Early Childhood Intervention: Module One – Typical and Atypical Development

Pre-academic Skills

Cognitive Development: Pre-academic Skills1

Pre-academic skills are part of cognitive development. Young children who develop these skills have better chances of succeeding later on at school, and carry the skills with them as they grow older.

Pre-academic skills include:

  • being interested in books
  • enjoying being read to
  • understanding that letters and numbers are symbols that mean something
  • being able to retell basic parts of a story
  • recognizing certain logos (e.g. McDonald’s golden arches)
  • being able to engage in simple and complex phoneme awareness (see full Glossary) exercises
  • identifying letters of the alphabet
  • matching forms and letters
  • demonstrating an understanding of one to one correspondence (see full Glossary)
  • scribbling
  • imitating vertical and horizontal strokes (Fig. 1)
  • completing simple and complex sequences.
1 see References


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