Posted by: | March 9, 2009 | Comments Off on Transculturation.

The last time we speak about mestizaje, we enlighten the fact that the theory of syncretism was based on an idea of the dominance of one culture on the others.  Thus, the « cosmic race » resulted to be a way to purify the indigenous cultures, which were considered as inferiors. Contrary to the theory in term of syncretism, the transculturation is « a synthesis (of cultures) able to overcome originating contradictions, then another theoretical device would have to be formulated in order to explain sociocultural situations and discourses in which the dynamics of the multiple intercrossings do not operate in a syncretic way but instead emphasize conflicts and alterities.»  (Antonio Cornejo Polar p.117).
First, in his text of Antonio Cornejo Polar, explains that the literature in Latin America is based on ruptures. The first ones, was obviously the conquest of the Spaniards, but other forms of heterogeneity also emerge such as the mix of culture with slave population. These ruptures are the base of the mixing cultures in Latin America. These ruptures also stress the term of national literature. Indeed, this term does not seem to be relevant to depict the Latin American literature. First, this term is too broad and is incapable to enlighten the « intranational variant » of the literature of a country. Otherwise, it undermines the possibility of broader categorization. Anyway, Antonio Cornejo points out the fact that the context and the interpretation of Latin American literature by other cultures are also relevant to understand Latin American literature. Indeed, when the chronicles interpret the books of the Latin American writers, they add their own subjectivity. Thus, even if the Latin American literature could be considered as unique, it still is judged by a European point of view. Thus, the theories of dominance between cultures are still relevant.
Moreover, I think that the first text was very interesting because it provides an analysis of the mestizaje in a particular country. The text depicts the different cultures that are represented in modern Cuban culture, a mix of European culture, indigenous ones and African. He enlightens how these cultures inferred and played an important part in the development of a mixed Cuban culture.
Finally, the last text was interesting too. It gives a deep analysis of the concept of transculturation. Thus, transculturation results to be an ideal mixing between different cultures, which consider each other as equal. Transculturation enlightens the differences between the cultures in order to attempt to erase the relation of dominance between the cultures.


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