- Multidisciplinary approaches, where the disciplines remain intact but focus simultaneously on a common theme,
- Interdisciplinary approaches where there is conjoining of the disciplines to develop a shared understanding of a theme or solution to a problem,
- Transdisciplinary approaches where disciplinary distinctions are not evident
- Multidisciplinary: Curriculum revolves around themes or problems that bring together a number of disciplines
- Interdisciplinary: Curriculum revolves around themes or problems where the focus is on commonalities between disciplines
- Transdisciplinary: Curriculum revolves around real-world experiences, without regard for discipline-specific understandings
Drake, S. M. (1993). Planning integrated curriculum: The call to adventure. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Harden, R. M. (2000). The integration ladder: A tool for curriculum planning and evaluation. Medical Education, 34(7), 551-557.
Pearson, M. (2011). Integration in the BSc (Pharm) Curriculum. (PhD comprehensive exam, used with permission)