(updated Dec 2019)

There is no required textbook for the course. Instead, we will rely on primary papers, “grey” or management literature, and news stories. Assigned readings can be accessed electronically through the UBC Library e-journal system or public domain. A list of readings for the course, organised by lecture, is provided here. Additional readings are provided for your information and interest – denoted with an asterisk.


Lecture 1. Introducing the ocean

Vincent, A.C.J. (2008). Reconciling fisheries with conservation on coral reefs: the world as an onion. American Fisheries Society Symposium 49: 587-618.

Halpern, B.S., et al. (2012) An index to assess the health and benefits of the global ocean (Links to an external site.). Nature 488:615-620.

*Vincent, A.C.J, S.J. Foster and H.J. Koldewey (2011) Conservation and management of seahorses and other syngnathids. (Links to an external site.) Journal of Fish Biology 78(6): 1681-1724.

Tutorial 1: Term project planning, communications

Ferraro, P.J. and S.K. Pattanayak (2006). Money for nothing? A call for empirical evaluation of biodiversity conservation investments. PLoS Biol 4(4): e105. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040105 (Links to an external site.)

Leslie, H. M. et al (2013) How Good Science and Stories Can Go Hand‐In‐Hand. Conservation Biology.

Lecture 2. An introduction to marine life

Roff, J.C. and M.A. Zacharias. 2011. Chapter 3: The Marine Environment: Ecology and Biology.  In: Marine Conservation Ecology. Earthscan Ltd. London. 440 pp.

Lecture 3: Ecological importance of the ocean

* Trujillo, A.P. and  H.V. Thurman (2011). Essentials of oceanography.  Prentice Hall.  Textbook is in reserve collection, Woodward Library.

Hammerschlag et al (2019) Ecosystem Function and Services of Aquatic Predators in the Anthropocene. Trends in ecology & evolution. (Links to an external site.)

Lecture 4: Social importance of the ocean

Jones, R., C. Rigg, and L. Lee (2010) Haida marine planning: First Nations as a partner in marine conservation. Ecology and Society 15(1):12. [online] URL: (Links to an external site.)

Vincent, A.C.J. (2011). Saving the shallows: focusing marine conservation where people might careAquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 21(6): 495-499.

Lecture 5: The economic importance of the ocean

FAO (2018) Part 1: Review of world fisheries and aquaculture.  In: The state of the world fisheries and aquaculture (SOFIA) 2018.  (Links to an external site.)

* Pauly et al (2014) China’s distant‐water fisheries in the 21st century. Fish and Fisheries 15(3): 474-488.  (Links to an external site.)

* Costanza et al (2014) Changes in the global value of ecosystem services (Links to an external site.)Global Environmental Change 26:152–158

Lecture 6: Canadian ocean issues

Bailey, M. et al. (2016). Canada at a crossroad: The imperative for realigning ocean policy with ocean science (Links to an external site.). Marine Policy, 63, 53-60.

Baum, J. and Fuller, S. (2016) Here’s the catch: How to restore abundance to Canada’s oceans (Links to an external site.). Oceana

Hutchings, J. A. et al. (2012) Is Canada fulfilling its obligations to sustain marine biodiversity? A summary review, conclusions, and recommendations (Links to an external site.).   Environmental Reviews, 20(4), 353-361.

Hutchings, J. A. et al. (2012) Climate change, fisheries, and aquaculture: trends and consequences for Canadian marine biodiversity. (Links to an external site.)  This manuscript is a companion paper to Vander Zwaag et al.(doi: 10.1139/a2012-013) and Hutchings et al.(above – doi: 10.1139/er-2012-0049) also appearing in this issue. These three papers comprise an edited version of a February 2012 Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel Report. Environmental Reviews, 20(4), 220-311.

Hutchings, J. A., & Post, J. R. (2013). Gutting Canada’s Fisheries Act: No Fishery, No Fish Habitat Protection (Links to an external site.). Fisheries, 38(11), 497-501.

Lecture 7. Pressures on the ocean

Jackson, J. et al. (2001)  Historical Overfshing and the Recent Collapse of Coastal Ecosystems (Links to an external site.). Science 293: 629-637.

