ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Peer-reviewed References

Lindenmayer, D. B. (1999). Future directions for biodiversity conservation in managed forests: indicator species, impact studies and monitoring programs. Forest Ecology and Management, 115, 277-287.

This peer-reviewed article is based on a conference in Uppsala, Sweden n 1997 and addresses a number of key issues including 1) the potential value of a indicator species concept for forest conservation, 2) impacts of logging on biodiversity and limitations of previous investigations, and, 3) ways to monitor species to achieve long-term ecological sustainability. This heavily cited article provides a more general view on biodiversity conservation issues associated with logging rather than focusing on one specific species in a specific forest. Lidenmayer’s work is valuable to my research since it gives a possible explanation to conflicting scientific results found in other articles. “There may be cumulative long-term effects of logging and the response of species after the first cut may be different from that following successive ones” (Lidenmayer, 1999, p. 280).

There’s no mention of methods used for gathering the information in this article. However, the author suggests appropriate methods for further investigations in the matter including field experiments, observational studies and simulation modeling. Lidenmayer’s paper is descriptive and concise yet easy to read. On one hand, the various sources used in this article as well as being published in a known journal increase the reliability of the paper. On the other hand, the article was published in 1999; therefore, the statistics and examples are not exactly up-to-date. In the end, Lindenmayer recognizes the limitations of the findings in the article.

 

Jones, B., Molenda, O., Hayward, C., D’Aguiar, M., Miller, N., Rye, L. & Cottenie, K. (2011). Patterns of tree diversity in response to logging in Algonquin Provincial Park. Studies by Undergraduate Researchers at Guelph, 4:2, pp. 56-62.

The authors of this article investigate the effects of disturbance on species diversity, in order to find ways to mitigate its effects. The main theoretical framework this study uses is the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis (IDH), which states that at intermediate levels of disturbance—human or natural—diversity is maximized. For this study, they sampled seven sites from Algonquin Park in Ontario with known times since last logging ranging from 4 to 149 years. Their results from the study matched the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis; therefore, they concluded that it is possible to log trees and maintain diversity as long as logging is done after a certain amount of time has passed.

This article is relatively more challenging to read since it uses many scientific terms and jargon. It is well structured, comprehensive and up-to-date. The article is also supported by more than 30 sources listed in the end of the paper. Although this study is a work of undergraduate students at University of Guelph, supervision by a credible professor is indicated on the paper.

 

Nol, E., Douglas, H., & Crins, W. (2006). Responses of syrphids, elaterids and bees to single-tree selection harvesting in algonquin provincial park, ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 120(1), 15-21.

The focus of this scholarly article is relatively narrow. It concentrates on the effects of single-tree logging in Algonquin Park specifically on hoverflies, click beetles and bees. This article provides a perfect example for the negative long-term impact of improper logging on biodiversity. The hypothesis states that the richness of these flower-seeking insects increases significantly in logged areas since the amount of sunlight penetrating the forest floor is higher. For this study, samples were chosen randomly in three groups of last logged 40 years ago, old logged (15-20 years ago) and recently logged (6 months – 3 years ago). Then the three species were captured in all areas. Each of the target groups had significantly higher captures in recently logged areas.

This article is on the more challenging side since it contains many undefined scientific terms. Despite that, it is a reliable source with two authors from different universities and one from the research section of Ministry of Natural Resources. Overall, this scientific paper is trustworthy with a long list of different sources. Even though the article was published in 2006 the study was conducted in 1997 and 1998.

