Articles and Chapters


1983 “Criteria for Distinguishing the Non-Aspectual Functions of ME ginnen.General Linguistics23: 235-45.

1987 “A Linguistic Approach to Certain Old English Stylistic Devices.” Studia Neophilologica 59: 177-85.

1990 “The Stylistic Function of ME gan Reconsidered.” Papers from the 5thInternational Conference on English Historical Linguistics. Eds. S. Adamson, V.A. Law, N. Vincent, and S. Wright. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 31-53.

1990 “The Development of Discourse Markers in English.” Historical Linguistics and Philology. Ed. Jacek Fisiak. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 45-71.

1993 “Episode Boundary Markers in Old English Discourse.” Historical Linguistics 1989. Eds. Henk Aertsen and Robert J. Jeffers. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 73-89.

1995 “Pragmatic Markers in a Diachronic Perspective.” Proceedings of the Twenty-first Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Eds. by Jocelyn Ahlers et al. Berkeley Linguistics Society. 377-388.

1998 “‘The flowers are lovely; only they have no scent’: The Evolution of a Pragmatic Marker” Anglistentag 1997. Eds. Raimund Borgmeier, Herbert Grabes, and Andreas H. Jucker. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. 9-33.

1999 “‘Whilom, as olde stories tellen us’: The Discourse Marker whilom in Middle English.” From Arabye to Engelond: Medieval Studies in Honour of Mahmoud Manzalaoui on his 75th Birthday. Eds. A.E. Crista Canitz and Gernot R. Wieland. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press. 175-199.

2000 “The Importance of Discourse Types in Grammaticalization: The Case of anon.Textual Parameters in Older Languages. Eds. Susan C. Herring, Pieter van Reenen, and Lene Schøsler. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 139-162.

2001 “From Matrix Clause to Pragmatic Marker: The History of Look-Forms.” Journal of Historical Pragmatics 2.2: 177-199.

2001 “Historical Discourse Analysis.” The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. Eds. Deborah Schiffrin, Deborah Tannen, and Heidi E. Hamilton. Oxford and Malden, MA: Blackwell. 138-60.

2005 “Processes Underlying the Development of Pragmatic Markers: The Case of (I) say, Opening Windows on Texts and Discourses of the Past. Eds. Janne Skaffari, Matti Peikola, Ruth Carroll, Risto Hiltunen and Brita Wårvik. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 279-299.

2006 “Pathways in the Development of Pragmatic Markers in English”, The Handbook on the History of the English Language. Eds. Ans van Kemenade and Bettelou Los. Oxford: Blackwell. 307-334.

2007 “The Development of I mean: Implications for the Study of Historical Pragmatics”, Methods in Historical Pragmatics. Eds. Susan M. Fitzmaurice and Irma Taavitsainen. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 37-77.

2007 “What’s more: The Development of Pragmatic Markers in the Modern Period”. Of varying language and opposing creed’: New Insights into Late Modern English. Eds. Javier Pérez-Guerra, Dolores González Álvarez, Jorge L. Bueno-Alonso, and Esperanza Rama-Martínez. Bern: Peter Lang. 47-75.

2009 “The development of that said. Published on Language Log

2010 “From Performative to Concessive Disjunct: I/you admit and admittedly. Language Change and Variation from Old English to Late Modern English: A Festschrift for Minoji Akimoto. Eds. Merja Kytö, John Scahill, and Harumi Tanabe. Bern: Peter Lang. 279-302.

2010 “Discourse Markers”. Historical Pragmatics. Eds. Andreas H. Jucker and Irma Taavitsainen. Vol. 8 of Handbooks of Pragmatics. Historical Pragmatics. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 285-314.

2012 “Historical Pragmatics and Corpus Linguistics: Problems and Strategies”. English Corpus Linguistics: Crossing Paths. Ed. Merja Kytö. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi. 101-131.

2014 “The Extremes of Insubordination: Exclamatory as if!. Journal of English Linguistics 42.2: 93-113. DOI 10.1177/0075424214521425

2014If you choose/like/prefer/want/wish: The Origin of Metalinguistic and Politeness Functions.” Late Modern English Syntax. Ed. Marianne Hundt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 270-290.

2015 “Historical Discourse Analysis.” The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. 2nd ed. Eds. Deborah Tannen, Heidi E. Hamilton, and Deborah Schiffrin. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. 222-243.

2017 Chapter 10 “Historical Pragmatic Approaches”. English Historical Linguistics: Approaches and Perspectives. Ed. Laurel J. Brinton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 245-275.

2019 “That’s luck, if you ask me: The Rise of an Intersubjective Comment”. Categories, Constructions and Change in English Syntax. Eds. Nuria Yáñez-Bouza, Linda van Bergen, and Willem B. Hollmann. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 190-209.

