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We have recently experienced cases of UBC students submitting articles to UBC Digital that contain subtle advertisements, spam and offensive content. In those cases, we were able to promptly remove the articles thanks to whistleblowing from our blog readers. If you find any spam, advertising, or offensive content either in articles or the comments section, please report it immediately and we will edit or remove the article as necessary. Thank you.

About UBC Digital

Welcome to UBC Digital! This blog is run by a small group of UBC international students who aspire to help UBC student-run organisations and startups with free digital marketing advice. It’s our way of giving back to the UBC community for such a wonderful education. We must apologise in advance for any poor English, it is not our first language. Nonetheless, I hope you enjoy reading the blog and please feel free to get in touch if you need anything!

Ultimate guide to becoming successful online

It seems like in this day and age, everyone either has numerous social media accounts or a website or both. There is a virtual identity for every individual who has access to the relevant technologies (internet, smart phones). Given that this allows people to create various personalities to market to the masses or put up useful content in a bid to make a living, it does not come as a surprise that people are leaving nine to five jobs and purchasing equipment for them to work for themselves.

This is attractive to most as it gives people the freedom to delegate their time to whatever they deem important. It has also spurned a trend for people to quit their jobs and travel the world. This niche of wanderlusters have made the best out of working remotely and travel the world as they do.

Before we delve deeper, let’s first take a look at how to start and manage a successful business online as Youtube personalities, bloggers and other social media influencers are essentially a brand. According to one article on Entrepreneur, online businesses all follow a pattern.

They first “find a need and fill it”, through looking at trends and forums to see what market fits what they are willing to do before going out and fulfilling it by creating a service or product that has the potential to satisfy. Then comes the advertising bit and making sure that customers can find out about them easily through a responsive website. The website should also be optimized for search engines and social media content marketing, and one can go about that with any social media marketing agency that fits their bill (literally). When all that is done, it is up to them to drive traffic to their websites, establishing a reputation and other tactics that can help grow sales.

When you look at it from a business standpoint, it is easy to understand why certain personalities are so successful. Let’s take a look at Casey Neistat – the number one vlogger on Youtube. He is known for his authenticity and video editing style, but more than that, he is world famous for creating content that speaks to people.

There is never a lack of authenticity, if it is real and interesting, you have a winner on your hands. The first video that made the world take note of him was of him and his brother going around Manhattan to deface Apple iPod posters as it was false advertising – the batteries did not last eighteen months. True to his persona, years later when he made a big deal with Nike to make a film for their #makeitcount campaign, instead of creating some false image of what Nike stands for Casey took the money and traveled the world with his friend. That video is the second most watched video on his channel to date and it was posted five years ago.

The vlogger has succeeded everything on the list of creating a successful online business and more. He garnered fame and bottled it, all without ‘selling out’. Now that is a market that is hard to tread into, to stay the same person whilst selling another man’s idea.

While fame appeals it most as it comes hand in hand with fortune, there are those who would rather stay low key for personal reasons or perhaps they simply do not have the talent or the ideas to captivate interest. This is where many decide to go down the blogging route. What could be simpler than blogging your way to riches from the comfort of your own home? It definitely beats hours of racking up ideas and translating them to video, not to mention the time and circumstances that one has to make allowance for to create the videos – the commitment levels are simply too high for someone looking to make a little extra on the side with minimal effort.

While blogging can also flourish into a full time job, the steps taken are seldom as drastic. Most people look into their current interests and start a blog as a hobby. It is crucial to write about something that one already cares about as passion is an aspect of authenticity. It allows others with the same interest to relate to you and to take what you say with more stock than from someone who does not care for what they are talking about and it shows in one’s writing as well. When you care about something enough, it manifests itself through words and actions and that is something that attract people.

Therefore, identity plays a crucial part in success. Do not be something that you are not – there are plenty of people who employ a certain persona or have created an alter-ego, but do not confuse that with a false facade. Most of the times, those quirks already exist within that individual. Think Happy Polla, a Thai boy who makes videos dressed as a transvestite and shot to fame with his suggestive and over the top videos, he probably is naturally prone to satire and have no problems with embarrassing himself to get some laughs.

There are many personalities who create an illusion of self and disappear into nothingness because the masses have exposed them for what they truly are or they simply no longer have the energy or incentive to continue being what they are not. Hence, to be sustainably successful, you have to be real.