* Duarte et al. (2015) Reconsidering Ocean Calamities (Links to an external site.). BioScience 65:130–139 (including responses by – and to – Jacquet et al)

Lecture 8: Assessing and improving status of marine species

Hoffman, M. et al. (2010) The Impact of conservation on the status of the world’s vertebrates (Links to an external site.). Science 330 (6010):1503-1509.

* Hoffman, M. et al. (2010) supplementary information.

Roberts, C.M. et al. (2002) Marine biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities for tropical reef (Links to an external site.)s.  Science 295: 1280- 1284.

Schulz, J.A. et al. (2013)  What is an endangered species worth? Threshold costs for protecting imperilled fishes in Canada. (Links to an external site.) Marine Policy 42:125–132.

Overview of the IUCN redlist (Links to an external site.)

Lecture 9:  Recovery of species and populations 

*Darling, E. S., & Côté, I. M. (2018). Seeking resilience in marine ecosystems (Links to an external site.)Science359(6379), 986-987.

Dulvy, N. K., Sadovy, Y., & Reynolds, J. D. (2003). Extinction vulnerability in marine populations (Links to an external site.). Fish and fisheries, 4(1), 25-64.

Duarte, C., et al (2020) Rebuilding marine life (Links to an external site.).  Nature 580:39–51

Lotze, H.K., et al. (2011) Recovery of marine animal populations and ecosystems (Links to an external site.). Trends in Ecology & Evolution 26(11): 595-605.

Lotze, H.K. (2015)  What recovery of exploited marine animals tells us about management and conservation (Links to an external site.). In: Kittinger, J. N., McClenachan, L., Gedan, K. B., & Blight, L. K. (Eds.) Marine historical ecology in conservation: Applying the past to manage for the future. Univ of California Press.

Lecture 10:  Habitat and ecosystem recovery

Abelson, A. et al (2015). Upgrading marine ecosystem restoration using ecological–social concepts (Links to an external site.). BioScience 66(2):156-163.

*Cloern, J. E. et al  (2016). Human activities and climate variability drive fast‐paced change across the world’s estuarine–coastal ecosystems (Links to an external site.). Global change biology, 22(2), 513-529.

Simberloff, D. (2013) Biological invasions: What’s worth fighting and what can be won? (Links to an external site.)  Ecological Engineering.  28(1):58-66

Lecture 11: Taking action for recovery

Greening, H. et al (2014). Ecosystem responses to long-term nutrient management in an urban estuary: Tampa Bay, Florida, USA (Links to an external site.). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 151, A1-A16.

*Neubauer, P., Jensen, O. P., Hutchings, J. A., & Baum, J. K. (2013). Resilience and recovery of overexploited marine populations. (Links to an external site.) Science, 340(6130), 347-349.

Russell, M., & Greening, H. (2015). Estimating benefits in a recovering estuary: Tampa Bay, Florida. (Links to an external site.) Estuaries and coasts, 38(1), 9-18.

Lecture 12: Marine Protected Areas

Di Lorenzo, M., Claudet, J., & Guidetti, P. (2016). Spillover from marine protected areas to adjacent fisheries has an ecological and a fishery component (Links to an external site.)Journal for Nature Conservation32, 62-66.

Links to an external site.Hansen, G. et al. (2011) Hindsight in marine protected area selection:shortfalls in information and action. Biological Conservation (Links to an external site.) 144(6):1866-1875.

Kerwath, S.E, et al. (2013) MPA improves yield without disadvantaging fishers. (Links to an external site.) Nature communications 4.

*Stuart-Smith, R.D D. et al. (2013) Integrating abundance and functional traits reveals new global hotspots of fish diversity. (Links to an external site.) Nature 501:539-542.

Wood, L.J., et al. (2013) Assessing progress towards global marine protection targets: A comparison of ecological representation arising from opportunistic and systematic approaches (Links to an external site.). Oryx 42(03): 340-351.

Lecture 13: Exploring fisheries

Anderson C. N. K et al. (2008) Why fishing magnifies fluctuations in fish abundance (Links to an external site.). Nature, 452, 835-839.

FAO (2018) The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2018 (SOFIA2018) (Links to an external site.). Read summary – rest is optional.

Pauly, D. et al. (1998) Fishing down marine food webs (Links to an external site.)Science 279(5352): 860-863.

