This project is an initiative begun by Buffy Sainte-Marie through her Nihewan Foundation with the mission of providing an interactive learning experience for children to develop more authentic understanding of Native American culture and contributions to society. The Cradleboard website includes their own curriculum for different contexts of study, some of which are available free of charge and some of which require a subscription. The site includes links to multimedia resources for students and teachers, links to external websites organized by tribe (both Canadian and American), and a complementary project with chat rooms and discussion boards to help people connect. The overarching goal is to connect non-Aboriginal classrooms with authentic Aboriginal resources in order to address misconceptions and build a culture of understanding and appreciation.
In this module 3 weblog, I am beginning to narrow my search to some of the institutions and organizations that are leading and supporting Indigenization strategies for post secondary. I am finding that so much good work has been done, but there are also many lessons documented for the future. Here were some great sites I found this module:
Colleges and Institutes Canada (CiCan) recognizes that colleges serve many Indigenous students throughout Canada, the North included. The organization has clearly defined seven principles aimed at Indigenization of colleges and has encouraged institutions to become signatories by implementing in these principles. So far, there are 54 signatories across Canada. Additional links such as background of the protocol, member documents, resources and FAQ’s are included in the site.
This document was created by Comosun college (Vancouver Island) and was implemented in 2013 and 2014. Although it is a few years old, it has a strong framework for how they approached Indigenization at their institution. They base their strategy on four “corner posts”: curriculum development and delivery, services for students, policy and strategic planning and employee education. Each of these four areas has clear goals and actions to complete. The plan and is laid out in an easy-to-understand format. It includes a comprehensive section on strengths, challenges, opportunities, and lessons learned.
FNESC recognized that they needed a collective organization that was dedicated to the betterment of education for all Indigenous learners from K to post secondary. THis organization practices at the provincial level and works to improve success in education to BC’s Indigenous population through research, communication, advocacy, and networking. This site includes comprehensive annual reports, resources for students and educators, media (videos and images), and opportunities to become involved. They put on a yearly conference that looks fantastic (in fact, it is already full for this coming year!)
This publication is an environmental scan completed by BC Campus that analyzes professional learning resources and opportunities that are available for staff and educators. Their findings are quite interesting and look at the type of training available, training topics, access to resources, authenticity of resources, and engagement of faculty and staff. This provides a great overview to see what is currently being offered and where gaps may still exist.
I wasn’t sure if I should post this resource and have had it in my “maybe” list since the start of this course. I decided to post it for the reason that none of the indigenization strategies will be as effective unless those of us who are not Indigenous first “unpack our knapsacks” and realize that we inevitably bring our own histories, pasts, values and viewpoints to our interactions whether we are aware of it or not. Recognizing our biases is the first step in removing them and moving forward.
Coming off my last post and in my search for financial support for Indigenous girls in post-secondary education, I came across an Indigenous-led registered charity called Indspire. In addition to it dispersing financial aid, it also provides an online resource for teachers with a variety of lesson plans, online webinars, in-class seminars and links to upcoming events.
In my research so far about the barriers facing Indigenous women in STEAM and tech-related fields, two trends are emerging- funding and teacher education. Funding is one way to support Indigenous students becoming successful in education, but another large indicator for success is the education of teachers and their knowledge and understanding of how to deliver curriculum and better help support Indigenous students. There are two upcoming conferences that will have Indigenous students and Indigenous educators sharing their experiences and practices of what works and providing teachers with some of this knowledge and understanding about Indigenous needs in education.
The first event is coming up this Oct 19th at Simon Fraser University where a panel of 3 Laureates (Dakota Brant- First Nations, Maatalii Okalik- Inuit, and Gabrielle Fayant- Metis), will “discuss issues such as being the first person in the family to go to university or being the only Indigenous student in the class, and how schools can better support Indigenous students.” Registration is still open.
