Module 4: Sarah Fedko

Brown, L., & Strega, S. (Eds.). (2005). Research as resistance: Critical, indigenous and anti-oppressive approaches. Canadian Scholars’ Press. From                  bin/catsearch?bid=3359971

This book examines indigenous research within the social sciences context.   There is discussion of research as part of throwing off past oppression of indigenous people.   The book reviews different methodologies for research, and is focused on research in Canada.


Kovach, M. (2010). Conversation method in Indigenous research. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 5(1), 40-48 from

Through the examination of two projects, this article examines the use of “conversation” as a research method, i.e. Information is gathered through stories. The author also addresses using this method within an indigenous understanding or mindset, which she explains is necessary for ‘conversation’ to truly be considered an indigenous research method. She also explores the relationship of the researcher to his/her research in this model and other ethical issues.



Kovach, M. E. (2010). Indigenous methodologies: Characteristics, conversations, and contexts. University of Toronto Press from

In this book, Kovach examines how indigenous research methodologies flow from tribal culture, and while they have some relationship to Western thought, they remain unique.   Kovach provides practical advice for those looking to use indigenous methodologies in their research including issues such as developing protocol and ethics.     The author includes stories from different indigenous researchers, and also references her own work using indigenous methodologies.




Smith, L. T. (2013). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples. Zed Books Ltd. from  

This books examines the intersection between imperialism and traditional western research.   Smith discusses how the idea of ‘research’ from a western perspective is part of the painful memories of colonization for indigenous people.   Smith goes on to discuss how decolonizing research through exploration of indigenous methods can help indigenous people reclaim their own knowledge and identity.



Steinhauer, E. (2002). Thoughts on an Indigenous Research Methodology. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 26(2), 69-81 from

This article reviews types of indigenous research methodologies, as wel as the importance of indigenous researchers, indigenous people as researchers, as well as indigenous knowledge and ways of knowing.

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