Category Archives: Module 4

Strength-based programs for Indigenous youth

For my final weblog, I wanted to include some of the articles and resources that I have found helpful for my final project. I realized as I started working on it that I needed to look at programs and activities that have data to support their effectiveness. Many of these links are focused on if and how strength-based programs and extra-curricular activities can be beneficial for Indigenous Youth in Canada.

1. Uniting our Nations

I came across this program while reading an article by Crooks, Chiodo and Thomas (2009). Their article presents information about strength-based programs that are aimed at building and improving school engagement for Indigenous Youth. This article is particularly important for my final project because they presented concrete successes and failures of the programs based on student participation and feedback. Uniting our Nations is a range of programs developed for Indigenous students in the Thames Valley District School Board in London, Ontario. The programs, which were developed in collaboration with Indigenous educators, students, counsellors, and community partners, include an elementary mentoring program, a secondary peer mentoring program, a grade 9 Four R Health program and a literacy test preparation program.

2. Engaging and Empowering Aboriginal Youth: a Toolkit for Service Providers

Another resource by Crooks, Chiodo and Thomas (2009) that I found interesting was this toolkit they developed. The objective was to explore how to make programs more relevant and empowering for Indigenous Youth. The information is broken down as such:

  • Section 1: Background and Overview
  • Section 2: Guiding Principles
    • Principle 1: Understanding and Integrating Cultural Identity
    • Principle 2: Increasing Youth Engagement
    • Principle 3: Fostering Youth Empowerment
    • Principle 4: Establishing and Maintaining Effective Partnerships
  • Section 3: Opportunities and Challenges in School-Based Prevention Programming
  • Section 4: Research and Evaluation

Focusing on the importance of a strengths-based approach in supporting Indigenous youth and helping them succeed, this toolkit uses case studies and analyses different programs to present ideas and strategies for how to create better programming.

3. McKellar Park Case Study

This article is a case study of the McKellar Park Central School in Thunder Bay, Ontario, where 50% of the students identify as First Nations. The school uses a strength-based approach in order to address issues of bullying and to support First Nations students. Of particular interest is their use of the Ambassador’s club, where students, selected by the staff, spend time with administration during selected lunch hours. They use the identified strengths to work on social skills and the students help come up with ways to improve certain aspects of their classes/school and to come up with activities for other students. The school also runs a New Experiences Program, in conjunction with the Children’s Centre Thunder Bay. Students meet once a week and parents/caregivers are invited. The workshops focus on the students’ needs, such as trauma, grief and coping skills. Both these programs have helped support First Nations students and have helped improve their school experience.

This paper presents the qualitative and quantitative data from the programs:

4. Participation in sports and cultural activities among Aboriginal children and youth

This article refers back to one of my links from the second module, the Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) of children and youth. Using information and data from the survey, Smith, Findlay and Crompton (2010) unpack the participation of Inuit, Metis and off-reserve First Nations children in sports and cultural activities. Participation is increased with regards to higher levels of parental education, time spent with Elders and involvement in other activities.

5. Tides Canada: Northern Well-Being

Tides Canada has a variety of initiatives aimed at encouraging northern leadership among young Indigenous peoples and fostering strong and healthy northern families. They also support the knowledge of natural resources in order to create sustainable communities. Their initiatives include: Arctic Funders Collaborative, Dene Nahjo, Northern Youth Leadership and Our Voices.

JUSTIN’S MODULE 4: POST 4 + 5

  1. Lakeview’s Circle of Courage

This video was created by the students at Lakeview Elementary School in Quesnel, BC. The children at the school demonstrated the 4 components from the Circle of Courage (belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity) through the use of acting, animation and documentary. The focus of my group’s research paper is looking for educational benefits for the dominant society in addition to the Indigenous community. “Indigenous knowledge is not just for Indigenous peoples, but is a way of thinking holistically about the connections between the natural world and human consciousness” (Marker, 2017). This video demonstrates how a variety of students, both of Indigenous and non-Indigenous decent, used their knowledge of the four components of the Circle of Courage and create examples that they may encounter in their everyday life. The commentary in the video is not always fitting as some of them were laughing and what not, but overall the examples were well done. Lastly, the students utilized technology very well in this video. Lastly, the children in the video did a great job of using the Core Competencies (communication, thinking, and personal & social) from BC’s Redesigned Curriculum to apply what they are learning into a meaningful way.