Another upcoming conference is the 23rd Annual Aboriginal Education Conference “Renewing our Relationship” put on by the First Nations Education Steering Committee and happening in Vancouver Nov 30- Dec 1-2 at the Westin Bayshore. As stated on their website this conference will be:
“Showcasing innovative curriculum, inspiring people and excellent networking opportunities, the First Nations Education Steering Committee (FNESC) Annual Aboriginal Education Conference draws over 800 educators each year. Our conference theme, Renewing Our Relationship, will explore the role of education in reconciliation as part of the ongoing conversations about Canada’s 150th celebrations and planning for the future of First Nations education in British Columbia. This will include examining how we can work together to transform our relationships in order to advance quality First Nations education.
There are a variety of workshops to choose from and several keynote speakers, including one of the authors from our course readings- Dr. Jan Hare who is the Associate Dean for Indigenous Education (UBC).
For our final research assignment, Kathryn, Sara and I have decided to look at the relationship of technology and STEAM learning and Indigenous girls. We were drawn to focus our research on girls because of the unique differences they have in learning compared to boys as well as the fact that Indigenous girls, already from a marginalized community, are even more vulnerable as they face gender bias and stereotypes in a male-dominated technology industry. In our research of current programs and initiatives in place, we found “Native Girls that Code” . The goals of this program are:
- Build leadership of women and the capacity of women-led projects and organizations
- Build the capacity of our youth to develop strong identities through Indigenous knowledge and stronger supports for their education
- Advance the preservation and revitalization of traditional Native knowledge through environmental justice programming that focuses on following the original teachings of Mother Earth
This program has found a way to incorporate STEAM learning with place-based learning that connects the girls with the land around them.
The success of this program but shows the promise and capability of integration between Indigenous girls and technology and could pose as a model for other similar programs.
With our recent class discussions on the cultural neutrality of technology and the difference of educational goals in our Indigenous communities, I realize there is strong evidence for and against Indigenous use of technology and the extent of its benefit. However, for the non-Indigenous community, I believe that technology been an invaluable tool to help increase awareness and understanding as well as helping to promote advocacy for Indigenous communities.
Many have a willingness to learn but not always the tools or resources at their disposal. Technology helps reduce boundaries by increasing our learning networks. One of these learning networks is the MOOC/EdX course run by Jan Hare through UBC on Reconciliation through Education. This free online course starts Oct 16, 2017 and covers the following program outcomes:
- Explore personal and professional histories and assumptions in relationship to Indigenous peoples histories and worldviews
- Deepen understanding and knowledge of colonial histories and current realities of Indigenous people
- Engage with Indigenous worldviews and perspectives that contextualize and support your understanding of the theories and practices of Indigenous education
- Develop strategies that contribute to the enhancement of Indigenous-settler relations in schools, organizations, and communities
- Explore Indigenous worldviews and learning approaches for their application to the classroom or community learning setting
- Engage in personal and professional discussions in an online environment with others committed to understanding and advancing reconciliation
Additionally, another post-secondary resource from UVic sees the revitalization of Aboriginal languages. Technology and western education has contributed to the diminishment of Aboriginal languages, but now it is also being used to revitalize the languages not only with the descendants of native tongue speakers but with the non-Indigenous community as well. While this course, unfortunately, is not free, it does offer courses that are face-to-face with Indigenous community members as well as career opportunities to work in and with various Indigenous communities upon completion of the course. The program outcomes are as follows:
- Learn foundational knowledge and skills in linguistics that are needed to undertake language preservation and revitalization work.
- Build knowledge and skills in language preservation and revitalization.
- Develop your ability to analyze language preservation issues relevant across Indigenous cultures and specific to your own communities.
- Enhance your capacity to develop responsive strategies and programs designed to preserve and revitalize Indigenous languages.
- Earn a comprehensive and respected certificate.
- Create a foundation for subsequent academic studies in related areas, such as education, cultural resource management and linguistics.