Marketing tools for the tech-savvy consumer

Image result for tech savvy consumers
With 2018 almost half over, we look at the marketing trend being followed this year.  An indisputable truth is that tech dominates every aspect of our lives and savvy marketers are busy finding ways to turn technology more accessible and interactive.

Consumers and potential customers are all hooked to some digital device, so it makes sense to be more personalised in the selling effort. You need to speak directly to the potential consumer. Market research shows that online shopping via desktops and laptops has decreased by 15 percent in 2018. This is over and above the mobile commerce.

Marketers believe that the trick is in mixing the old with the new or serving old wine in a new bottle. What always matters is the customer.  What the new technology of Artificial intelligence and data crunching and tracking offers is new ways to track customer preferences, this needs to be matched with Customer Relationship Management or CRM for the old hatters.

Another important trend that will continue is brands and corporates will bolster their online presence with physical outlets.  Amazon, Tesla, and many pure online marketing outlets are feeling the need for a physical experience.

Cross over and interactive marketing engagement is the new mantra.  Similar brands and businesses are offering collaborative experiences and content to offer enriching engagement.  A case in point is, health and fitness brands and product sellers are collaborating to give unique and engaging content.

Chatbots are here to make our daily lives more ‘assisted’.  Marketers are increasingly using the technology to make selling more personalized.  VentureBeat reports that in 2016 more than 30,000 branded chatbots were launched.  Chatbots respond to users’ voices and use the interactions to improve, become more intuitive with constant engagement, and progressively even anticipate and customise the answers to context.

Another noticeable trend is the use of podcasts. It is believed over 67 million people are listening to podcasts now. It is an easy way to reach the ears of consumers.  It is noticed that podcasts have the highest retention rate among all the new gig engagement channels.  Almost 87 percent of listeners stay with the broadcast till the end. With voice search devices now beginning to gain ground, podcasts have a chance to tap in to that source also with snippets, short attractive messages engaging the consumers—the potential seems to be vast.

Artificial Intelligence or AI is another trend that is here to stay. AI gives access to user data and behavior and the use of AI assisted chatbots  makes it easier to handle complex queries and use the interactions to improve, become more intuitive even anticipate the questions and come up with contextual answers

AI-driven personalised algorithms have increased conversion rates (purchases) by  30 percent, according to some researchers.

User generated content seems to inspire confidence among the consumers. Consumer voices add authenticity to the product. The human touch, empathy and feeling of participation it evokes add a touch of reality to the product. It is a way to win the hearts and wallets.

Another working trend is to build around events, be it annual sporting/musical events; or something  big like the ongoing football World Cup. Tying a message or an event or product deals with the event will always garner points with a hugely captive audience .

Augmented Reality and Social Media


It is believed that in 2018 many companies will be incorporating Augmented Reality (AR) into their social media. When discussing technologies, Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) are often mentioned simultaneously. And quite often they are discussed interchangeably, despite all of their differences.

What is Augmented Reality (AR)?

AR adds digital elements to a live view often by utilizing a camera on a smartphone. It transforms your existing environment by enhancing digital information to your line of sight. AR is integrated and developed into applications and used on smartphones to blend digital components into the real world in such a way that they enhance each other. AR technology is gradually becoming quite common now and soon it will become mainstream. It is used to display score overlays on telecasted sporting events, 3D emails, text messages, photos on smartphones.

What is Virtual Reality (VR)?

Whereas, VR is an artificial, computer generated simulation or recreation of a real life situation or environment. VR uses a 360-degree video to move from your current environment to a new digital world. The VR experience submerges the user by making them feel like they are experiencing the simulated reality firsthand, by simulating their hearing and vision. VR is achieved by using a headset like device such as Oculus Rift, Sony PlayStation VR and HTC VIVE.

AR is predicted to result in more spending by 2022; it is picking up the pace quite rapidly. More companies and brands are showing importance in incorporating the technology, while others are already setting precedence in the industry.

So what does this mean for companies and social media?

Since many people globally rely on social media, companies use social media to advertise products and services, and use it a way of communication and feedback with their customers. Many brands are continuing to utilize social media in its traditional ways, however companies such as L’Oréal, Apple and Google have been experimenting with AR and investing heavily into the technology to stay ahead of the curve. The rise of AR will have a huge impact on SEO as well, as the SEO industry always vary according to trends and latest technology.

