Monthly Archives: October 2016

The Tempest: Shakespeare’s Dynamic Duos

It’s no secret that Shakespeare favours the dynamic duos: From Benvolio & Mercurio (Romeo and Juliet), to Antonio & Bassanio (Merchant of Venice), to even Rosencrantz & Guildenstern (Hamlet), Shakespeare continually strives to break up tension in his tragedies by providing comedic relief. One unique example of this rule: The Tempest.

Though The Tempest is traditionally considered a comedy rather than a tragedy, Shakespeare still uses comedic duos to alleviate tense scenes. However, he does something particularly unique in this play: he provides two sets of comedic relief that parody one other, Antonio & Sebastian versus Trinculo & Stephano.

Many different parallels can be seen between the two pairs. While Antonio and Sebastian provide internal comedic relief via sly comments, Trinculo and Stephano provide external comedic relief via inebriated physicality. In this since, either pair could be mocking the other. The over-exaggerated movements and dialogue of Trinculo and Stephano mimic just how ridiculous and childish Antonio and Sebastian can be, despite nobody noticing their private antics. Similarly, Antonio and Sebastian being so juvenile and idiotic despite their high status lowers them to that of the commoners, also known as “savages.”

Throughout the play, the character of Caliban is frequently referred to as a savage, but he is not the only savage in The Tempest: Antonio and Sebastian could be considered “savage nobles”, while Trinculo and Stephano could be considered “noble savages.” Both pairs attempt to murder the rightful kings, and the deceit by the little brothers Antonio and Sebastian of their older brothers demonstrates how they are no better than the drunken butlers and jesters that are usually deemed the savages. Anybody can be a sh***y person, regardless of socioeconomic status!

We see ourselves in these two dynamic duos: we all crave power that can sometimes drive us to stoop to low level regardless of our intelligence or our place in society. And sometimes, we all just need to have some good ol’ fashioned drunken fun.

Hildegard of Bingen

To be or not to be: Feminist

People often discuss the question, “If you could have a dinner party with 8 people, living or dead, that you want to talk to, who would you invite”? Among my list would be some of my favourite authors and activists (e.g. Shakespeare, Harvey Milk, etc. – definitely NOT Plato), and after reading some of the selected writings of Hildegard of Bingen, I would consider adding her to my guest list. Not necessarily to stay for dinner, but perhaps just to stop by or take a polygraph test on the truthfulness of her visions.

Our discussion in seminar today really got me thinking: Was Hildegard an early Feminist? Were her constant references to her gender identity a mere projection of women in society at the time, or were they being used to gain the respect and support of her male counterparts in the church? In my opinion, the truth must lie somewhere in the middle. As people, we are often conditioned and shaped by the societal norms we see around us as we age. During this period of history, women played relatively no substantial roles in the church: This may have influenced Hildegard’s self-deprecating remarks and beliefs about her gender identity, claiming to be “timid” and “miserable and more than miserable in my womanly existence” (Hildegard 3-4). Nevertheless, Hildegard could also have been using her gender identity to her advantage. By presenting herself as meek or somewhat uneducated, her claim that her visions were bestowed upon her by G-d is strengthened: Male heads of the church that questioned the validity of her visions would not be challenging Hildegard as a woman, but rather G-d himself. What could be more powerful than that?

I guess we’ll just have to invite her to dinner to see.