From CBC: Sachs Harbour, N.W.T., teen pens song about uncle’s death, garners thousands of views online
This story, published on September 16, 2017, came to my attention from my Facebook feed. Two years ago, a colleague of many years, left Victoria to take a teaching position in Inuvik, Northwest Territories. Jasmine has been Michelle’s student for the last two years. Because the community that Jasmine is from is so remote (Sachs Harbour in Inuvialuit Territory), she stays with a host family in Inuvik while attending high school. At the time of the recording, Jasmine was part of a program that takes part on a ship that sails through the Arctic in the summer, visiting communities and taking part in cultural communities along the way. Apparently, a student from my school, Esquimalt High, recently took part in this program as it is open to any student that applies, who falls within the age restriction. Until the song went “viral”, Michelle did not even know that Jasmine was a singer-songwriter! Another layer to Jasmine’s viral social media experience, is her mother’s story of attending residential school. Sending her daughter away to school, however, was not an option for her.
From CBC: ‘A punch in the gut’: Mother slams B.C. high school exercise connecting Indigenous women to ‘squaw’
This story was published September 18, 2017. A Grade 9 teacher, using the Teacher’s Guide, distributed worksheets to their students that had students associate racist nomenclature with the person of origin. Apparently, the motivation was to teach students what the ubiquitous terminology of the day was, however, as the mother astutely points out, the workbook is void of context, and fails to educate students about relevant information regarding the Indian Act and the reserve system, amongst other knowledge. Turning to Michael’s essay from this week; “ Educators must help students conceptually focus the mirror rather than a magnifying glass at native people.” (p. 499) This workbook perfectly exemplifies the magnifying glass approach. What also should be pointed out, is that the teacher in question, was likely trying to incorporate the new K-9 BC curriculum that has attempted to bring Indigenous knowledge into every course. As a BC teacher, I can say with certainty, that there has not been enough (any?) professional development to facilitate this change so that BCTF members can actually teach Indigenous knowledge with confidence. I am grateful that I am taking ETEC 521 so that I can hopefully avoid making one of my students or their parents feel link I have “punched them in the gut.” Most teachers will not be paying $1600, however, in order to take such meaningful Pro-D. Moreover, I wonder how many teachers will simply side step this portion of the curriculum in fear of making a mistake? <Segway to next article…>
Marker, Michael, “After the Makah Whale Hunt: Indigenous Knowledge and Limits to Multicultural Discourse”, Urban Education, Vol. 41(5), 2006, 482-505.
From CBC: Teachers lack confidence to talk about residential schools, study says
This story was published August 20, 2017. Yes. This is me. Or rather, this was me. I feel fortunate to work at a school that devotes a portion of our Pro-D time, every year, to Indigenous education and the well-being of our Indigenous students. But still, I do not feel like I know enough to say too much in class. With the Truth and Reconciliation Commission being part of mainstream media, combined with some incredibly meaningful Pro-D, I have begun to say more, however. On Orange Shirt Day 2016, I gave my first talk to my homeroom class about the significance of the day— how could I not? I felt like I had finally broken through my self-imposed, block of ice. It is now three weeks into ETEC 521, and I feel more equipped to say what needs to be said, when it needs to be said. I am looking forward to learning more, however, as I know there is much more knowledge to come!
This is Just Us: A Digital Media Documentary
At my high school, we run a course called First Peoples English, in which any student may elect to take this course, in lieu of regular English. Recently, students created the documentary, “This is Just Us.” For whatever reason, I only just learned of this documentary this week (it is amazing what you can find on your school’s website!). It is a bit of a commitment to watch, however, should you have 38 minutes to spare, you will not regret it. In the documentary, Indigenous and non-Indigenous students are interviewed. As well, a local Elder, one of our school’s Aboriginal Educational Assistants and the teacher of the course are all interviewed. Topics that are touched on include: Why Digital Media? What is self-esteem? Who are you thankful for? … and more! I was blown away with the students’ candidness, honesty, bravery and wisdom in their responses. The Elder speaks of running away from his residential school, seeking refuge in Washington. This really drove home the reading of “Borders and the Borderless Coast Salish” from last week. As opposed to the educator who ran into trouble when they attempted to “teach” Indigenous knowledge using an inappropriate “magnifying glass”, Ms. Dunn helped her students “conceptually focus the mirror”, with this project. The project would not have been a success without the partnership with Dano, an actor and director from Tsawout First Nation. Dano came in once a week for a couple of months, and after getting to know the students, he decided that the common thread was how self-esteem affects individuals, families and communities.
