Ex. Beater’s activity is the hunt (get food, clothing), but his actions of scaring game do not directly result in getting food and clothing
Aim: “the object of the action” (goal) (Tolman, 1988)
Appropriation: instead of adapting to the world surrounding us we make it our own
Conditions: the object of an operation
Consciousness: “the sum total of mental processes which actively participates in man’s understanding of the objective world and of his personal being.” “Thinking involves not a mere processing of information; it is an active, sensuous, purposeful transformation of reality in conformity with reality’s own essence” (Tolman, 1988).
Instinct: behaviour based on evolution and adaptation to the environment. Characteristic to animals. Part of man, but “do not play a decisive role” because humans are prompted by social rather than biological motives.
Interiorisation: “gradual conversion of external actions into internal, mental ones” (Tolman, 1988).
Meaning: how an individual “generalize[s] and reflect[s] human experience” (Tolman, 1988)
Need: “the prerequisite for an activity” (Tolman, 1988)
Psyche: an interaction between a living thing with the environment to create sensations, thoughts, perceptions, etc
Sense: “a relation between the subject and the world that is created by the subject’s activity” (Tolman, 1988)
Situated Cognition Vocabulary:
Affordance: How one lives in his/her environment, or how the environment affects how one acts.
Boundary Trajectory: the path that one is on when he/she is a member of several similar communities of practice. It helps to bridge the relationships between them.
Community of Practice: a group that we belong to with mutual engagement, a joint enterprise and a shared repertoire that affects how we learn.
Inbound Trajectory: the path of a newcomer who is engaged in becoming a full participant in the community of practice.
Insider Trajectory: the path of one who has been engaged in a community of practice for a period of time, but who is still fully engaged in learning.
Legitimate Peripheral Participation: the ways to describe how one belongs and participates in a community of practice.
Outbound Trajectory: the path that one is on when he/she is leaving a community of practice.
Peripheral Trajectory: a path that one can be on where he/she never fully engages in the community of practice.
Distributed Cognition Vocabulary:
Cognitive system: systems that incorporate psychological data, similar to the ways humans think and process information.
Internal representation: representational formats, including propositions, mental images and mental models.
External representation: artifacts that exist in the environment.