2020 “The Development and Pragmatic Function of a Non-inference Marker: that is not to say (that)”. Corpora and the Changing Society: Studies in the Evolution of English. Eds. Paula Rautionaho, Arja Nurmi, and Juhani Clemola. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 251-275.

Forthcoming. “An Emerging Pragmatic Marker: Sentence-final is all” (co-authored with Daniela Kolbe-Hanna [first author]). Discourse Pragmatic Variation and Change: Theory, Innovations, Contact. Eds. Elizabeth Peterson, Turo Hiltunen and Joseph Kern. Cambridge: Cambrige University Press.

Forthcoming. “The Rise of What-General Extenders in English. Journal of Historical Pragmatics.

Forthcoming. “The Development of Pragmatic Markers: Pathways and Processes”. New Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. III: Transmission, Change and Ideology. Ed. Joan Beal.


2020 “A Far from Simple Matter Revisited: The Ongoing Grammaticalization of far from” (co-authored with Tohru Inoue). Late Modern English: Novel Encounters. Eds. Merja Kytö and Erik Smitterberg. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 271-293.

2021. “‘He loved his father, but next to adored his mother’: nigh, near, and next (to) as downtowners in the history of English”. Special issue of Journal of English Linguistics. Ed. Claudia Claridge and Merja Kytö. Published online Jan. 4, 2021. 49(1). 39-60.


2002 “Grammaticalization versus Lexicalization Reconsidered: On the ‘late’ Use of Temporal Adverbs” English Historical Syntax and Morphology: Selected Papers from 11 ICEHL. Vol. 1. Eds. Teresa Fanego, Javier Pérez-Guerra, and María José López-Couso. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 67-97 .

2004 “Subject Clitics in English: A Case of Degrammaticalization?” Corpus Approaches to Grammaticalization in English. Eds. Hans Lindquist and Christian Mair. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 227-56.

2007 “Rise of the Adverbial Conjunctions {any, each, every} time. Connectives in the History of English. Eds. Ursula Lenker and Anneli Meurman-Solin. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 77-96.

2007 “Lexicalization and Grammaticalization all over again” (co-authored with Elizabeth Closs Traugott), Historical Linguistics 2005. Eds. Joseph C. Salmons and Shannon Dubenion-Smith. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 3-19.

2012 “Changes in English in Theoretical Perspective: Lexicalization”, English Historical Linguistics: An International Handbook. Eds. Alexander Bergs and Laurel J. Brinton. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter Mouton. 1577-1598.

2012 “‘The ghost of old morphology’: (De)grammaticalization or Lexicalization?”. Grammaticalization and Language Change. New Reflections. Eds. Kristin Davidse, Tine Breben, Liselotte Brems, and Tanja Mortelmans. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 135-166.


1996 “Attitudes toward Increasing Segmentalization in English: Complex and Phrasal Verbs in English.” Journal of English Linguistics 24: 186-205.

1999 “Introduction” (co-authored with Minoji Akimoto). 1-20. and “The Origin of the Composite Predicate in Old English” (co-written with Minoji Akimoto). 21-58. In Collocational and Idiomatic Aspects of Composite Predicates in the History of English. Co-edited Minoji Akimoto). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

2008 “‘Where grammar and lexis meet’: Composite predicates in English”. Theoretical and Empirical Issues in Grammaticalization. Eds. Elena Seoana and María José López-Couso, in collaboration with Teresa Fanego. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 33-53.

2011 “The Grammaticalization of Complex Predicates”. The Oxford Handbook of Grammaticalization. Eds. Heiko Narrog and Bernd Heine. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 559-569. Revised, to be reissued in paperback, 2020/2021.


2001 “Canadian English” (co-authored with Margery Fee). English in North America. Vol. 6 of the Cambridge History of the English Language. Ed. John Algeo. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. 422-40.

2006– Bank of Canadian English (online database). Eds. Stefan Dollinger, Laurel J. Brinton, and Margery Fee.

2008 “Canadian English Lexis: Historical and Variationist Perspectives” (second author, with Stefan Dollinger). Special issue of AnglistikFocus on Canada”, ed. Matthias L.G. Meyer. 19:43-64.

2011 A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles Online. 1st ed. Stefan Dollinger (Editor-in-chief), Laurel J. Brinton, and Margery Fee (eds.). Based on Avis et al. (1967).

2012 “Balanced Corpora and Quotation Databases: Taking Shortcuts or Expanding Methodological Scope?” (first author, cowritten with Stefan Dollinger and Margery Fee)Outposts of Historical Corpus Linguistics: From the Helsinki Corpus to a Proliferation of Resources (Varieng: Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English.) Eds. Jukka Tyrkkö, Matti Kilpiö, Terttu Nevalainen, and Matti Rissanen. Vol. 10. Online at:

2012 “Revising the Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles: A Progress Report, 2006–(April) 2012” (second author, coauthored with Stefan Dollinger and Margery Fee). Dictionaries (Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America) 33: 164-178.