In the middle of all of this, a completely new market is being generated. Since consumers always want quick and convenient processes, companies are introducing AR ads and methods to bring the actual products to social media consumers. With this new technology, prospect customers can experiment with various products before making the purchase. This will result in more knowledgeable decisions, increase in sales and loyal customers.

Beauty giant L’Oréal has partnered with Perfect Corp, which integrates makeup collections from L’Oréal brands worldwide in the YouCam Makeupp app. This allows the customers to virtually experience makeup collections from L’Oréal brands, learn about the products and shop through the app in-store. This app makes the customer more aware about the product; it allows them to see if this product will suit them before making the purchase. If they like the product, they can purchase the product with a click of a button. This also plays a huge increase in impulse purchases. This is the beauty of combining technology with your business.

Why Optimising Your Site for Google Search is Important

Google is hands down the biggest search engine in use today. There are others, like Bing, but who even uses them? Google is available on computers, smartphones, and other devices that consumers regularly use. If your customer finds his or her way to your website online, that person was certainly sent your way by Google. Therefore, if you want your business website to attract visitors and customers, you must optimise it for Google search.

You may wonder why you should optimise your site for Google when it is already optimised for search engines. Here’s the truth: not all search engines function using the same algorithms. Each search engine algorithm has its own unique way of indexing web pages. Basically, the optimisation that works well for Bing might not do so well for Google. So, you must tailor your optimisation efforts to each of these algorithms.

Obviously companies and marketers may not have the mathematical expertise to understand the technical aspects of the Google algorithm. But everyone involved in the campaign should ideally have a basic understanding of how Google Search works. This is important for any business, from an ecommerce store to an online casino site. If your business is solely lacking in this level of knowledge, don’t hesitate to hire a SEO consultant, for example, who will surely know the Google algorithm.

Even without a consultant, there are steps you can take in-house to make your site more Google Search-friendly. Here are some tips:

Google Search Prefers All-Natural Content

Several years ago, marketers used to embed hidden text in web content to get better search results. That tactic will work no more. The Google algorithms have significantly evolved over the years. The engine can now identify sites that use embedded text in this manner. If it does find hidden marketing text, Google will ignore these sites. The sites that rank high on Google now are the ones with natural text. So, if you want good Google search rankings, strip your web content of all such underhanded tactics.

Google Search Isn’t Dependent on Keywords Anymore

Google uses keywords to index web pages. However, keywords are not the only component the search engine looks for. Google algorithm can also evaluate the popularity and credibility of your site as well. So, the more popular and credible your site is, the better your PageRank will be. Therefore, do not cram your website with keywords. Of course, keywords are still important. But they should be used in a more nuanced manner.

The Bounce Rate Matters

The bounce rate is the number of customers who visit your site, find it difficult to browse, and leave. Google does not like sites with high bounce rates. If your site has an 80 percent or higher bounce rate that means it’s difficult to navigate. It’s possible there are too many ads on your site that are keeping the customers away. You must identify such potential problems with your site and fix them immediately. Get your bounce rate down to keep your Google ranking up.

Google Search Considers Your Site’s Reputation

As mentioned above, the credibility of your site matters to the Google algorithms. One way it determines the credibility of a site is by looking at other sites linking to your own. These links, known as backlinks, tell a lot to Google. If your backlinks are bad, your site will be determined to be bad as well. So, improve your backlinks. Instead of having spam sites linking back to you, make some effort to have legitimate and popular sites link back to yours.

There are many other ways to optimise your site for Google Search, the most important search engine for online businesses. For now, however, start with the tips above.

New Google Upgrade “Fred” Causing Ranking Havoc

Earlier this year, webmasters from around the globe were flummoxed by unusual fluctuations of site rankings on Google. The Webmaster World forum was quick to notice the change. Many are speculating that the ranking problems are being caused by a Google upgrade named “Fred”, so coined by Gary Illeys, a likely Search Quality Analyst who describes himself as “House Elf and Chief of Sunshine and Happiness at Google.” Google has yet to confirm the upgrade. Twitter, however, has been abuzz with “Fred” upgrade news.

What is Fred and Why is Everyone Worried about It?

