This module uses forest governance as a context for understanding the centrality of the social dimension in sustainable forest management (SFM). Forest governance, in a nutshell, is: Who gets What? How? and Why? when it comes to natural resources. In answering this simple question, we can assess how natural resource distribution, allocation, patterns, trends, and processes affect the social system and vice versa. At the end of the module, we provide a framework for assessing good forest governance as a guide in analyzing forest governance initiatives.