Peer Reviewed

Blackwell, E., Bolster, E., Richards, G., Loftus, B., Casey, R. 2012. The use of electronic collars for training domestic dogs: estimated prevalence, reasons and risk factors for use, and owner perceived success as compared to other training methods. BMC Veterinary Research, 8 (93).

Blackwell, E., Casey, R. 2006. The use of shock collars and their impact on the welfare of dogs: A review of the current literature. Department of Clinical Veterinary Science. University of Bristol, England.

Blackwell, E., Twells, C., Seawright, A., Casey, R. 2008. The relationship between training methods and the occurrence of behavior problems, as reported by owners, in a population of domestic dogs. Journal of Veterinary Behavior 3: 207-217.

Fukuzawa, M., Hayashi, N. 2013. Comparison of 3 different reinforcements of learning in dogs (Canis familiaris). Journal of Veterinary Behaviour 8: 221-224.

Grohmann, K., Dickomeit, M., Schmidt, M., Kramer, M. 2013. Severe brain damage after punitive training technique with a choke chain collar in a german shepard dog. Journal of Veterinary Behaviour 8: 180-184.

Hibey, E., Rooney, N., Bradshaw, J. 2004. Dog training methods: their use, effectiveness and interaction with behaviour and welfare. Animal Welfare 13: 63-69.

Joëls, M., Zhenwei, P., Wiegart, O., Oitzl, M., Krugers, H. 2006. Learning under stress: how does it work? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10: 152-158.

Johson, R. 1972. Aggression in man and animals. Saunders, Philadelphia.

Mendel, M. 1999. Performing under pressure: stress and cognitive function. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 65: 221-224.

Overall, K. 2011. That dog is smarter than you know: Advances in understanding canine learning, memory, and cognition. Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 26: 2-9.

Overall, K. 2007. Considerations for shock and ‘training’ collars: Concerns from and for the working dog community [Editorial]. (2007, June 1). Journal of Veterinary Behaviour 2: 103-107.

Pauli, D., Bentley, D., Diehl, K., Miller, P. 2006. Effects of the application of neck pressure by a collar or harness on intraocular pressure in dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 42: 207-210.

Polsky, R. 1994. Electronic shock collars: are they worth the risks? Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 30: 463-468.

Rooney, N., Cowan, S. 2011. Training methods and owner-dog interactions: links with dog behavior and learning ability. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 132: 169-177.

Schilder, M., van der Borg, J., 2004. Training dogs with the help of the shock collar: short term and long term behavioural effects. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 85: 319-334.

Shalke, E., Stichnoth, J., Ott, S., Jones-Baade, R. 2006. Clinical signs caused of the use of electric training collar on dogs in everyday life situations. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 105: 369-380.

Stafford, K. 2007. Dog Training. Pages 129-142 in The Welfare of Dogs (C. Philips, editor). Springer Press, Netherlands.

Walker, R., Fisher, J., Neville, P. 1997. The treatment of phobias in the dog. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 52: 275-289.






Information on Position Statements and Regulations were provided by the following sources:

Anonymous. Ogmore illegal shock collar dog owner gets £2, 000 fine. BBC News: Wales, June 18, 2011. Available at Accessed on Apr. 4, 2014.

Canadian Veterinary Medical Association. 2009. Humane Training Methods for Dogs: Position Statement. Available at Accessed on Apr. 1, 2014.

Justice Laws Website. 2014. Cruelty to Animals. Available at Accessed on Apr 4, 2014.

Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act. 1996. Available at Accessed on Apr. 4, 2014.

RSPCA Australia. 2014. Animal Welfare Legislation. Available at Accessed on Apr. 4, 2014.



1 thought on “References

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *