Potential compromises to Affective States of PMU mares:
- Housing conditions have potential to cause the mares’ undue discomfort and pain.
- Infection and chaffing from urine contraption devices would cause the mares to experience a negative affective states
- Crowding from narrow stalls could cause the mares to be distressed from lack of space for them to move or lay down
- Mares confined for the first time were not physiologically stressed (Houpt & Waran, 2003)
- Mares confined did not develop stereotypic behaviour (other than ones acquired prior to collection periods)
- Independent of stall size some mares never laid down throughout their collection period (Houpt et. at., 2001).
- An increased absence of stereotypic behavior was seen in mares that had more or ad libitum access to hay.
- Mares are housed beside other mares which may alleviate potential signs of distress.
- Given low prevalence of observed stereotypic behaviors keeping large numbers of pregnant mares in tie stalls is rational and that the welfare of mares is sound (Flannigan & Stookey 2002).