 

  1. Global News: Failing Canada’s First Nations Children

This video made me realize the importance of Social Emotional Learning (SEL) in all communities, especially highly populated Indigenous communities. The Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) describes social and emotional learning (SEL) as, “The process through which children and adults acquire and effectively apply the knowledge, attitudes and skills necessary to understand and manage emotions, set and achieve positive goals, feel and show empathy for others, establish and maintain positive relationships, and make responsible decisions” (CASEL, 2017). SEL has become a framework for how educators, families, and community partners to promote students’ social, emotional and academic learning. According to Statistics Canada, Aboriginal children represent the fastest growing segment [on and off reserves] of Canada’s population (Statistics Canada, 2017); yet, they are the lowest ranking group in the country in terms of health status, as well as social, emotional, and economic well-being (National Association of Friendship Centres, 2017). Canada funds First Nations students wanting to attend high school off Reserve but doesn’t keep track of how many students receive that funding. First Nation’s students must make sacrifices when attending these schools, one being boarding with a stranger. It is extremely hard because they are so far away from their families; living with unknown people and going to school with a bunch of strangers – it doesn’t really feel like home. How can we provide a meaningful education, while meeting the social and emotional needs of these students? “It’s devastating to know that the kids that you’re sending out to get an education come back in a body bag” (Global News, 2016). Racism makes these children feel like an outsider when it comes to afterschool hours, “I mean you come out here and you’re different … you’re looked at differently” (Global News, 2016). The problem is that on some reserves, the primary schools are falling apart, with no high schools at all. When the kids finish Grade 8 they have a tough decision to make – stay here and not get a high school diploma or move away. The rates of unemployment are high, and so are the rates of poverty, addiction and suicide. The Canadian government need to provide the same level of child welfare services on reserves that exist elsewhere.

MODULE 4 WEBLOG – KATHRYN WILLIAMS (NÉE GARDNER)

Science Grrl

 http://sciencegrrl.co.uk/

 Science Grrl is a grass roots organization, based in the UK, that celebrates and supports women in science. Interestingly, the organization began when the European Union’s ‘Science – It’s a Girl Thing’ campaign struck outrage when the advertisement didn’t actually include any real science! You can watch the original video below:

Science Grrl wanted to change the idea that science had to become pink or all about makeup in order for girls to be interested. Their tag line is “Because science is for everybody” and they are working hard to address the underrepresentation of girls in the STEM subjects. In 2014 Science Grrl published a report, Through Both Eyes: the case for a Gender lens in STEM, which is an excellent read. The report looks at the need to challenge biases and stereotypes and to seriously look at the cultural messages – visible and invisible –that are passed on to young girls. The report claims that the decision-making of girls and their uptake of STEM subjects relies on three main facts:

  1. Relevance of STEM = Is it for people like me?
  2. Perceived, actual and relative ability = Do I feel confident?
  3. Science capital = Can I see the possibilities and pathways?

You can access the full report here: http://sciencegrrl.co.uk/assets/SCIENCE-GRRL-Stem-Report_FINAL_WEBLINKS-1.pdf

This report has been very helpful to me in rationalising our lesson plans and teaching resources for our final project.

 

Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, Teaching Resources

 https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1302868012055/1302868605384

This Government of Canada website has some excellent teaching resources for kids aged 4-16, particularly in their Learning Circle resources. The resources include: Indigenous stories, (both the written version and an audio file); interviews with Indigenous youth from around Canada; and, suggestions for literary images. I like how each lesson has general information, several units and teacher resources, making it easy for teachers to pick out bits and pieces that they see best fitting with their classroom learners.

 

Embedding indigenous perspectives in teaching school science

Appanna, S. D. (2011). Embedding indigenous perspectives in teaching school science. Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, The40, 18. Retrieved from http://search.informit.com.au.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/documentSummary;dn=610014455255962;res=IELIND

This article is helping me shape the scheme of work I am creating for our final project. In the article, Subhashni Appanna argues that we must first understand the barriers that face Indigenous teenagers when trying to understand Science, before we can aim to improve teaching and learning for these students. For example, Appanna states that, “The relevance of the school curriculum is a key factor in Indigenous students leaving early” (Appanna, 2011, p. 19). She then outlines how improvements to teaching practices can improve interest and success rates of Indigenous students learning.  Many of these correlate with the information from our readings in the course to date. For example: the need for positive teacher-student relationships; recognition of Indigenous Knowledge Systems; and, the essentiality that teachers must pursue links with Indigenous communities. I found Appanna’s analysis of Indigenous learning styles interesting and helpful for my final project. For example, she states that when teaching Indigenous students, holistic rather than analytic tasks, and visual more than verbal oppurtunities for output will play to their strengths (Appanna, 2011, p. 20).

