Institutional/cultural/religious Portuguese South America

Brazil’s Imperial Academy of Fine Art: Colonial Control Through Culture

Down one of the many paths of Rio de Janeiro’s botanical garden stands a grand neoclassical portal, the arched entrance, classical columns, frieze and pediment are all that remain of the Imperial Academy of Fine Art (figure 1). The plan of the Academy shows that it was once much larger (figure 2), after being built […]

Africa British Domestic/residential Portuguese Public/government

Justice Akwa residence, Anomabo 1900: Reflection of Status, Modernity, and Resistance

The remnants left behind in Anomabo, a town on the coast of Ghana (figure 1), tell a story in the late 19th century of the elite members of the Gold Coast colony, known today as Ghana. They were constructing their own elegant mansions utilizing an popular British architecture styles1 that not only embraced the modernity […]

Asia Community/urbanism Dutch Military/fort Portuguese

Portuguese and Dutch Interventions at Galle Fort

1543 – 1796 The constant adaptation of a living urban heritage site  In the town of Galle on the southernmost shores of Sri Lanka sits the “Old Town of Galle and its Fortifications”, or Galle Fort colloquially, extending over 52 hectares in area. Originally built as a garrison town in the 1500’s and designated a UNESCO […]

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