It’s believed that Fred is part of Google’s core algorithm. Initially, many believed it was linked to backlinks, but it is very likely not Penguin related. This latest upgrade was preceded by a link upgrade in February. Google did not confirm that upgrade either, even though many noticed it. Google does not usually confirm any potential upgrades to its core algorithm. Most now have come into terms with the fact that Google is most likely not going to confirm the Fred upgrade everyone is talking about either. It’s still hard to verify whether Fred is an upgrade or a bug. Google Webmaster Trends Analyst John Mueller have tweeted that “Yes, we make changes almost every day.”

Interestingly enough, not all sites experienced the changes. Some SEO agencies have noted that no changes were observed with their client rankings. Some webmasters, on the other hand, experienced massive ranking drops. Some people even saw their sites being wholly delisted. Some rankings have come back, while others haven’t.

Is Fred Still Affecting Sites?

This leaves many questions unanswered. Which sites have been affected? What are the repercussions for SEO? Webmasters have largely been able to get their sites under control when the possible update was ongoing. Sites that were seriously affected have been able to come online again for the most part. It’s very likely that Google is done with the Fred upgrade. No one has mentioned any weird ranking fluctuations on the past week or so. Of course, once Google completes an upgrade, the search engine works without any major glitches.

Sites that may have been affected by the upgrade, but didn’t have a webmaster available at the time to fix the issue, are strongly advised to seek the help of a professional. It is possible that you may have missed a major ranking drop with your site earlier this month. It’s important to address the problem as soon as possible. For sites that may have been delisted, it’s recommended to contact Google directly and, if necessary, get suggestions from the web host provider.

How Fred May Affect Your Site in the Future

It’s still unknown the effect the supposed update may have on sites in the future. Google has not released any new SEO rules this month, and it’s unlikely the company might soon. As Google was quick to clarify, the company upgrades the algorithm all the time. It’s nearly impossible to keep up with all the changes. Then again, not all upgrades affect the SEO aspect of sites.

So far, site rankings work as it used to earlier this year. But it will be smart to keep up to date with any new SEO news Google might suddenly issue.

3 Analogies to Understand SEO Better

SEO can be a confusing and dreaded term if you are not particularly technically oriented. Yet, it’s a term we encounter almost on a daily basis, especially if you run a small business, a marketing campaign or a website. SEO is a commonly used acronym for search engine optimisation. But what exactly is it? The techniques you may have heard about five years ago is not the same as optimisation techniques being in use today. It changes with the times, so it’s not easy to keep up with changing trends. Understandably, this makes SEO sort of a complicated mess everyone is trying to understand.

Though SEO can be sometimes complex and intricate, the overall process is not that difficult to understand. If you have a tech background in how search engine algorithms work, you will probably understand some of the esoteric SEO concepts better. But even if you don’t, there are plenty of easy ways to understand what SEO is and how it works. Read ahead to find simple explanations of SEO with analogies that will make the concept easy to understand for people with non-tech backgrounds:

1.    SEO is the Stereotypical High School

Think of high school here in the manner Hollywood, and countless teen novels, portray it. If you have seen movies like Grease or Mean Girls, you know every high school has a hierarchy. At the top are the popular kids, the ones everyone else is always trying to impress. Everyone wants to hang out with the popular kids, and maybe even be a bit like them. Now, think of Google as the most popular kid in high school. SEO are the things the non-popular kids do to get Google to like them and hang out with them.

Google, however, is not down with hanging out with everyone. Google has certain criteria or requirements that deem someone (a website) worthy of hanging out (getting on top of search engine results). SEO is essentially the things the non-popular kids do to meet the standards of Google. When it comes down to it, SEO is just a big popularity contest.

2.    SEO is a Chess Game

Chess, everyone knows, is a popular game that requires a significant amount of skill. Anyone can play chess, but you can play better if you gain more knowledge of the game and hone your technique. SEO works in a comparably similar manner. Anyone can conduct a simple optimisation, like adding a keyword. But the true masters of SEO have spent time understanding the concepts behind the process and improving the methods.

If you have already heard about “simple” SEO tactics like using keywords, adding tags, and building backlinks, keep in mind that there’s more to it than meets the eye. Using keywords on a blog will not instantly move it to the top of the Google search results. You need to step back and look at the whole board, so to speak, in order for SEO tactics to work as intended.

