Week 11: Becoming Qing

Lecture 1: Late Ming Crises

I. Recap: China and the West

  1. Matteo Ricci (1552–1610)—Portugese in Macao (1577) … joined Society of Jesus (1571) … studied mathematics and astronomy … arrived in China (1582) … translations … resided in Beijing (1601) … True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven (1603)
  2. Xu Guangqi [Hsü Kuang-ch’i; “Paul Su”] (1562–1633)—Shanghai … father (merchant); mother (local literati family) … ju ren (1597) … jin shi (1604) … translations

II. Factionalism and Political Protest

  1. Early Ming examples—e.g. Fang Xiaoru 方孝儒
  2. Factionalism in mid-Ming
  3. The Donglin Movement in late Ming—Donglin 東林 Academy (1604) … Gu Xiancheng 顧憲成 (1550–1612) … Yang Lian 楊漣 (1571–1625) … Wei Zhongxian 魏忠賢 (1568–1627)

III. Social Unrests in Late Ming

  1. Structural problems—decline of government efficiency … growth of imperial clan … military campaigns
  2. Historical contingencies—”little ice age” … shortage of silver
  3. Rebellions—Zhang Xianzhong 張獻忠 (c. 1605–1647) … Li Zicheng 李自成 (1605?–1645)

IV. Concluding Thoughts


Lecture 2: Early Qing Rule

I. Founding of the Qing Dynasty (1636–1912)

  1. The “Manchu” conquest—Nurhachi (1559–1626) … banner system … Abahai (r.1626–1643) … Wu Sangui 吳三桂 (1612–1678)
  2. Resistance—Yangzhou massacre (1645) … “Southern Ming” … Zheng Chenggong 鄭成功 (1624–1662) (in Taiwan) … “Three Feudatories”

II. Qing Administration

  1. Basic administrative structure
  2. Concerns and Innovations
  3. Early Qing rulers—Kangxi 康熙 (r.1662–1722) … Yongzheng 雍正 (r.1723-1735) … Qianlong 乾隆 (r.1736-1795)
  4. Territorial Expansion

III. Concluding Thoughts: Multi-ethnic Empire


  1. How would you describe the degree of destruction of the Manchu conquest of China?
  2. How would you compare Qianlong with earlier Chinese emperors?
  3. What contributed to the success of the Qing?


External links to Maps:

History in Maps | Ming Dynasty | Qing Dynasty

Physical Map

Map of Modern China: Physical Geography

Source: National Museum of Chinese History, ed., A Journey into China's Antiquity, vol. 1 (Beijing: Morning Glory Publishers, 1997), pp. 8–9.


Physical Map by Satellite

Map of Modern China: Physical Geography

Administrative Map

Map of Modern China: Administrative Divisions

Source: SACU



  • Crossley, Pamela Kyle. The Manchus. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997.
  • Dardess, John W. Blood and History in China: The Donglin Faction and Its Repression, 1620-1627. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2002.
  • Elliott, Mark C. The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001.
  • Ko, Dorothy. Teachers of the Inner Chambers: Women and Culture in Seventeenth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994.
  • von Glahn, Richard. Fountain of Fortune: Money and Monetary Policy in China, 1000-1700. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1996.


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