Lecture 14: Managing fisheries

Gutiérrez, N. L., Hilborn, R., & Defeo, O. (2011). Leadership, social capital and incentives promote successful fisheries (Links to an external site.)Nature470(7334), 386-389.

Hilborn, R., Amoroso, R. O., Anderson, C. M., Baum, J. K., Branch, T. A., Costello, C., … & Kurota, H. (2020). Effective fisheries management instrumental in improving fish stock status. (Links to an external site.) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

MSY explained
Links to an external site.

Martin-Smith, K. M., Samoilys, M. A., Meeuwig, J. J., & Vincent, A. C. (2004). Collaborative development of management options for an artisanal fishery for seahorses in the central Philippines.  (Links to an external site.)Ocean & Coastal Management47(3), 165-193.

*Simpfendorfer, C. A., & Dulvy, N. K. (2017). Bright spots of sustainable shark fishing (Links to an external site.)Current Biology27(3), R97-R98.

Lecture 15: Community-based management 

Cinner, J.E. &  Aswani, S. (2007) Integrating customary management into marine conservation .  Biological Conservation 1 (Links to an external site.)40.3 (2007): 201-216.

Defeo, O., Castrejón, M., Pérez‐Castañeda, R., Castilla, J. C., Gutiérrez, N. L., Essington, T. E., & Folke, C. (2014). Co‐management in Latin American small‐scale shellfisheries: assessment from long‐term case studies (Links to an external site.). Fish and Fisheries 17(1):176-192.

White, A. T., & Vogt, H. P. (2000) Philippine coral reefs under threat: Lessons learned after 25 years of community based reef conservation (Links to an external site.)Marine Pollution Bulletin. 40(6): 537-550.

Wilkinson, C., & Salvat, B. (2012) Coastal resource degradation in the tropics: Does the tragedy of the commons apply for coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds (Links to an external site.)Marine Pollution Bulletin,  64(6):1096-1105.

* Gelcich, S., Cinner, J., Donlan, C. J., Tapia-Lewin, S., Godoy, N., & Castilla, J. C. (2016). Fishers’ perceptions on the Chilean coastal TURF system after two decades: problems, benefits, and emerging needs. (Links to an external site.) Bulletin of Marine Science 93(1):53-67.

* Harris, J. et al. (2007)  Redressing access inequities and implementing formal management systems for marine and estuarine subsistence fisheries in South Africa (Links to an external site.). In T.R. McClanahan and J.C. Castilla (eds) Fisheries management: progress towards sustainability. 112-138.

* Johannes R.E. (1978) Traditional marine conservation methods in Oceania and their demise (Links to an external site.)Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 9:349–64.

Lecture 16: Women’s roles in ocean conservation (unregulated and unreported fisheries)

Chapman, M. D. (1987) Women’s fishing in Oceania. Human Ecology 15(3): 267-288.

*Eddy, T. D., Lotze, H. K., Fulton, E. A., et al. (2017). Ecosystem effects of invertebrate fisheries. Fish and Fisheries, 18(1), 40-53.

*Harper, S., Zeller, D., Hauzer, M., Pauly, D., & Sumaila, U. R. (2013) Women and fisheries: Contribution to food security and local economies. Marine Policy 39: 56-63.

*Harper, S., Grubb, C., Stiles, M., & Sumaila, U. R. (2017). Contributions by Women to Fisheries Economies: Insights from Five Maritime Countries. Coastal Management, 1-16.

Harper and Kleiber (2016) Counting on Women. Yemaya: ICSF Newsletter 51:2-4

Kleiber, D., Harris, L. M., & Vincent, A. C. (2014). Gender and small‐scale fisheries: a case for counting women and beyond. Fish and Fisheries. DOI: 10.1111/faf.12075

* Matsue, N., Daw, T., & Garrett, L. (2014). Women fish traders on the Kenyan coast: Livelihoods, bargaining power, and participation in management. Coastal Management42(6):531-554.

Thomas, A., Mangubhai, S., Fox, M., Lalavanua, W., Meo, S., Naisilisili, W., … & Waqairatu, S. (2020). Valuing the critical roles and contributions of women fishers to food security and livelihoods in Fiji (Links to an external site.) (No. 05/19). Report.