3.    SEO is Dating

Well, SEO can be a bit like dating. If you have ever dated, you know how the process goes. You are looking for someone who appeals to your preferences, and at the same time you are trying to be appealing to someone else with your looks, personality and so on. This is the sort of relationship Google has with websites. Google is looking for sites that appeal to the algorithm according to a set of standards. And the websites are trying to do their best in terms of looks and content to appeal to Google. There will be a checklist that websites need to tick off before Google accepts them. The checklist is SEO. The same analogy applies for finding an SEO company. You should only use a company that is compatible with your company needs, as well as with Google’s requirements for indexing sites.

A Diamond is Forever: How Clever Marketing Created One of the Greatest Myths of the 20th Century

It’s no secret that millennials aren’t as into diamonds as the generations which preceded them. There are even claims millennials are killing the diamond industry.

There has been a trend in recent years of forgoing the ‘traditional’ diamond rings in favor of rings using other precious stones. But even so, the jewel is practically synonymous with our modern concepts of love and romance, leading numerous people to using a diamond guide in search of the most valuable diamonds.

Diamonds are created from carbon, one of the most abundant materials on our planet, so what was it that made diamonds so popular in the first place?

The rise of diamonds is inextricably linked with one company. De Beers.

In the late 1930’s when the price of diamonds was falling throughout Europe, a group of British businessmen in South Africa hatched a plan to reinvent the diamond as a symbol of status and luxury. To achieve their vision, they developed a business plan which allowed them control over both supply and demand of diamonds.

Then in 1947, they turned their attention toward the United States, and launched one of the cleverest campaigns in marketing history.

Working with a Philadelphia based advertising agency, De Beers created the slogan “A Diamond is Forever.”

Of course, a diamond isn’t forever. It can be shattered, crushed or cut. But it wasn’t the literal strength of a diamond that De Beers was trying to sell the public. Their forever was more a sentimental affair, they wanted the public to start seeing the diamond as a symbol of eternal love.

The plan was to orchestrate a situation where almost every American about to propose to their sweetheart felt compelled to purchase a diamond engagement ring.

To do this, the agency, N.W. Ayer, first began using celebrities as a method for placing diamonds in the public eye. But what they did next is what truly helped to create the lasting impression of the diamond as an emblem of love.

Using the traditional media streams of the 20th Century, N.W. Ayer’s then employed innovative marketing techniques that we see used more in advertising today. Writing advertorials into newspapers and providing consumers with educational information as well as selling their product.

The result of all these canny promotions was of course the massively successful diamond jewelry industry that we all know today, and the enduring myth that nothing else says “everlasting love” like a diamond ring.

While sales of diamonds have begun to slow, globally, this is partly due to the trend of ethical consumerism, rather than any dilution of the symbolic message that De Beers manufactured decades ago.

Many socially conscious consumers are aware of the issues that plague the African diamond industry, such as child labor, unsafe working conditions, and twelve to fifteen hour days. These shoppers choose to either forgo diamonds altogether, or invest in man-made diamonds, created in laboratories, but indistinguishable from those occurring in nature.

With shifts like these, it’s unlikely that diamonds will ever go out of fashion. A diamond might not really be forever, but the myth that De Beers created is probably here to stay.


Google Adwords and 5 Key Mistakes to Avoid

[Disclaimer: This is a student-submitted article that has not been edited or censored. Submitted articles that include subtle attempts at advertising or offensive content will not be tolerated, and we apologise if you find such content within this article. If you find any spam, advertising, or offensive content within this article or the comments section, please contact us immediately and we will promptly remove the article as necessary. Thank you.]


Google AdWords is an online advertising service, developed by Google, where advertisers pay to display brief advertising copy to web users. Google AdWords is an excellent way to drive traffic to your website. Since it can be expensive if not handled correctly, managing your campaigns will get you the highest return on investment. Here are 5 mistakes people make with Google Adwords:

  1. Not using ad groups effectively

Not using ad groups is one of the biggest mistakes people make. Instead of segmenting their ads into groups based around similar types of keywords, they lump all of their keywords into one ad group and show everyone the same ad.  Not breaking up your keywords into different ad groups results in lumping everything underneath one ad copy. This doesn’t allow you to customize the ad to be a good fit for the term being searched for. Campaigns will be easier to monitor and optimise with more segregated ads and keywords..