 

Camp blends scientific, cultural teachings for aboriginal girls

https://www.therecord.com/news-story/6808890-camp-blends-scientific-cultural-teachings-for-aboriginal-girls/

The aim of this three-day camp, based in Waterloo, Ontario, was to get Indigenous girls in grades 6-8 the chance to engage with cultural and scientific activities and interested in STEM subjects. The rationale behind this demographic was to reach them before they get the choice to opt out of certain subjects in high school. This program is unique as it involved caregivers and parents with the aim that this would encourage students to study these subjects, and to consider the possibility of a STEM career in the future. The University of Waterloo is aiming to host this free camp annually.

 

Get Them Interested

Love, D. (2014). Get Them Interested. Learning & Leading with Technology41(7), 25–27. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eue&AN=97093593&site=ehost-live&scope=site

This article discusses how to get girls interested in coding and programming. The author, Dorian Love, discusses several practical tools with which he has found success in this realm. Firstly, he often uses the discovery method when students are using a new tool, giving the students the resources to have a go by themselves and, secondly, for peers to teach and mentor each other (Love, 2014, p. 25). I have found this strategy to have positive implications on my own students when I’m introducing coding to them through the app, Move the Turtle. Love describes a competition he designs for his students to make their own flash games, which he claims takes the ‘nerdyness’ out of programming (Love, 2014, p. 27). His ideas made me think about what I could do in my own classroom to create more of an interest in coding and programming as well as how I could incorporate this into my final project.

 

 

 

 

 

Cyber Traveler: Final Post

After some communication with the instructor I decided to use the plethora of information gathered in this weblog in a paper or slide show rather than a website for teachers. Upon closer examination, I don’t believe a website would do the amount of information justice and I want to make sure it isn’t cluttered. I was also reminded to focus on the cultural aspects and how it is a difficult concept to teach to those who aren’t within the aboriginal culture themselves. Here are my final resources, which I feel are most focused for my final paper.

 

1.Celebrating Canada’s Indigenous Peoples Through Song and Dance

This pdf focuses on how to teach indigenous music and dance. With my general focus being on introducing the culture to my physical education lessons, I wanted to ensure I touched upon every aspect, not only dance, of indigenous cultures. I am also reminded here, that certain dances and music are sacred to specific regions and cannot be presented in others. 

2.First Nations Music in Canada

This link focuses on the history of music in aboriginal peoples. It included quizzes and even an activity. It would be an excellent resource for teachers and students alike. I have yet to include any real music focused resources and since dance is the focus, music should go along with it. This would be an excellent fine arts cross-curricular activity that would allow students to research some of the origins of the music they will be dancing to. 

3. Newswire Article: Strength in Dance

Since my final project is how to meld indigenous dance and technology, I felt it necessary to include video or media that teachers could use to show their students as inspiration. The above is a great motivator for students who may not be interested in the concept of indigenous dance. It focuses on the physical aspects of dance, which may be a great motivator for some older students who may be more interested in sports than dance. It creates a great image of what can be accomplished through dance.

4. Indigenous People in Film

While my audience is mostly elementary school, the following could be used for upper elementary grades and high school students . The idea was to have students record their dances and edit them, essentially doing a short film making type unit. I would like to use this with the elementary school students too and think it could easily be modified. They may not be able to film themselves but I believe a lesson on editing could be easy for the middle elementary grades. The younger grades could use technology in different ways such as viewing music and dances via the internet as opposed to live.

Finally,

5. Participaction

Since the whole concept of my final project is to integrate technology into physical education, it is only fitting I source something that gives resources to do so seamlessly. While this website has many apps and programs that use technology in the gym, several of them would only work for high school classes. However, the one app that would allow this indigenous dance unit to be successful is the Show Me app. This app allows teachers to record their lessons, and upload them. This would be fantastic for sharing dance lessons with other teachers, and even for students to upload their dances for future viewing.

