Where synthetic forms of communication developed they actually work to preserve it rather than break it down at the same time they helped form some degree of pan Indian identity. Some use the technologies to maintain and reinforce ethnicity as a specific tribal entity such as Dakota or Ioway while at the same time others use it to push towards a more pan Indian identity. Complicating the issue is the matter of non indian wannabes participating in the process.


Smith, C & Ward, G.K. (2001) Indigenous Cultures in an Inter-Connected World. Cyberspace Smoke Signals: New Technologies and Native American Ethnicity. UBC Press

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