The spheres and colors represent the various species and trophic levels respectively, in Nevada Lakes, USA. (Picture Credits: Harper et al. 2005).
Numbers are numbing and data are messy. “Visualization tools can help untangle complexity,” says Eric Berlow—ecologist at Sierra Nevada Research Institute in California. Good visualizations can bring out the details, organize information, and allow scientists to see data in a different way. A computer model called “Niche Model” emerged in the year 2000. It was developed by researchers of the applied mathematics department at Cornell University, Williams and Martinez. Before the model, many ecologists base their theories on “sharply focused” ecosystems with less species, to avoid “clutters” in their study. However, this was problematic since it risks oversimplifying real-world phenomena.
Since 2000, Niche Model injected a healthy dose of complexity into the field of ecology and conservation biology research. By embracing the complexity, ecologists can now generate more accurate predictions that mimic real ecosystems.
Image: National Geographic
Jason deCaires Taylor, a British sculptor based in Mexico, has created an underwater art installation. 400 permanent sculptures have been placed at the bottom of the ocean in the National Marine Park of Cancun. The work is called “Silent Evolution”.
See the video here
The work is really interesting because it will never be finished. Taylor continues to create more figures to add but because organisms will be living on and around it they will continue to change the appearance long after Taylor stops adding new pieces.
As part of MUSA (Museo Subacuatico de Arte, “Sub-aquatic Museum of Art”) the artificial reef was created in hopes of providing habitat for fish and many other species. The installation should also serve as a tourist attraction boosting business for snorkel and scuba charters in addition to diverting traffic away from the threatened natural reefs.
The sculptures are made using castings of real people, many of them locals. The final statues are made of a neutral pH, marine-grade cement. All the materials were tested for their impact on marine life prior to the installation.
Image: National Geographic
Since their placement in 2010, the sculptures have created a home for many fish species that have been absent from the area. The sculptures are already covered in a layer of algae and some coral, indicating that reef habitat will continue to grow. There has also already been a number of visiting snorkelers and scuba divers to the area.
It is great when artists think of the environment in their work. As a Scuba diver and an art enthusiast I would love to go see this in person. I think it sends a really important message about the danger the world’s coral reefs are in. Being in such a popular vacation spot should help spread the word of ocean and coral reef conservation.
Hopefully some scientists will monitor the site as an experiment to see when and how organisms like corals and algae attach themselves to rocks. These first settlers often determine which animals settle next and can affect the overall makeup of the reef community. It will be very interesting to see what kinds of life are there in a couple of years and what the sculptures look like. They may not even be recognizable!
As the average temperature of the Earth rises due to climate change, the temperature of the oceans rises as well. These drastic rise in ocean temperatures, affect marine organisms of all shapes and sizes. However, the most prominent effects have been observed on corals. Corals, which are home to thousands of marine creatures, are considered to be some of the most fascinating and eye pleasing marine organisms in the oceans. Unfortunately, they are also highly sensitive to environmental changes.
In a recent article published in Science News (which can be found here), coral migration was studied and tracked by a group of scientists off the coasts of Japan. When they compared current results to data collected from different time periods starting in the 1930’s, they found out that various common coral species have retreated northward, and some have even gone as far as temperate waters. Furthermore, the abundance of coral has decreased proportionately with northward migration.
Mila Zinkova/Wikimedia Commons
If this trend were to continue and not be altered, the population of corals in the oceans will continue to decline. This decline is very unfortunate and it shows how deadly climate change can be. Corals are home to thousands of different marine organisms. Hence, the lost of corals, also causes the direct loss of other marine organisms. Ultimately this can lead to an overall reduction in biodiversity. Furthermore, the decline in coral also jeopardizes recreational activities such as scuba diving and snorkeling.
Although this article, provides excellent evidence to support the fact that corals are moving north and their abundance is decreasing. It does not provide us with ways to prevent or slow down this process. Most of us are already aware of the drastic effects climate change has on marine organisms, but very few of us know how to directly prevent such events from occurring. Hopefully we’ll see more media coverage on prevention methods in the future, so that such events can be prevented or subdued in the future.
Photo: thaths on flickr
Is there anything more incredible than the rainforest canopy? Not very likely. The rainforest canopy – the dense area containing the majority of trees branches – is home to some of the greatest biodiversity, or biotic variety, on earth. And where else can you find a complete ecosystem with soil, megafauna, and what is estimated to be half of the world’s plant species – all off the ground?! However, what we know about these incredible “biodiversity hotspots” is very little, as rainforest canopies are among the world’s least understood ecosystems.
So unparalleled is the rainforest canopy in mystery and intrigue that naturalist William Beebe pronounced that, “another continent of life remains to be discovered, not upon the Earth, but one to two hundred feet above it, extending over thousands of square miles.” That was back in the early 1900s, and despite much research being done since then, this quote still holds true.
Among what has been discovered, The EarthWatch Institute details some stand-out research findings including the discovery of the first herbivorous spider; work suggesting that perhaps 6 million insect species exist on earth; and the uncovering of thousands and thousands of species previously unknown to us, many of them endemic – meaning they are found nowhere else in the world – to their respective rainforest canopy.
Where else can you find animals as curious as the pink-eyed katydid newly discovered in Papua New Guinea:
- Photo: Naskrecki/iLCP
or the Malagasy Red-bellied Lemur?
- photo: BBC
Unfortunately, the well-being of much of the world’s fascinating and mysterious rainforest canopy ecosystems is threatened by human activities. Work by William F. Laurence, published in a 1991 issue of Nature, warned that human activities causing forest fragmentation are compromising the health of these unique ecosystems. A study by Erika Styger and fellow scientists published in a 2007 issue of Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment looked at the large-scale degradation caused by slash-and-burn farming techniques. Additional research keeps pointing at humans as the cause of increasingly unhealthy rainforest canopy ecosystems.
Scientists are currently working to understand the biological and chemical processes at work within the canopy in order to gain a better idea of how we can protect these ecosystems. Some are working to document canopy species composition and interactions while others are expressing concerns over the ability of the rainforest canopy to continue supporting its species in the face of climate change – an area that is beginning to get a lot of research attention. Thus, work is being done to better understand what is happening in the mysterious and marvelous rainforest canopy. Whether we can protect the very-worthy-of-protection rainforest canopy ecosystems before their health is globally compromised remains to be seen.