Indigenous Language Revitalization Weblog Post 4 – Kenny Jamieson

Indigenous Language Revitalization – Encouragement, Guidance and Lessons Learned

http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/ILR/ILRbook.pdf

This resource is an extensive collection of academic articles focused on Indigenous Languages and revitalization efforts.  The articles cover a wide range of topics, looking at everything from linguistics, to specific community efforts, and examples of technology being used effectively.  One further positive with this collection of articles is that they focus on a number of different languages and communities and are not tied in to one specific geographic region.  The various articles highlight some of the excellent work being done to revitalize many Indigenous languages and shows various possible steps that communities can take to ensure that their ancestral languages do not go extinct.

The Silent Genocide: Aboriginal Language Loss FAQ

http://www.terry.ubc.ca/2013/10/16/the-silent-genocide-aboriginal-language-loss-faq/

This article goes into great lengths to highlight exactly what language extinction means for a culture and the wider communities.  The writer highlights the causes of language loss as well as showing how prevalent of an issue it actually is within Canada and British Columbia.  It shows how the problem can be traced to a number of different causes, including residential schools, government policies and the marginalization of Indigenous communities by mainstream society.  In addition, the writer also makes strong arguments for possible solutions to the issue, including creating legal protection for Indigenous rights and cultures, and providing better funding to support Indigenous language revitalization efforts.

The fight to revitalize Canada’s indigenous languages

https://www.universityaffairs.ca/features/feature-article/fight-to-revitalize-canadas-indigenous-languages/

Though this article is a few years old, it highlights different methods being used to help revitalize Indigenous languages in Canada.  The main focus is on the Yawenda project, which had the goal of helping to bring back the Wendat language by offering language courses, teacher training, and instructional material for a small group of students wanting to learn their ancestral tongue.  Similar to other articles written about the topic in Canada, this one does highlight how language extinction is especially concerning in British Columbia where there is a small percentage of fluent speakers and most are over 65.  The article also argues that in order to help revitalize the various languages, the focus should be on funding community-based projects that connect different generations of people, and on improving access to early-childhood immersion programs.  The use of technology is also discussed as a possible positive option as it can help to bridge the geographic distances that separate many communities.

First Peoples’ Cultural Council

http://www.fpcc.ca/language/

This resource is a hub for a variety of other resources related to Indigenous People’s culture, some of which have been referenced in previous weblogs.  The First Peoples’ Cultural Council aims to support Indigenous communities in British Columbia that are attempting to preserve and revitalize their languages.  The organization works to fund different programs, such as the Language Nest, FirstVoices and the BC Language Initiative.  In addition, the organization is an advocate for immersion-education programs.  Beyond language, FPCC also has divisions for Arts and Culture and aim to provide programs and funding related to both those areas.

Say It First

https://www.sayitfirst.ca/

Say It First is an organization in Canada that is aiming to revitalize Indigenous Languages through connecting with communities and utilizing technology.  The organization focuses on developing resources that will be used by children and families that want to try and reclaim their ancestral languages.  The resources that they develop are designed to be used in school settings to help children work towards becoming fluent in their language.  As the main target for the resources is younger children, the organization has created a variety of children’s books and YouTube shows that help to teach children their desired language.  One of the excellent aspects of the books is that they combine the Indigenous Language, a phonetic break-down and the English translation of the words to help children learn.  Here is an example of one of their children’s books.

The need for supporting Indigenous students from the top down and the ground up. (Mod 4- Post 1-5)

Watching the interview with Tim Michel sparked my ideas for discussion for Web Blog Module 4 because the connections he made about the lack of understanding and foresight surrounding Indigenous post-secondary education connects with the area of my group’s research about Indigenous students in STEM/STEAM education and careers. Michel mentions that a career fair, he witnessed universities continually asking prospective students to sign up to their mailing lists.  He realized after discussion with many of the Aboriginal students that about 40% didn’t have an email, couldn’t access e-mail, or didn’t have access to a computer at home. It seems there is still quite a disconnect between post-secondary education and our indigenous communities.  We can commend many Canadian universities for reducing barriers Indigenous students face, one of which is financial, by providing substantial scholarships and bursaries to help financially support Indigenous students.  Moreover, the government of Canada “To ensure that First Nation and Inuit students have the same opportunities for success as other Canadian students… …will increase funding to the Post-Secondary Student Support Program by $90 million over two years, beginning in 2017–18.”  This is in addition to “[t]he current budget for the Post-secondary Student Support Program is $340 million which supports approximately 23, 000 First Nation and Inuit Students.”