Lecture 17: Community change: livelihoods and other financing

Brown, K. (2002) Innovations for conservation and development. The Geographical Journal 168(1), 6-17.

Salafsky, N., & Wollenberg, E. (2000) Linking livelihoods and conservation: a conceptual framework and scale for assessing the integration of human needs and biodiversity. World development, 28(8), 1421-1438.

Salzer, D., & Salafsky, N. (2006) Allocating resources between taking action, assessing status, and measuring effectiveness of conservation actions. Natural Areas Journal, 26(3), 310-316.

* Brinson, A., Lee, M. Y., & Rountree, B. (2011). Direct marketing strategies: The rise of community supported fishery programs. Marine Policy 35(4), 542-548.

* Cinner, J. (2014). Coral reef livelihoods. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 7, 65-71.

* Daw, T. M. et al (2012). To fish or not to fish: factors at multiple scales affecting artisanal fishers’ readiness to exit a declining fishery. PLoS One, 7(2), e31460.

Lecture 18: Large scale economic change: subsidies etc (Guest lecture)

Cisneros-Montemayor, A. M., Sanjurjo, E., Munro, G. R., Hernández-Trejo, V., & Sumaila, U. R. (2016). Strategies and rationale for fishery subsidy reform. Marine Policy, 69, 229-236.

Hotte, N., & Sumaila, U. R. (2014). How much could a tanker spill cost British Columbians?. Environment, development and sustainability, 16(1), 159-180.

Sumaila, U. R. et al. (2010). A bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies.Journal of Bioeconomics, 12(3), 201-225.

Sumaila, U. al (2015). Winners and losers in a world where the high seas is closed to fishing. Scientific reports, 5.

Lecture 19: Illegal fishing (compliance and enforcement)

Agnew, D. J et al. (2009) Estimating the worldwide extent of illegal fishing. PLoS One, 4(2), e4570.

Hanich, Q., & Tsamenyi, M. (2009) Managing fisheries and corruption in the Pacific Islands region. Marine Policy, 33(2), 386-392.

Sumaila, U. R., Alder, J., & Keith, H. (2006). Global scope and economics of illegal fishing. Marine Policy, 30(6), 696-703.

Lecture 20: Co-management and national governance

Gilman, E., K. Passfield and Nakamura (2013) Performance of regional fisheries management organizations: ecosystem-based governance of bycatch and discards. Fish and Fisheries, DOI: 10.1111/faf.12021

Le Manach, F. et al. (2012) Who gets what? Developing a more equitable framework for EU fishing agreements. Marine Policy.

Lecture 21: Regional and global agreements

Pitcher, T.J. et al. (2009) Not honouring the code. Nature, 457(7230), 658-659.

Popova, E., et al (2019). Ecological connectivity between the areas beyond national jurisdiction and coastal waters: Safeguarding interests of coastal communities in developing countries. Marine Policy, 104, 90-102.

Steiner, A. et al (2003) Global governance for the environment and the role of Multilateral Environmental Agreements in conservation. Oryx, 37(2), 227-237.

Vincent, A.C. et al (2013) The role of CITES in the conservation of marine fishes subject to international trade. Fish and Fisheries 15:563–592. (Links to an external site.)

Lecture 22: Climate change (Guest lecture)

Talloni-Álvarez, N. E., Sumaila, R. U., Le Billon, P., & Cheung, W. W. (2019). Climate change impact on Canada’s Pacific marine ecosystem: The current state of knowledge. Marine Policy104, 163-176. (Links to an external site.)

Lecture 23: Ethical considerations

Allison, E. H. et al (2012) Rights‐based fisheries governance: from fishing rights to human rights. Fish and Fisheries, 13(1), 14-29.

Auster, P. J. et al (2009) Developing an Ocean Ethic: Science, Utility, Aesthetics, Self‐Interest, and Different Ways of Knowing. Conservation
Biology, 23(1), 233-235.

* Ives, C. D., & Bekessy, S. A. (2015). The ethics of offsetting nature.Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 13(10), 568-573.

* McKinley, E., & Fletcher, S. (2012) Improving marine environmental health through marine citizenship: a call for debate. Marine Policy, 36(3), 839-843.

* Newman, G. et al (2012) The future of citizen science: emerging technologies and shifting paradigms. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 10(6), 298-304.