Lecture 1: China and the Wider World
I. China’s Frontiers
- North—Mongols … the Great Wall (changes)
- South—man yi 蠻夷 (“non-Chinese”) … institution of native chieftaincy
II. Zheng He 鄭和 (1371-1433) and His Voyages
- Background—Muslim from Yunnan … eunuch in the Yongle (r.1403–1424) court
- Seven voyages (1405–1433)—background … first voyage (1405–1407; 27,800 crew members; 62 large and 255 smaller vessels) … “treasure ships” … as large as 440 feet long (2,500 tons cargo capacity) … Santa Maria of Columbus (125 feet long; 280 tons) … at least 37 countries visited (from Champa to East Africa)
- Context—alternative to “Silk Road” … tributary system
III. China and the West
- Matteo Ricci (1552–1610)—Portuguese in Macao (1577) … joined Society of Jesus (1571) … studied mathematics and astronomy … arrived in China (1582) … translations … resided in Beijing (1601) … True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven (1603)
- Xu Guangqi [Hsü Kuang-ch’i; “Paul Su”] (1562–1633)—Shanghai … father (merchant); mother (local literati family) … ju ren (1597) … jin shi (1604) … translations
IV. Concluding Thoughts
- Whom (or what) was Xu Guangqi (1562–1633; Paul Su) defending?
- What, in Xu's view, did the "arts of the literati" and the "doctrines of the foreign courtiers" have in common?
- To what extent was Xu's attitude towards the teachings of the Jesuits representative of the cultural/religious climate in late-Ming China?
External links to Maps:
Source: National Museum of Chinese History, ed., A Journey into China's Antiquity, vol. 1 (Beijing: Morning Glory Publishers, 1997), pp. 8–9.
Physical Map by Satellite
External Links to Images:
- Brockey, Liam Matthew. Journey to the East: The Jesuit Mission to China, 1579–1724. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2007.
- Brook, Timothy. Vermeer's Hat: The Seventeenth Century and the Dawn of the Global World. Toronto: Viking Canada, 2008.
- Dreyer, Edward L. Zheng He: China and the Oceans in the Early Ming Dynasty, 1405–1433. New York: Pearson Longman, 2007.
- Jami, Catherine, Peter M. Engelfriet, and Gregory Blue, eds. Statecraft and Intellectual Renewal in Late Ming China: the Cross-Cultural Synthesis of Xu Guangqi, 1562–1633. Leiden: Brill, 2001.
- Wills, John E., Jr. 1688: A Global History. New York: W. W. Norton, 2001.