The definition of game that I will be using throughout this project is from Jane McGonigal.


The four defining traits of a game


The goal is the specific outcome that players will work to achieve. Provides sense of purpose.


The rules place specific limitations on how players can achieve the goal. They unleash creativity and foster strategic thinking.


The feedback system tells players how close they are to achieving the goal. It provides motivation to keep playing.


Voluntary participation required that everyone playing the game knowingly and willingly accepts the goal, the rules, and the feedback. Knowingness establishes common ground for multiple players to play together. The freedom to enter or leave a game at will ensures that intentionally stressful and challenging work is experienced as a safe and pleasurable activity.


-Jane McGonigal, author and video game designer





Affordances – How Design Teaches Us Without Words – Extra Credits. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2016, from


Design Club – Super Mario Bros: Level 1-1 – How Super Mario Mastered Level Design. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2016, from


Eisner, E. W. (1984). The kind of schools we need. Interchange, 15(2), 1-12.


Extra Credits. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2016, from


Flatt, C. R. (2014). How a Classroom Game Becomes an Embedded Assessment. Retrieved February 21, 2016, from


Friesen, S., PhD, & Jardine, D., PhD. (2009). 21st century learning and learners (Rep.). Calgary, AB: Western and Northern Canadian Curriculum Protocol.


Gee, J. P. (2003). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.


McGonigal, J. (2011). Reality is broken: Why games make us better and how they can change the world. New York: Penguin Press.


Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. Place of publication not identified: Marc Prensky.


Tekinbaş, K. S. (2011). Quest to learn: Developing the school for digital kids. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


We are making games. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2016, from


Spam prevention powered by Akismet