For more details click here

However, the focus on providing financial means is a bit like putting the cart before the horse if we are unable to support Indigenous youth completing high school with the checklist of requirements, or even at all.

The Canadian labour market is critically understaffed in many technological fields.  So much so, that many fortune 500 companies are hiring students before they even graduate and starting them with a six-figure income.  Yet despite this, universities are finding lower enrollments in STEM/STEAM courses like computer science. (CBC News)

In an article by Ellie Bothwell from Times Higher Education, she discusses how Canadian Universities can bring more Indigenous Peoples and knowledge. In her article, she notes that “Aboriginal people are the fastest-growing demographic in Canada. More than 1.6 million people – or 4.9 percent of the country’s total population – self-identify as indigenous, according to the 2016 National Household Survey, representing a 42.5 per cent increase since 2006.”

Universities need Indigenous peoples. To help fill out a workforce in STEM/STEAM careers is just one of the many reasons why.  But not enough is being done prepare and provide skills for Indigenous students.  A report by Randstad looks at Canada’s technical shortage and addresses the need to expand the talent pool to more individuals.  Randstad notes: “Statistics for STEM skills among Aboriginal people are even more discouraging. In 2013, 10 percent of the total working-age population of Aboriginals had a university degree compared with 26 percent of the non-Aboriginal population. Making up 3.7 percent of the adult population, only 2.6 percent of people with a post-secondary degree are Aboriginal. Clearly doing more to promote the study of STEM-related disciplines among the Aboriginal population is necessary. As the study points out, the inclusion of people with diverse perspectives, experiences, and ideas creates a wider talent pool with deeper assets. ” (p. 5).

What we can see in statistics is reiterated in the academic research and literature and that is the need to couple Indigenous knowledge with 21st-century learning in order to increase the success rate of Aboriginal learners. As Munroe, Borden, Orr, Toney, and Meader (2013) write that it’s essential “to ensure that Aboriginal children maintain their cultural identity while achieving their formal education” and  “that schools that respect and support a child’s culture and language demonstrate significantly better outcomes for students” (p. 319).

Click the following articles for more on culturally response education.

Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lisa Borden,; Anne Orr,; Denise Toney,; Jane Meader,. “Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century.” McGill Journal of Education (Online). McGill Journal of Education. 2013.

Nicol, C., Archibald, J., & Baker, J. (2013). Designing a model of culturally responsive mathematics education: Place, relationships and storywork. Mathematics Education Research Journal (Springer), 25, 73-89.

That’s why programs like ANCESTOR (AboriginNal Computer Education through STORytelling) are not only successful but essential.  Students at LÁU,WELNEW Tribal School in Brentwood Bay have animate stories that hold meaning to them and in return, produce outstanding results. As their teacher notes: “Translating arm and arrow movement into animation involved an incredible level of problem-solving and I’ve seen it spill into other parts of his education such as improvement in math. He has turned into the classroom problem-solver,”. For more information on the ANCESTOR project, review the link below.

Weston M., Biin D. (2015) The Ancestor Project: Aboriginal Computer Education Through Storytelling. In: Isaías P., Spector J., Ifenthaler D., Sampson D. (eds) E-Learning Systems, Environments and Approaches. Springer, Cham

 

 

Module 4 – Post – 5 – Culture meets connectivity by Kevin Andrews

Developed by Google engineers and Actua experts and aimed to engage Aboriginal youth into the area of computer science, this code Making program called “Codemakers” provided an opportunity for students to code and remixing their voices. This opportunity by Google is able to provide Aboriginal students something that’s new and cutting edge tech but still rooted in their culture.  

For many young students participating in this program, throat singing is how they have learned to pass on the traditions of their past.  Being able to mix and digitize the stories they shared in song allows them to connect culture with technology. A breakoff of this project has students “throat boxing” using recording software on mobile devices and computers. A CBC article further explains how Aboriginal students can still embrace their culture but stay connected at the same time.

Module 4 – Post -4 – Music videos give indigenous Surrey students a voice by Kevin Andrews

Two music videos featuring 22 indigenous Surrey students representing 19 Nations have been released, with student-written lyrics and compelling visuals that shed light on some of the challenges facing indigenous youth in an urban setting.

