Guiding Question: How does religion or spirituality matter in the design, engineering, and use of media and technologies?
The influence of religion or spirituality in ethical practice has often been marginalized or even disregarded. The idea that we are in a secular age or that religion is an antiquated notion seems itself anachronistic in a globalized, post-9/11 world (Taylor, 2007). Instead, there is a resurgent discussion about religion in relation to politics (Berger, 1999), globalization (Sullivan & Kymlicka, 2007), education (Arthur, Gearon, & Sears, 2010; Block, 2007), ecology (McGrath, 2011), architecture (Radding & Clark, 1992), and media and technology (Hoover, 2006; Hoover & Clark, 2010). Additionally, there continues to be sizeable population groups in Canada and the United States that actively participate in one of the major world religions (Bibby, 2013; PFoRPL, 2008).
While religious matters remains a contentious issue (Smith, 2009), yet one cannot deny that it has traditionally affected family systems (Booth, Johnson, Branman, & Sica, 1995), health and well-being (Lim & Putnam, 2010), and cultural practices and rituals (Dawson, 2013; Foucault & Carrette, 1999; Hecht & Biondo, 2012). The underlying concern is one of ethics (Bonhoeffer, 1995; Borgmann, 2006; Hauerwas & Pinches, 1997; Hauerwas & Wells, 2011; Schweiker, 2005; Wolterstorff, 2010), and particularly whether religion or spirituality matter in consumer, design, and technology ethics and responsibility (Agle & Buren, 1999; De Bock & Van Kenhove, 2010). Does religion or spirituality matter in the design, engineering, and use of media and technology (Brock, 2010; Franklin, 1999; Manders-Huits, 2011; Monsma, 1986; Schuurman, 2009; Walker, 2006)? Is there empirical evidence? In additional to a review of literature, I am aiming to distinguish how religion and spirituality contribute to ethical know-how (Owen, Bessant, & Heintz, 2013; Petrina, Feng & Wang, under review; Varela, 1999; Varela, 2000; Varela & Shear, 1999a, 1999b) in the design, engineering, and use of media and technology.
Agle, B. R., & Buren, H. J. (1999). God and mammon: The modern relationship. Business Ethics Quarterly, 9(4), 563-582.
Arthur, J., Gearon, L., & Sears, A. Education, politics and religion. New York, NY: Routledge.
Berger, P. L. (Ed.). The desecularization of the world: Resurgent religion and world politics. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Block, A. A. (2007). Pedagogy, religion, and practice. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bibby, R. (2013). The future as an allusion: What social forecasts tell us about explicit and implicit religion. Paper presented at the 36th Denton Conference in Implicit Religion, Denton Hall, Ilkley, West Yorkshire, UK.
Booth, A., Johnson, D. R., Branaman, A., & Sica, A. (1995). Belief and behavior: Does religion matter in today’s marriage? Journal of Marriage and Family, 57(3), 661-671.
Bonhoeffer, D. (1995). Ethics. New York, NY: Touchstone.
Borgmann, A. (2006). Real American ethics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Brock, B. (2010). Christian ethics in a technological age. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Dawson, C. (2013). Religion and culture. Washington, DC: Catholic University Press.
De Bock, T., & Van Kenhove, P. (2010). Consumer ethics: The role of self-regulatory focus. Journal of Business Ethics. 97(2), 241-255.
Franklin, U. M. (1999). The real world of technology. Toronto, Canada: Anansi Press.
Foucault, M., & Carrette, J. R. (1999). Religion and culture. New York, NY: Routledge.
Hauerwas, S., & Piches, C. (1997). Christians among the virtues. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
Hauerwas, S., & Wells, S. (Eds.). (2011). The Blackwell companion to Christian ethics. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Hecht, R., & Biondo, V. F. (Eds.). (2012). Religion and culture. Philadelphia, PA: Fortress Press.
Hoover, S. M. (2006). Religion in the media age. New York, NY: Routledge.
Hoover, S. M., & Clark, L. S. (2010). Practicing religion in the age of the media. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Lim, C., & Putnam, R. D. (2010). Religion, social networks, and life satisfaction. American Sociological Review, 75(6), 914-933.
Manders-Huits, N. (2011). What values in design? The challenge of incorporating moral values into design. Science and Engineering Ethics, 17(2), 271-287.
McGrath, A. (2011). The reenchantment of nature. New York, NY: Doubleday.
Monsma, S.V. (Ed.). (1986). Responsible technology. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Owen, R., Bessant, J., & Heintz, M. (2013). Responsible innovation: managing the responsible emergence of science and innovation in society. West Sussex, UK: Wiley.
Petrina, S. Feng, F. & Wang, Y. (under review). Design & engineering cognition and ethical know-how: Video design-based research and cyberbullying. International Journal of Technology and Design Education.
The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. (2008). U.S. religious landscape survey. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.
Radding, C., & Clark, W. W. (1992). Medieval architecture, medieval learning: Builders and masters in the age of Romanesque and gothic. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Schuurman, E. (2009). Technology and the future. Grand Rapids, MI: Paideia Press.
Schweiker, W. (2005). The Blackwell companion to religious ethics. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Smith, H. (2009). Why religion matters. New York, NY: Harper Collins.
Sullivan, W.M., Kymlicka, W. (2007). The globalization of ethics: Religious and secular perspectives. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor, C. (2007). A secular age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Varela, F. J. (1999). Ethical know-how: Action, wisdom, and cognition. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Varela, F. J. (2000). An interview with Francisco Varela. Nevada City, CA: Wild Duck Review.
Varela, F. J., & Shear, J. (1999a). First-person methodologies: What, why, how? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6(2-3), 1-14.
Varela, F. J., & Shear, J. (Eds.), (1999b). The view from within: First-person approaches to the study of consciousness. Thorverton, UK: Imprint Academic.
Walker, S. (2006). Sustainable by design: Explorations in theory and practice. London, UK: Earthscan.
Wolterstorff, N. (2010). Justice: Rights and wrongs. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.