ANTH 360 Intro to Ecological Anthropology
Analysis of the relations between human societies and the ecological aspects of their environment (including technology, society, and ideology). Previously ANTH 460.

APBI 314 Animals and Society
Contemporary use of animals for food production, companionship, recreation and science; social and ethical issues concerning human impacts on animals; animals in human culture; protection of animals by society and the law.
Prerequisite: At least third-year standing in any faculty.

APBI 315 Animal Welfare and the Ethics of Animal Use
Scientific assessment of animal well-being, ethical concepts applied to animal use, and animal welfare issues arising in agriculture, biomedical research and other areas. [1-0-3]
Prerequisite: At least third-year standing in any faculty.

APBI 361 Key indicators of Agroecosystem Sustainability
A detailed exploration of biophysical, economic, and social ecosystem sustainability indicators for primary production subsystems. [1-0-3]

APBI 402 Sustainable Soil Management
Application of fundamental, unifying, soil science principles in sustainable ecosystem management. [1-0-3]

APSC 261 Technology and Society I
The course deals with the influence of technology on the social, political, economic, and environmental aspects of society. The specific subject matter varies from year to year. Examples of subjects considered include, resources, energy, nuclear power, technology, the effects of technology on the family, education, agriculture, international policy and others. This course is not eligible for Credit/D/Fail grading. [2-0-1]

APSC 262 Technology and Society II
The course deals with the influence of technology on the social, political, economic and environmental aspects of society. The subject matter varies from year to year and differs from APSC 261. It may be taken as a continuation of APSC 261 or taken independently. Examples of subjects considered include pollution, work place health hazards, social impact of computers, problem solving, green revolution, technology and the third world, engineering ethics and others. This course is not eligible for Credit/D/Fail grading. [2-0-1]

APSC 263 Technology and Development
Environmental, economic, political, and social aspects of appropriate technologies in the developing world. Appropriate technology and infrastructure, trade and finance, transportation, energy, water access, communication, health, and gender. This course is not eligible for Credit/D/Fail grading. [3-0-0]

BIOL 343 Plants and People
The interactions of plants and human societies: the role of people in the origin, evolution and dispersal of food, drug and economic plants, and the influences of plants on human societies. Suitable for upper-level Arts students. [2-2-1]

CHEM 341* Global Challenges: A Chemical Perspective  (pre-reqs)
Importance of chemistry in society. Detailed case studies drawn from modern chemistry: human health, energy, commodity chemicals, materials, green chemistry, agriculture. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: One of CHEM 201, CHEM 205, CHEM 251 and one of CHEM 203, CHEM 233, CHEM 260.

CONS 350 Case Studies in Haida Gwaii
Integration of concepts of history, politics, First Nations, rural development, and forest ecology in natural resources management in Haida Gwaii. A core element of the Haida Gwaii Semester.

ENVR 410 Energy, Environment, Society
The role of energy in human societies throughout history and the environmental and social implications of energy use. Coverage of both the science and policy of energy use. Energy supply and demand, energy transitions, analytical tools, impacts, and alternatives. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: Fourth-year standing in B.Sc., B.A.Sc. or related programs.

FNH 313 Microorganisms in Food Systems
Microorganisms of importance in safety, spoilage and preservation of foods; factors affecting growth, survival and inactivation of microorganisms in fermented food systems; food processing plant cleaning and sanitation. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 112.

FNH 342 Consumer Aspects of Food
Economic, physiological, social, cultural, and environmental factors influencing food choices and consumption. Legislation governing food; food markets and merchandising techniques; criteria for food selection. [3-3]
Prerequisite: At least third year standing required.

FNH 355 International Nutrition
Conceptualization and scientific analyses of global problems in food and nutrition; complexities of food habits and malnutrition in various cultures around the world. [3-0-0]

FNH 455 Applied International Nutrition
Applying nutrition concepts and principles in addressing problems of malnutrition and food insecurity in international settings. Basics of developing culturally acceptable, sustainable nutrition intervention programs. This course is not eligible for Credit/D/Fail grading. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: FNH 355.

FRST 408* Problems in Forestry Entomologt (pre-reqs)
Decision-making in the protection of forests from insects. Insect problems viewed from other disciplines of forestry. Bases of biological and economic evaluation, and choice of control methods. [2-2]
Prerequisite: One of FRST 308, AGRO 327, BIOL 327.

FRST 495* Biological Diversity and Forest Management (pre-reqs)
Principles, problems, and practices of managing forests and nature reserves for biological diversity; integration of forestry and wildlife with particular emphasis on diversity of all life forms. [2-2-0]
Prerequisite: All of FRST 201, FRST 395.

GEOG 311 Urban Environments
The impact of urban development on the natural environment and vice versa. Study of the ecology and metabolism of cities and green urban design, using global and local case studies.
Prerequisite: Not open to students with credit for GEOG 210.

GEOG 316* Geography of Natural Hazards (pre-reqs)
The role of geophysical events, human ecology, environmental perception, world social and political order in explaining the risk of natural disasters. Assessment of acceptable risk, disaster relief and reconstruction and contrasts between developed and developing nations.
Prerequisite: Either (a) GEOG 101 or (b) all of GEOG 102, GEOG 103 or (c) all of GEOB 102, GEOB 103.

GEOG 395 Changing Landscapes of Latin America
Culture and environment in 1491; Spanish colonialism and biological imperialism; commodity production and exchange; neo-liberalism; and environmental justice movements.

GEOG 412* Water Management: Theory, Policy and Practice (pre-reqs)
Interdisciplinary analysis of critical water issues, in Canada and internationally. Focus on social science perspectives. Emphasis on presentation, research, and essay-writing skills. This course is not eligible for Credit/D/Fail grading.
Prerequisite: GEOG 310.

GEOG 495* Social Movements in the Americas (pre-reqs)
The politics of North-South solidarity in theory and practice through community service learning models. This course is not eligible for Credit/D/Fail grading.
Prerequisite: One of LAST 100, GEOG 395.

GEOG 496* Geography of Africa (pre-reqs)
A critical introduction to social, political and economic geographies of Africa from pre-colonial times to the present, with a focus on contemporary environmental and development issues.Prerequisite: One of GEOG 329, GEOG 350. GEOG 362 is recommended.

GEOB 400 Global Biogeochemistry
Processes controlling the planetary cycles of elements like carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, the human perturbation of these biogeochemical cycles, and the consequences for the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, and aquatic ecosystems. [3-0-1]
Prerequisite: Either (a) all of BIOL 121, CHEM 111 or (b) all of BIOL 121, CHEM 121 or (c) SCIE 001. Fourth year standing is also required.

GEOB 402* Air Pollution Meteorology  (pre-reqs)
The nature of atmospheric pollutants. The ability of the atmosphere to disperse, transform, and remove pollutants. Air pollution dispersion models. Air quality monitoring, criteria, and standards. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: One of GEOG 300, GEOB 200.

MICB 201 Introductory Enviro Microbiology
Prokaryotic diversity and the impact and applications of bacterial and archaeal metabolic, genetic, and growth processes in environmental contexts. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: One of BIOL 112, BIOL 200, SCIE 001. For students with BIOL 112, CHEM 121 is recommended.

PHIL 435A Environmental Ethics
Moral problems arising in the context of human relationships to nature and to non-human living things, considered in terms of both general moral theory and policy formation. Topics include moral standing, animal rights, obligations to future generations, pollution, hazardous materials, the depletion of natural resources and the treatment of non-human living things.

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