Done through the project Our Story, Our Future, the videos were created in partnership with Aboriginal Learning and N’we Jinan, a non-profit production company that seeks to capture the voices of indigenous youth, empowering them to share what they feel is an important message. N’we Jinan brings a mobile recording studio and professional music producer into schools across North America to provide students a creative outlet to express themselves.

The videos, called “Hide & Seek” and “Show Us The Way,” both center on young indigenous people embracing and acknowledging their heritage.

Show Us The Way, was created with 13 Grade 4-7 students. It is about standing tall, coming together, learning from the elders and passing on tradition.

Module 4 – Post -3 – Indigenous Youth in STEM Program by Kevin Andrews

Indigenous Youth in STEM Program (InSTEM) is a customized, community-based approach to engaging First Nations, Métis, and Inuit youth in locally and culturally relevant STEM education programs. Over the past twenty years, members of this program have worked closely with hundreds of Indigenous communities and tens of thousands of Indigenous youth.

Actua, a national charity that is preparing youth to be innovators and leaders by engaging them in exciting and accessible STEM experiences that build critical skills and confidence,  has also developed strong connections with thought leaders in Indigenous education and national organizations like Indspire, the Aboriginal Human Resource Council, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK) and others. As a result, their model of Indigenous outreach is based on current thinking and successful practices in Indigenous youth engagement in STEM.

There are many people talking about this resource and how it has open the eyes of so many Indigenous students providing opportunities that would have otherwise not been available. Below are some examples:

  1. The Labradorian – Opening Their Eyes
  2. Financial Post – Science and technology inspire young northern minds
  3. CTV News – Iqaluit students learn to remix throat songs

These and many other examples will be evidence I’ll use to further my argument of the possibility for Indigenous communities to still preserve their culture while embracing technology to promote it.

Social Emotional Learning

I came across these websites while working on our final project. The following resources are ones that I found that support our focus: Social Emotional Learning and the Circle of Courage.

  1. Circle of Courage – Every Student Can Thrive Blog

I really like this website because it explains the Circle of Courage in detail, and includes real classroom experience. It gives a ton of great examples that teachers can use that utilize this framework.

2. Aboriginal Family and Community Literacy Curriculum Workshop #6

What I like about this website is the way it organizes the big ideas  It talks about the different spirits of belonging (attached, loving, friendly), the distorted spirits of belonging (gang loyalty, craves affection, promiscuous), and the broken spirits of belonging (unattached, rejected, lonely). It also provides way to mend a broken spirit, which I think is extremely significant as classroom teachers. “Create a cohesive classroom environment where each child can fell like an important member, give positive encouragement, recognize individuality and creative talents, make sure teacher/caregiver expectations are very clear so children understand classroom expectations, be specific when reinforcing a child’s positive behaviour, with discipline and behaviour, focus on the deed and not the doer” (UBC). I found this information to be so encouraging when dealing with social emotional needs in the classroom this week. The entire page is helpful, and I will constantly refer back to this as I implement the Circle of Courage this year.

3. Norma Rose Point 

Possibly one of my favourite schools that I’ve had the opportunity to visit. If you haven’t had a chance to check this one out, you should book a tour date as professional development. It is a public school, housed at UBC. This is the school’s Circle of Courage Code of Conduct. When we first entered the school last year on a tour, I noticed a huge artwork designed by students that covered all aspects of the Circle of Courage. I was amazed at the intricate detail. I love how they used the different traits, connected to an Indigenous animal, and the qualities that align. For example, “Come to school ready to learn and always do your best. Set personal goals and make plans to achieve them. Take pride in your achievements and celebrate growth” as examples of Mastery.

4. A Positive Learning Framework for Classroom Management

This is a great article about using the Circle of Courage, and how it relates to a positive learning framework. Some of the big ideas covered include describing the need for positive focus on student behaviour and exploring students needs. It covers many aspects of Social Emotional Learning: self-esteem, social and emotional development, and feelings/emotions.

5. Resources for Integrating Aboriginal Ways of Knowing and Learning

I came across this site as I was researching social emotional learning and Indigenous education. What I like is that it is organized by grade and big ideas, to align with BC’s new curriculum. There are ideas for numeracy and literacy. For example, if we look to the big idea in grade 3 science, we can see that living things are diverse, can be grouped, and interact in their ecosystems. It provides a lesson topic: ecosystems. It then goes on to provide discussion questions, connections to First Peoples’ Principles of Learning, Aboriginal Worldview’s and Perspectives, and core competencies.