Indigenous Leaders on How to Celebrate National Aboriginal Day
This page was published on June 20, 2017, on the University of Toronto’s website. It interviews a variety of Indigenous Leaders (a student, an Elder, and the former National Chief, amongst others), who share how they plan to celebrate June 21 and what any Canadian could also do to recognize this day. I would like to specifically highlight one piece from this page, that addresses the Canada 150 celebrations. This summer, there was a heap of dialogue concerning whether we should be celebrating 150 years of colonialism. Many people I know chose to boycott all July 1 celebrations, and they were not afraid to make it known to all who would listen. Reading this piece, you will find Phil Fontaine’s (albeit brief) take on Canada 150. I don’t think everyone shares his perspective, however, it does exemplify the power of the “positive re-frame”. That is, when a situation is not ideal or seemingly “good”, by changing our perspective a few degrees, we can sometimes see opportunity past the darkness.
Pacific People’s Partnership
PPP is a non-profit organization that promotes sustainability, peace, social justice and community development for Indigenous peoples from the Lekwungen territory in coastal BC and South Pacific Indigenous peoples. I chose this site because I was able to attend a recent event at the BC Legislature on September 16, 2017, The One Wave Gathering. Five local Indigenous youth won a contest that resulted in their work being displayed on the front of four longhouses that were temporarily erected on the Legislature. The fifth artist’s work was made into a dance screen, as the judges were not able to let his work go unnoticed. Both the Songhees and Esquimalt Nation chief’s spoke at the opening ceremony. Chief Andy Thomas described the history of the land that we were meeting on, and how his Great-Great Grandparents were forced to move their village from Victoria’s Inner Harbour to the Esquimalt Harbour. I was particularly moved by the stories of the young artists and I truly felt the sense of proudness that they had of themselves and that their community had for them. That proudness wrapped itself around everyone in attendance. I will put a couple of my pictures on this blog, however, feel free to check out the Instagram hashtag, #onewavegathering to see other pictures and videos.
One resource that I have come back to numerous times is the First Nations Steering Committee website http://www.fnesc.ca
From their site: “FNESC works at the provincial level to provide services in the areas of research, communications, information dissemination, advocacy, program administration and networking”. Their mandate is: “to facilitate discussion about education matters affecting First Nations in BC by disseminating information and soliciting input from First Nations. The primary goal is to promote and support the provision of quality education to First Nations learners in BC.”
As a non-indigenous person educating in the British Columbia school system, I would like to get the correct information to share with our students. FNESC provides resources, research, and professional development opportunities.
Particularly helpful as a middle school classroom teacher are the Learning First Peoples Classroom Resources. http://www.fnesc.ca/learningfirstpeoples/ which provide support B.C. Mathematics, English Language Arts, Social Studies, and Science curriculum. The First Peoples Principles of Learning (below) are also located in every classroom in our school where educators use them to guide their teaching.
Keywords: decolonization, research methodologies, colonization, law, traditional knowledge, Indigenous youth, curriculum, technology, language, culturally responsive education
This documentary film touches on important issues pertaining to the Great Bear Rainforest and Haida Gwaii. Centered around paddleboarding as a vessel for action, we see how some Aboriginal youth in Bella Bella learn to make paddleboards in school as a way to connect to the land and to make something purposeful. Their engagement in evident in the way they speak about the boards and their connection to place. Their personalized boards, and they way they speak about them demonstrate how important their culture is to them. In connection with elders in the community, the youth are inspired to take action against the potential of oil spills on the Northwest Coast as a result of the Northern Gateway Pipeline by speaking at cultural gatherings and participating in a hunger strike. As the youth make their paddleboards and take action, it becomes evident that this is a project that is culturally responsive.