 

Mancuso, K., Nol, E., Burke, D. & Elliot, K. (2014). Effects of selection logging on Yellow-bellied Sapsucker sap-feeding habits in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 44:10, pp.1236-1243. Retrieved from:http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/full/10.1139/cjfr-2013-0498#.VgTaE2TBzGd

This also is a scholarly article with a narrower subject. The focus of the paper is the behavior change in a woodpecker species, the Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, after selection logging in Algonquin Park. The method used for this study includes examining three components, 1) the average distance travelled from their nest to sapwell tree, 2) characteristics of active sapwell trees compared to the rest, and, 3)the reuse f sapwell trees after 1 or 2 years. The results show that all three components did not vary as a result of selection logging. This article provides an example clashes with Nol et al. article and gives a completely different perspective. This article is evidence for scientific uncertainty and conflict in this subject.

Aside from a few scientific terms, this article is easy to follow and structured well. This article is published in the Canadian Journal of Forest Research in 2014. It also provides a long list of references at the end. This means that the article is reliable and up-to-date. The limitations to study are mentioned.

 

Grey Literature References

Ontario Parks Board of Directors & Algonquin Forestry Authority Board of Directors. (2009, September 15). Joint Proposal for Lightening the Ecological Footprint of Logging in Algonquin Park. Retrieved from:http://www.ontarioparks.com/english/planning_pdf/algo/algo_joint_proposal.pdf

This document, developed by Ontario Parks Board and Algonquin Forestry Authority Board, provides all the basic information about Algonquin Park as well as the issues and conflicts associated with logging of the park followed by recommendations to address these issues. The section specifically related to my research focuses on significance of Algonquin Park as an ecosystem. This park is home to several species at risk and should be protected to maintain these species as well as protecting ecological integrity.

This document is thorough and easy to read; it comes with a 6-page appendix that helps better understand the concepts and issues. It doesn’t have specific author(s), however, it’s written by reliable sources, Ontario Parks and AFA but there are no references included. It’s an unbiased source since it contains different perspectives of environmentalists and forest industry.

 

Zanussi, R. (2014, November 10). Environmental commissioner recommends banning Algonquin Park logging. North Bay Nipssing News. Retrieved from http://www.northbaynipissing.com/news-story/4989697-environmental-commissioner-recommends-banning-algonquin-park-logging/

This online newspaper article is based on the opinions of Gordon Miller, Ontario’s environmental commissioner. It points out the changes in the environment and biodiversity of Algonquin Park as a result of logging. The article ends with suggestions by Miller to address the problems of logging. According to Miller, not only logging affects biodiversity directly but also indirectly. More than 2000 kilometers of roads constructed in the park for transportation of the logs damage habitats and wildlife as well as serving as a pathway for invasive species.

This article was retrieved from the North Bay Nipssing News website. This paper is a part of a parent company called Metroland Media and is the most northern community paper in the company. Being a part of a larger company makes this source more reliable but it’s still a little questionable. Nonetheless, one advantage of newspaper sources is that they’re the most up-to-date sources available.

 

Raw Data Sources

Retrieved from http://www.eco.on.ca/blog/2014/12/03/park-not-park/

Algonquin-Logging-Map

This map retrieved from the environmental commissioner of Ontario (ECO) website provides a good representation of the areas open to logging. This map shows that the percentage of protected areas from logging (green areas) is smaller than logging areas (pink areas). This shows that much of the biodiversity of the park is in danger.

The ECO, appointed by the Legislative Assembly, monitors and reports on compliance with the Environmental Bill of Rights, therefore, this map is a reliable source. Although the representations of the map might be obvious there are always hidden information in maps that require further investigation.

 

Retrieved from: Ontario Parks Board of Directors & Algonquin Forestry Authority Board of Directors. (2009, September 15). Joint Proposal for Lightening the Ecological Footprint of Logging in Algonquin Park. Retrieved from:http://www.ontarioparks.com/english/planning_pdf/algo/algo_joint_proposal.pdf

Algonquin table

This table is taken out of the Joint Proposal for Lightening the Ecological Footprint of Logging in Algonquin Park. The reliability of this source is discussed above. This table compliments the information seen in the map above (retrieved from ECO website). Additionally it shows that little has to be changed to make a great impact in environment and biodiversity of the area.

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