Juveniles – Class J
  • History – Class H
  • English Literature – Class L
  • Cassell’s National Library
  • Magazines in Volumes – Class G
  • Miscellaneous – Class Z
  • Books for References – Class D
  • Parliamentary Books
  • Curios and Fine Arts – Class C
  • Novels – Class B

 

Within each classification, books were listed alphabetically by title. To supplement this, there were two additional indices listing titles alphabetically by author in the back of the catalogue. Each entry had a shelf number and an accession number.

 

Catalogue of library books : Royal York Hotel (Toronto, [between 1920 and 1929?])

The Royal York Hotel catalogue also features a unique classification system. The classifications are listed in alphabetical order:

  • Adventure
  • Amusements
  • Art, Painting, Sculpture and Architecture
  • Business, etc.
  • Books for Young People
  • Biographies and Memoirs
  • Drama
  • Fiction
  • Foreign Fiction in English
  • General Literature, Essays, etc.
  • General Extra Suggestions
  • History
  • Makers of Canada, The (12 Vols.)
  • Poetry
  • Popular Science
  • Reference Books
  • Religion
  • Travel and Description
  • Travel (General)
  • Authors Indexed Alphabetically

 

The “General Extra Suggestions” category appears to list the equivalent of today’s self-help or how-to books. It includes titles such as “Dame Courtsey’s Art of Entertaining,” “Eating and Health” and “Inside the House Beautiful”:

Each book has a unique item number, starting from one at the beginning of the catalogue and ending with 1418. Because books are listed alphabetically by title within each category, this catalogue also includes an index in alphabetical order by author. However, the index still separates out books by classification, so you have to know generally where to look!

 

Library catalogue from Canadian Pacific Steamships, Empress of Japan [1919?]

This catalogue is shorter than the previous two; with only five pages of listings, this perhaps reflects limited shelf space within the steamship library.

 

The catalogue contains one listing in alphabetical order by author (as in, “Dickens’ Dombrey and son”) unless only the title was listed (e.g., “Cream of Leicestershire”):

Can you find any interesting titles in these library catalogues? Let us know in the comments!

In the early 19th century, the Scottish naturalist and explorer John Richardson traveled with Sir William Franklin in search of the Northwest Passage. He recorded the scientific findings of these expeditions in two works: Flora boreali-americana (1833-1840) and Fauna boreali-americana (1829-1837). The latter is a four-volume text about the animals of North America and the Arctic. Although John Richardson was the primary author, the ornithologist William John Swainson assisted with part two (The Birds), and the entomologist William Kirkby assisted with part four (The Insects).

UBC Library Rare Books and Special Collections holds copies of the four volumes of Flora boreali-Americana. Both texts have been digitized as part of the BC Historical Books collection. For this post, we have selected a few of our favorite images and descriptions from each volume. You can click on each image to jump to the page in Open Collections, where you can read the authors’ descriptions of the animals.

Part I: Mammalia

Grisly Bear

 

Rocky-Mountain Neotoma

“It is very destructive. In the course of a single night, the fur traders who have encamped in a place frequented by these animals have sustained much loss, by their packs of furs being gnawed, their blankets cut in pieces, and many small articles carried entirely” away. Mr. Drummond placed a pair of stout English shoes on the shelf of a rock, and, as he thought, in perfect security, but on his return, after an absence of a few days, he found them gnawed into fragments as fine as saw-dust.”

Rocky-Mountain Goat

 

Part Second: The Birds

Great Cinereous Owl

“It is common on the borders of Great Bear Lake; and there and in the higher parallels of latitude it must pursue its prey, during the summer months, by daylight. It keeps, however, within the woods, and does not frequent the barren grounds, like the Snowy Owl, nor is it so often met with in broad daylight as the Hawk-Owl, but hunts principally when the sun is low; indeed, it is only at such times, when the recesses of the woods are deeply shadowed, that the American hare and the murine animals, on which the Cinereous Owl chiefly preys, come forth to feed.”

The Arctic Blue-bird

The Common Golden Eye

 

Part Third: The Fish

American Perch

 “This fish has a close resemblance to the river Perch of Europe. Our specimen was taken in Lake Huron, where it frequents steep banks and affords much sport to the angler from the eagerness with which it snaps at the bait. In the month of May it spawns and then resorts in great numbers to the mouths of rivulets. It does not, as far as I could learn, exist in any of the streams that flow into Hudson’s Bay or the Arctic sea, and most probably it does not range farther north than the 49th or 50th parallels of latitude, between which the rivers that fall into the chain of Great Canadian Lakes originate.”

Ross’s Arctic Salmon

Back’s Grayling

This volume also includes some exceptionally creepy illustrations – while not included in this blog post, you can view them in Open Collections if you are curious!

 

Part the Fourth and Last: Insects

Each of these plates contains multiple numbered figures showing different species:

References

John Latham (1740-1837) was an English doctor and naturalist, famous for his work in ornithology. He was particularly known for his study of Australian birds, brought to England and observed on James Cook’s colonial expeditions. Latham published A general synopsis of birds over the years 1781-1785, with supplements published in 1787 and 1801. A general history of birds was conceived as a second edition of A general synopsis of birds, with revisions and expansions to the original text. The illustrations in both works were completed by Latham.

UBC Library Rare Books and Special Collections holds copies of A general synopsis of birds (1781-1801) and A general history of birds (1821-1824), totaling 18 volumes. Both texts have been digitized as part of the BC Historical Books collection.

For this post, we have selected a few of our favorite images from each text. You can click on each image to read Latham’s descriptions of each bird in the text. Where applicable, we included images from both A general synopsis of birds (left, black & white) and the subsequent A general history of birds (right, full colour).

Toucan

  

Spoonbill

  

Penguin

  

Woodpecker

  

Hummingbird

  

The following birds appear only in A general history of birds:

Emu

(Fun fact: Latham was the first to publish a description of the emu!)

Red & yellow macaw

Peacock

Ostrich

References

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