Pictures of the boards:
2. Aboriginal Worldviews and Perspectives in the Classroom:
This is the BC Ministry of Education’s 2015 document on Aboriginal worldviews in the classroom. Pages 39-57 focus on “Attributes of Responsive Schooling”. As an educator, this section of the document is less theoretical and more practical. It consists of participant responses to each principle of responsive education, with advice and suggestions to support educators. What strikes me with regards to this document, is the difficulty in which I had to find it on the BC Ministry of Education Website. Although Aboriginal education is integrated throughout the revised BC Curriculum, this document provides educators with practical information which lends to the visualization of responsive schooling.
3. In Practising Culturally Responsive Mathematics Education by Cynthia Nicol, Jo-ann Archibald, and Jeff Baker, the following concepts are introduced for culturally responsive mathematics education: grounded in place, storywork, focused on relationships, inquiry based, requiring social consciousness and agency. Simon Fraser University’s Math Catcher Outreach Program uses the concepts of place, storywork, and inquiry to engage students in mathematics. They also offer classroom visits, workshops, and summer camps for Aboriginal children. The digital resources include youtube videos in English and one or more Indigenous languages and are all based on real life situations. They could also act as a math catalyst between school and home. I wonder how these resources are being implemented in the classroom and if they are being used with the other concepts of culturally responsive mathematics ed.
4. In the following TEDx talk entitled Aboriginal math education: Collaborative learning, Stavros Stavrou explains how he takes an “anti-oppressive math education” approach. He co-teachers with an Aboriginal teacher and attempts to incorporate Indigenous knowledge and principles of knowing with mathematics. Watching his lecture, his approach seems to echo the concepts of culturally responsive math education as outlined by Cynthia Nicol, Jo-ann Archibald, and Jeff Baker in Practising Culturally Responsive Mathematics Education. As an educator, this sounds like an amazing situation, where a non-native teacher specialist is able to collaborate and co-teach with an Aboriginal teacher. Stavrou provides an example of how he connected with a student on a cultural, mathematical, personal level. He illustrates for us what we hear echoed in the messages of Inuit youth in Alluriarniq – Stepping Forward, students are motivated and engaged when teachers connect with them personally.
4. Designing Games with First Nations Youth
This is a project, entitled Skins, conducted by Aboriginal Territories in Cyberspace (AbTeC) (Concordia University), where Aboriginal youth, in partnership with game experts learn to create digital games based on stories from their communities. Upon reading the paper, it becomes evident that much thought has been put into this project through consultation and connection with the Aboriginal community. Protocol is important as noted in the article and in the references which demonstrate depth of research around appropriate methodologies. There is evidence of the principles of culturally responsive education: “ 1) flexible curriculum, 2) a dedicated instructor connected to the community, 3) defined roles, and 4) creative freedom”. In addition, upon completion of the project researchers were able to conclude that, “Stories from the community came alive for the students in both the telling and discussions about them, and, ultimately, in the game itself. They were then able to synthesize their own original story, and furthermore, transform that narrative into a gamespace and gameplay.”
- So far, this is one of the most impressive resources on Canadian Indigenous literacy that I have seen. Yipee! Basically, this site is a collection of resources that the University of Saskatchewan put together to help those who are interested in understanding Indigenous history and finding credible information that can help them change policy, develop resources, or simply learn more about Indigenous culture. I am completely blown away by the collection of resources (articles, book reviews, e-books, images, media, theses, and web sites), lack of broken links, and excellent descriptions of resources. I truly feel like the University of Saskatchewan has built a collective resource for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people alike. I had been having a tough time finding resources that were accessible and provided accessible information. Finding resources like this one is truly exciting because it helps me to see the potential for technology to help develop effective communities of practice!
