Using sketching to develop and communicate ideas for image renderings is not new. The examples shown are for a new journal article ‘Gardens are… Buildings’ to be published August 2020 in Landscape Architecture, BFU, China.
Sonja and Gasper of Linescapes Berlin interviewed me in October 2019 in Berlin about drawing. This is a 53 min long session on how I started drawing and why I believe it is crucial for design education and professionals to use hand drawing, even today with all the digital tools available. Have a look: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rRp-rwXCLyo&feature=youtu.be&app=desktop
Short animations drawn on a tablet are a fast, efficient and powerful tool to convey a message, a complex technical detail or diagram in visual and spatial two- or three-dimensional manner. Through the animation of coloured lines one can highlight how a system works. For example, the rainwater flowing movement and drainage behavior of water through an assembly of different living roof layers and down a drainpipe into a bio-retention area could be shown. The speed of the animation should allow for reading the annotations and the number of scenes should be minimal to keep the content focused. The videos should be short, about a minute long as the focus is on a concise design, message or technical function. Use darker colours as light ones will not read well if the animation is uploaded on a public video platform as they automatically reduce the file size such as YouTube. See INSTAGRAM: danielroehrdrawings for examples.
Letting your memory “draw” so to speak, visualizing your own observations through drawing during travels is a visual and cognitive way to memorize a place and learn through the drawing created, what was important for your brain to memorize as an observer or user. It is useful to wait a day or two for the observations to be processed by the brain. Drawing the sketches should be fast and focused on the overall structural and spatial experience of the place or landscape visited. Memory sketching is stored information and is drawn directly from the brain via the hand on paper while referential sketching (on site sketching) uses the brain as instant “image translator” judging the image detail which part seen should be drawn. Memory sketching avoids the anxiety of drawing exactly what one sees and focuses more on the overall atmosphere of a place. (Below android phone S Note digital sketches from Bath, England and on the train Bath to London, June 2019)
Eye-level and aerial perspectives are useful tools to develop and check spatial experience. The aerial perceptive is used to develop and visualize the spatial program while the eye-level perspective is useful to design the experience in the space. Materiality, colours, textures and human scale, for example, in relation to context can be explored. Aerial perspectives are not useful to explore human scale, as its more a bird’s experience, then a human one. They are however, useful to show the design in its surrounding context. Eye-level views on the other hand are a more realistic tool to design the spatial experience. It is also useful to show the whole design process in sequence in the concept phase as it will help developing and editing ideas and explain the design process to a client.
I often talk about being ‘loose’ in drawing to our students. I say this, when I notice a student executing a drawing focuses too much on graphic representation first than content or if a student is afraid drawing as she/he might feel their drawing skills are not sufficient. This is never the case as design ideas can be expressed freely and should adhere to only one very important rule… “human scale”. It is therefore important to place people into the spaces one creates. This should happen in orthographic drawings (plan, section, elevation, axo) and perspectival views. Very important is to draw many ideas at eye-level to visualize the spaces one is creating. Today students are occupied too much understanding the complex modelling and rendering tools first instead of focusing on creating ideas. Hand drawings are a fast alternative to learn and explore communicating ideas and can be practiced anywhere right away, even on the first day in design school.
Documentation and presentation of the design process is not only important during education, it is also a very useful tool in design presentation. Hand drawings document the design process fast on tracing paper or a tablet and both have overlay tracing capability. In design studio empathizes should be given more on hand drawing again! Balancing ‘off screen’ to ‘on screen’ creates a healthier studio environment, design atmosphere and allows students to work at many scale without constant zooming in and out on the screen. The physical process of drawing is therapeutic and nurtures the brain and body.
A blog entry cannot justify the power hand drawings still have in design, especially in education. Drawings by hand document the path of form making. They make form. A drawing is like a piece of clay, while the pen is the extension of the hand molding the clay into an object. One instantly sees how the forms change and the brain responds immediately to that change to refine the form to its context/environment. The pen in the hand teaches the brain and vice versa. For me drawing is like writing, speaking, discussing with myself and then visualizing an idea spatially. This should be constantly practiced and many different forms of representation techniques should be tried. Like the sound of music, drawings document visually, a mood, an idea, a vision, a thought. The way the drawn line is expressed (controlled or loose) reveals one’s personal statement to the design problem addressed.
As project landscape architect & office manager of the Potsdamer Platz Project, Berlin in the 90’s in the office Krüger & Möhrle Stuttgart/Berlin responsible for the design of all the extensive and intensive green roofs, courtyards and atriums we designed the atrium for one of Sir Richard Rogers buildings. The architects envisioned a ‘green’ slope combining the split-level atrium. Prof. Möhrle and I decide to come up with the opposite of the typical lush green calming experience up the escalator. We proposed piranha fish tanks alongside the escalator to create a dramatic sense of arrival. This sketch depicts this idea. At this time architects were not ready for the abstraction or a totally different landscape architecture experience without thinking ‘green’. Since than we have come a long way in landscape architecture. Pioneering work is often hidden on paper, but ‘paper architecture’ is also a design, just not executed, whatever the circumstances might be.
Welcome to ‘Off Screen Studio’. This blog has been created for design students, designers and viewers who are interested in hand drawing. The goal of this blog is to show the ‘unedited’ ideation process behind landscape architecture, architecture, urban design and art. Everyone of us has a different method to develop ideas. This blog presents over the next years more then 1000 different sketches of the authors professional career and teaching (1990 – present). Every week new images will be uploaded and their content explained. Under ‘Archive’ drawings are categorized into: design process, digital drawing and land art. In the next months we will be uploading more images in the archive. Under ‘Tutorial’ videos explain how to draw a tree, a shrub, people or the grading of the landscape. More videos will be uploaded over the next months.