Asia Military/fort Spanish

Fort San Pedro: Defense, Christianity and Labour

Fort San Pedro is a military structure created at the height of the Spanish colonial presence in Cebu, located in the Central Visayas region of the Philippines. The project faces the Cebu strait, where it defended Spanish colonial settlements from Moro raids and conflicts with Dutch forces. As with numerous similar forts distributed throughout the […]

Asia Community/urbanism Military/fort Race Settler colonialism

Lawang Sewu, Indonesia: through the years and through different hands

A Brief History of Lawang Sewu Lawang Sewu is an old Dutch colonial building located in central Java island’s north coast city of Semarang in Indonesia and occupies a total space of 23m x 77m. . In Javanese language, one of the many languages in Indonesia, Lawang Sewu can be directly translated as “A Thousand […]

British Empire Infrastructure Military/fort North America Settler colonialism

Fort York: Reinforcing Colonialism — Military Architecture and Settler Colonialism

Fort York was built in 1793 along the shore of Lake Ontario and exemplifies British military architecture.[1] The strategic location of the fort protected settler colonialism within the nearby Town of York, now known as Toronto. The architecture and history of Fort York reinforced British colonialism and empire in the early 1800s by providing military defence. While the military […]

Empire Military/fort Religious Settler colonialism

The Architecture of Character Building: Colonial Testing Ground at the Eastern State Penitentiary

The Eastern State Penitentiary (ESP) was built between 1821-9 and designed by Architect John Haviland in the outskirts of Philadelphia. Noticeably atop of a hill, the prison’s feudal-styled walls enclose the 12-acre site and present an ominous symbol to discourage illegal behaviour in the city. The ESP was initiated by the Philadelphia Society for the […]

Asia Community/urbanism Empire Military/fort Public/government Uncategorized

Tokyo Imperial Castle | Japan 1888

The Fall of the Tokugawa Era and the Rise of Imperial Japan The tail-end of 19th century Japan saw a major transition of authoritative power that sparked a new era of rule throughout the nation. In 1868, Emperor Mutsuhito, later known by his reign name Meiji, and his Imperial forces recognized the fragile rule of […]

Asia Community/urbanism Dutch Military/fort Portuguese

Portuguese and Dutch Interventions at Galle Fort

1543 – 1796 The constant adaptation of a living urban heritage site  In the town of Galle on the southernmost shores of Sri Lanka sits the “Old Town of Galle and its Fortifications”, or Galle Fort colloquially, extending over 52 hectares in area. Originally built as a garrison town in the 1500’s and designated a UNESCO […]

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