- I found this site as I was searching for resources on local school board sites. (I had never thought to do this, but now it seems so obvious. It’s important to learn what types of resources and practices are being shared in my local community.) Because I am focusing on literacy for my final project, naturally, I gravitated toward the literacy section of this site. However, there are plenty of other interesting resources, including ones on cultural awareness and wellness. In the literacy section, I really like how there are videos that showcase both Indigenous and non-Indigenous perceptions of Indigenous literacy. It reminds me of the importance of the “two-way interaction” that we learned about the other week. Through these videos, I was able to hear from Indigenous people and also hear how non-Indigenous people worked through these teachings, voicing concerns or questions that I also had.
- This wonderful site is maintained by First Nations, Metis, and Inuit staff of Edmonton Public Schools. Essentially, it’s a collection of reviews for resources (mostly books and movies) that share good recommendations as well as resources “to weed out.” I think these types of websites are important for educators as they decide on which books and other sources to share in the classroom. This site also connects educators (or whomever is using the site) to the Edmonton Public Library. I have been trying to find resources that link out to other local sites (either online or physical), because I think it’s really important for us to find connections within our local communities and learn about what is available, too.
- This resource is such a fantastic idea in terms of using technology as a way for students to build knowledge rather than simply use technology as a way to store knowledge. This Google Doc provides open access to a list of recommended books to help Indigenous learners develop their language and literacy skills. For each book, the curators have provided an annotated bibliography, project ideas/activities, and curricular links, so that educators have a way to guide meaningful learning opportunities through reading, discussion, and active participation. There are so many ideas I have to link this resource to place-based learning. Literature is such a wonderful way for people to connect to the world around them, but knowing where to look for these sources is extra wonderful.
- I have come to grow really fond of Jan Hare’s work in the field of Indigenous literacy development for children and youth. She has expanded my limited view of literacy (typically thought of as reading and writing) and opened it up to a holistic model that is not just important for Indigenous learners, but I believe for all learners. In my search for this Weblog/the final research project, I stumbled upon a UBC article in which Dr. Hare discusses the significance of having parents involved in Indigenous youths’ literacy and language learning. Prior to this finding, I had mostly been focusing on resources that could help the educator find appropriate resources for the classroom, without considering the important role that Indigenous parents could/should play. (Even though we have read about the importance of community involvement in Indigenous students’ learning, this has been difficult for me to conceptualize. Finding these resources has helped me broaden my perception of community and understand the critical role of parents or other caretakers.) In the article, Dr. Hare discusses that an effective strategy for youth to learn more about their own culture is for youth to teach their own parents. In this way, both parents and students are engaged in learning through their history. This also shows that there are “many pathways to learning,” and in that, we need to be considering more informal approaches. This led me to Dr. Hare’s article, “They Tell a Story and There’s Meaning Behind that Story: Indigenous Knowledge and Young Indigenous Children’s Literacy Learning.” What an amazing resource in terms of discussing the importance of storywork, the influence of family and other community members in literacy learning, and the necessity for Indigenous children to learn from (not just about) Indigenous knowledge.
The incorporation of spirituality into everyday life seems to be a value in many Indigenous communities. I am, therefore, interested in finding out how this is done within educational environments and whether or not this is even done in online learning environments. My ultimate focus will likely be on adult education, as I work in a post-secondary environment. However, at this point, I am not limiting my research to that age group.
These are the some of resources I have examined recently:
- Astin, A. W., Astin, H. S., & Lindholm, J. A. (2010). Cultivating the Spirit: How College Can Enhance Students’ Inner Lives. San Francisco, California: John Wiley & Sons.
- What is an academic’s role in a student’s spiritual development? Faculty are only responsible for the academic and professional progress of their students, aren’t they? Perhaps they are, but the fact remains that students are asking questions, such as: “Who am I?”, “What is my purpose in life?” and “What kind of world should I help to create?” These all have spiritual overtones.
- This book examines the role that post-secondary education has in student spiritual development. According to Astin, et al. (2010), although religious practice may decline during these years, spiritual growth is enhanced, which in turn enhances other college outcomes.