2015 “Studying Real-time Change in the Adverbial Subjunctive: The Value of the Bank of Canadian English”. Transatlantic Perspectives on Late Modern English. Ed. Marina Dossena. (Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics.) Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 14-36.

2016 “Using Historical Corpora and Historical Text Databases”, The Oxford Handbook of Lexicography. Ed. Philip Durkin. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 203-220.

2017 “Building and Evaluating Web Corpora Representing National Varieties of English”, Language Resources and Evaluation (second author, coauthored with Paul Cook). Published online 6 Jan. 2017. DOI: 10.1007/s10579-016-9378-z


1980 “The Grammatical Status of Aspectual Catenatives in English.” Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Eds. Bruce R. Caron et al. Berkeley Linguistics Society. 268-77.

1985 “Verb Particles in English: Aspect or Aktionsart?” Studia Linguistica 39: 157-68.

1985 “From Verb to Aspectualizer: The Semantics of Grammaticalization.” Germanic Linguistics: Papers from a Symposium at the university of Chicago, April 24, 1985. Ed. Jan Terje Faarlund. Indiana University Linguistics Club, 29-45.

1985 “Iconicity and Semantic Change: Old English Verbal Prefixes.” Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik 23: 55-70.

1987 “The Aspectual Nature of States and Habits.” Folia Linguistica 21: 195-214.

1991 “The Mass/Count Distinction and Aktionsart: The Grammar of Iteratives and Habituals.” Belgian Journal of Linguistics 6: 47-69. (Special Issue on Perspectives on Aspect and Aktionsart. Eds. Carl Vetters and Willy Vandeweghe.)

1994 “The Differentiation of Statives and Perfects in Early Modern English: the Development of the Conclusive Perfect.” Towards a Standard English (1600-1800). Eds. Dieter Stein and Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 135-70.

1995 “The Aktionsart of Deverbal Nouns in English.” Temporal Reference, Aspect and Actionality. Vol. 1: Semantic and Syntactic Perspectives. Eds. Pier Marco Bertinetto, Valentina Bianchi, James Higginbotham, Mario Squartini. Torino: Rosenburg & Sellier. 27-42.

1998 “Aspectuality and Countability: A Cross-categorial Analogy.” English Language and Linguistics 2: 37-63.


1980 “‘Represented Perception’: A Study in Narrative Style.” Poetics 9: 363-81.

1984 “Chaucer’s ‘Tale of Melibee’: A Reassessment.” English Studies in Canada 10: 251-64.

1985 “The Iconic Role of Aspect in Shakespeare’s Sonnet 129.” Poetics Today 6: 447-59.

1987 “Iconic Word Order Patterns in Chaucerian Prose.” Semiotics 1986. Eds. Jonathan Evans and John Deely. Lanham: University Press of America. 3-14.

1988 “The Iconicity of Rhetorical Figures: the ‘Schemes’ as Devices for Textual Cohesion.” Language and Style 21: 162-90.

1992 “The Historical Present in Charlotte Brontë’s Novels: Some Discourse Functions.” Style 26: 221-44.

1995 “Non-anaphoric Reflexives in Free Indirect Style: Expressing the Subjectivity of the Non-speaker.” Subjectivity and Subjectivisation: Linguistic Perspectives. Eds. Dieter Stein and Susan Wright. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 173-94.


1987 “Diagrammatic Iconicity in English Syntax.” Recherches Sémiotiques/Semiotic Inquiry 7: 55-72, 108, 112.

1988 “Grammar, Usage, or Style? Rule Violations in Student Writing.” Technostyle 7: 37-46.

1989 “Metaphor, Metonymy, and Iconicity: Some Principles of Semantic Change.” Recherches Sémiotiques/Semiotic Inquiry 9: 137-49.

1995 “Functional Renewal” (co-authored with Dieter Stein). Historical Linguistics 1993: Selected Papers from the 11thInternational Conference on Historical Linguistics, Los Angeles, 16-20 August 1993. Ed. Henning Andersen. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 33-47.

2015 Interjection-based Delocutive Verbs in the History of English”. Developments in English: Expanding Electronic Evidence. Eds. Irma Taavitsainen, Merja Kytö, Claudia Claridge, and Jeremy Smith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 141-161.

2017 Chapter 30: “Non-syntactic Sources and Triggers of Syntactic Change” (first author, coauthored with Elizabeth Closs Traugott). The Cambridge Handbook of Historical Syntax. Eds. Adam Ledgeway and Ian Roberts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 556–77.