Lecture 1: Late Ming Crises
I. Recap: China and the West
- Matteo Ricci (1552–1610)—Portugese in Macao (1577) … joined Society of Jesus (1571) … studied mathematics and astronomy … arrived in China (1582) … translations … resided in Beijing (1601) … True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven (1603)
- Xu Guangqi [Hsü Kuang-ch’i; “Paul Su”] (1562–1633)—Shanghai … father (merchant); mother (local literati family) … ju ren (1597) … jin shi (1604) … translations
II. Factionalism and Political Protest
- Early Ming examples—e.g. Fang Xiaoru 方孝儒
- Factionalism in mid-Ming
- The Donglin Movement in late Ming—Donglin 東林 Academy (1604) … Gu Xiancheng 顧憲成 (1550–1612) … Yang Lian 楊漣 (1571–1625) … Wei Zhongxian 魏忠賢 (1568–1627)
III. Social Unrests in Late Ming
- Structural problems—decline of government efficiency … growth of imperial clan … military campaigns
- Historical contingencies—”little ice age” … shortage of silver
- Rebellions—Zhang Xianzhong 張獻忠 (c. 1605–1647) … Li Zicheng 李自成 (1605?–1645)
IV. Concluding Thoughts
Lecture 2: Early Qing Rule
I. Founding of the Qing Dynasty (1636–1912)
- The “Manchu” conquest—Nurhachi (1559–1626) … banner system … Abahai (r.1626–1643) … Wu Sangui 吳三桂 (1612–1678)
- Resistance—Yangzhou massacre (1645) … “Southern Ming” … Zheng Chenggong 鄭成功 (1624–1662) (in Taiwan) … “Three Feudatories”
II. Qing Administration
- Basic administrative structure
- Concerns and Innovations
- Early Qing rulers—Kangxi 康熙 (r.1662–1722) … Yongzheng 雍正 (r.1723-1735) … Qianlong 乾隆 (r.1736-1795)
- Territorial Expansion
III. Concluding Thoughts: Multi-ethnic Empire
- How would you describe the degree of destruction of the Manchu conquest of China?
- How would you compare Qianlong with earlier Chinese emperors?
- What contributed to the success of the Qing?
External links to Maps:
Source: National Museum of Chinese History, ed., A Journey into China's Antiquity, vol. 1 (Beijing: Morning Glory Publishers, 1997), pp. 8–9.
Physical Map by Satellite
- Crossley, Pamela Kyle. The Manchus. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997.
- Dardess, John W. Blood and History in China: The Donglin Faction and Its Repression, 1620-1627. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2002.
- Elliott, Mark C. The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001.
- Ko, Dorothy. Teachers of the Inner Chambers: Women and Culture in Seventeenth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994.
- von Glahn, Richard. Fountain of Fortune: Money and Monetary Policy in China, 1000-1700. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1996.