- So although this book does not deal with Indigenous spirituality in education, it is a good starting point for examining spirituality in post-secondary education, which is where my interests lie.
- Fraser, D. (2007, January 22). Secular schools, spirituality and Maori values. Journal of Moral Education, 33(1). Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com.uml.idm.oclc.org/doi/abs/10.1080/0305724042000199996?needAccess=true#aHR0cDovL3d3dy50YW5kZm9ubGluZS5jb20udW1sLmlkbS5vY2xjLm9yZy9kb2kvcGRmLzEwLjEwODAvMDMwNTcyNDA0MjAwMDE5OTk5Nj9uZWVkQWNjZXNzPXRydWVAQEAw
- In New Zealand, Maori education initiatives have grown to include Maori values, beliefs, and spirituality. This challenges the definition of secular education in New Zealand.
- This article discusses the moral obligation to include Indigenous values within education in order to develop understanding and respect for their unique cultural identity. Are they broad enough concepts to have relevance for a diverse student population? Some say yes. However, others believe that even concepts such as self-worth and personal identity are too personal and intrusive to be discussed in a public classroom.
- On the other hand, the Maori do not believe that they should be expected to fragment their lives and values and therefore wish their spiritual values to be taught alongside the intellectual, physical, emotional, and social ones. They believe that “a natural acceptance of spirituality…creates a moral space in which people’s values and beliefs can co-exist without excuse or apology in secular education”.
- Although I had planned on keeping my focus on Canadian Indigenous peoples, this article describes some issues that I believe will be faced in Canadian society as we begin to teach about aspects of Indigenous culture in mainstream Canadian classrooms.
- LaFever, M. (2016). Switching from Bloom to the medicine wheel: Creating learning outcomes that support Indigenous ways of knowing in post-secondary education. Intercultural Education, 27(5), 409-424.
- LaFever uses the Medicine Wheel as a framework for learning outcomes. She sees it as expanding the three domains of learning, as described by Bloom (cognitive/mental, psychomotor/physical, and affective/emotional) while adding a fourth dimension of spirituality.
- Having begun my exploration of the psychology of learning by studying Bloom, I am most interested in seeing how his theories are enhanced by Indigenous ways of knowing.
- Royal Canadian Mounted Police. (2016, June 14). Native spirituality guide. Retrieved from http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/en/native-spirituality-guide
- This website was found in the reference of the LaFever article. I found it intriguing that the RCMP would have a guide for their employees on the understanding of sacred practices of aboriginal peoples in Canada.
- The RCMP sought out four different elders in creating the guide and gave additional thanks for permission to digitally publish this knowledge, considering the fact that many elders do not consent to having their knowledge reproduced in this fashion.
- The article goes on to list important concepts, such as the Circle of Life, the Medicine Wheel, and the Four Powers. It then outlines various ceremonies and ceremonial objects.
- There is also a section on the treatment of medicine bundles by law enforcement officials, particular during legal searches, so that these objects are treated with the respect that they deserve.
- Although very simplistic, the information contained on the site would be a very good starting point for someone with little or no knowledge of these sacred objects and traditions.
- The main thing that surprised me about the website was that it did not distinguish between Canadian Indigenous cultures. Depending on what regions of the country and RCMP officer serves in, he/she will be exposed to considerable variation in belief and practice.
- Tisdell, E. J., & Tolliver, D. E. (2001, June 01). The role of spirituality in culturally relevant and transformative adult education. Adult Learning, 12(3). Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com.uml.idm.oclc.org/doi/pdf/10.1177/104515950101200305
- Elizabeth Tisdell is also the author of the book Exploring Spirituality and Culture in Adult and Higher Education. (2003). San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. This article briefly discusses some of the themes explored more fully in her later publication.
- This article discusses the connection between spirituality and culture and how educational experiences that allow for their expression can be both culturally relevant and transformative to the students involved.
- What is unique about this article is that it connects knowledge construction to the unconscious processes which are often culturally and spiritually based, such as the use of image, symbols, music, and ritual.