  1. Not using negative keywords

Another mistake people make is not using negative keywords. AdWords allows you to use negative keywords to exclude keywords that are not a good match for your product. For example, if you own an online store that sells men’s shoes but not athletic shoes, then you won’t want your ads to show up on searches for “men’s running shoes” but do want them to show up on searches for “men’s shoes.” Thus, you can add “running” as a negative keyword, and your ads won’t be shown for any searches that include the word “running.”

  1. Not knowing your competition

Not knowing which ads your competitors are using can be a disadvantage. You need to know who you’re competing against, what keywords they’re using, and what their landing pages look like, or else another digital agency could have you covered. Specifically, you want to put yourself in your customers’ shoes and see which ad you’re most likely to click on. Then, once you do click, pay attention to their landing pages, and compare theirs with yours.

  1. Not Directing Visitors to the Appropriate Product or Category Page

A common mistake people make with AdWords is not directing customers to an appropriate product or category page. Instead, they direct everyone to their homepage.

Especially on e-commerce sites where you have category and product pages, it is better to take people to a landing page or a product or category page where people will see a direct match to the ad they clicked, rather than a generic landing homepage.

  1. Not managing your expectations

Manage your expectations when it comes to success with Adwords. A lot of people have a really small budget and expect to launch the next big business with budget. They want to get in front of a large audience but have only $100 to $200 to spend per month, which will not get them very far. If your budget is too small, you may not have enough to test your ads until they start performing well. It takes time to run and optimize your campaign to improve your return.


How to Make Online Stores More “Usable” for Ecommerce Startups

[Disclaimer: This is a student-submitted article that has not been edited or censored. Submitted articles that include subtle attempts at advertising or offensive content will not be tolerated, and we apologise if you find such content within this article. If you find any spam, advertising, or offensive content within this article or the comments section, please contact us immediately and we will promptly remove the article as necessary. Thank you.]


After years of lag, the Canadian ecommerce market is finally on rise. According to Canada ecommerce stats, online sales in Canada are estimated to reach 29 billion Canadian dollars by 2021, up from 18.3 billion last year. Such a booming scene assures immense prospects for budding UBC grads aspiring to launch their own startup. However, the boosted market also attracts tremendous competition.

So, how can you stand out among the scores of ecommerce websites today? Experts stress on making your site more user-friendly to visitors. You only have a few seconds to grasp their attention. If they don’t feel comfortable browsing your site, they won’t hesitate to check your competitors. Here’s a few tips on how you can increase your site’s usability:

Concise & brief sign-up forms

Don’t bore your visitors with lengthy, detailed sign-up forms. It’s a busy world and you have to make things fast for your users. The primary thing you need as an online store is a user’s email and password. You don’t really need to know secondary details like address, occupation, etc. Your customers will prefer a short and concise sign-up form that they can fill in seconds.

Prominent CTA buttons

Higher conversion rates are fundamental to thrive in today’s ruthless competition. The CTA button is one of your most potent weapons to leverage the conversion rate of your store. But you must be careful about its placement and appearance. If your visitors can’t find it, there will be no clicks and no conversion. Don’t make them search for your CTA button. Place it somewhere they can find it easily the moment they land on your homepage.

Incorporate search functionality

Your ecommerce site should also incorporate “search” functionality at the top of the page. It’s better letting them define what they want rather than making them scroll forever through your extensive list.

Mobile app integration

This is another important point to ensure a user-friendly ecommerce site. More than 17 percent of Canadian buyers use mobile for online purchases. Thus, make sure to get the app version of your store online so you don’t miss out on this market.

“If you neglect mobile-based shoppers, you are going to miss out on a huge buyer base. Thus, when choosing an ecommerce builder, make sure it ‘s equipped to help with app integration for your store”, stated Catalin Zorzini, the CEO of leading ecommerce review guide ecommerce platforms.

Help shoppers with breadcrumb navigation

Buying a product from an online store involves a number of steps. Your customers want to keep track of their previous steps while progressing to subsequent ones to understand their current progress with the other. Thus, experts advise integration of breadcrumb navigation into an ecommerce site to make it more user-friendly. Breadcrumb navigation will leave traces of previous steps for the shopper as they move from one step to another. This way, they can easily get back to preceding steps and edit the necessary details (if needed). Breadcrumb navigation will also show the consequent steps a shopper has to complete to finalize the order. Altogether it provides them with a complete picture of the whole ordering and buying process so that they are not lost midway. Finally, be careful to detail the break-up of the total payment so that there are no unexpected charges for the customer.