Refereed Journal Articles

Brander, J.A., Spencer, B.J. (2021). Differentiated Entry or “Me-too” Entry in Bertrand and Cournot Oligopoly, Review of Industrial Organization,

Brander, J.A., Spencer, B.J. (2021). Patent assertion entities and the courts: Injunctive or fee-based relief?, International Review of Law and Economics 65, 105974

Head, K., Spencer, B.J. (2017). Oligopoly in international trade: Rise, fall and resurgence, Canadian Journal of Economics 50(5), 1414-1444; NBER working paper 23720

Brander, J.A., Spencer, B.J. (2015). Intra-Industry Trade with Bertrand and Cournot Oligopoly: The Role of Endogenous Horizontal Product Differentiation, Research in Economics, 69(2, June), 157-165

Feenstra, R., Hong, C., Ma, H., Spencer, B.J. (2013).  Contractual versus non-contractual trade: The role of institutions in ChinaJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 94, October 2013, 281-294

Dimand, R., Spencer, B.J. (2009). Trevor Swan and the Neoclassical Growth Model. History of Political Economy, 41(annual sup), 107-126.

Spencer, B.J. (2005). International Outsourcing and Incomplete Contracts. Canadian Journal of Economics, 38(4), 1107-1135.

Head, K., Ries, J., Spencer, B.J. (2004). Vertical Networks and U.S. Auto Parts Exports: Is Japan Different? Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 13(1, Spring), 37-67.

Qiu, L., Spencer, B.J. (2002). Keiretsu and Relationship-Specific Investments: Implications for Market-Opening Policy. Journal of International Economics, 58(1, Oct), 49-79.

Zhou, D., Vertinsky, I., Spencer, B.J. (2002). Strategic Trade Policy with Endogenous Choice of Quality and Asymmetric Costs. Journal of International Economics, 56(1, Jan), 205-232.

Spencer, B.J., Qiu, L. (2001). Keiretsu and Relationship-Specific Investments: A Barrier to Trade? International Economic Review, 42(4, Nov), 871-901.

Ishikawa, J., Spencer, B.J. (1999). Rent-Shifting Export Subsidies with an Imported Intermediate Product. Journal of International Economics, 48(2), 199-232.

Spencer, B.J. (1997). Quota Licenses for Imported Capital Equipment: Could Bureaucrats Ever Do Better than the Market? Journal of International Economics, 43(1/2, Aug), 1-29.

Spencer, B.J., Raubitschek, R. (1996). High-Cost Domestic Joint Ventures and International Competition: Do Domestic Firms Gain? International Economic Review, 37(2, May), 315-340.

Brander, J., Spencer, B.J. (1994). Trade Adjustment Assistance: Welfare and Incentive Effects of Payments to Displaced Workers. Journal of International Economics, 36(3/4, May), 239-261.

Dowrick, S., Spencer, B.J. (1994). Union Attitudes to Labour-Saving Innovation: When are Unions Luddites? Journal of Labor Economics, 12(2), 316-344.

Spencer, B.J., Brander, J. (1992). Precommitment and Flexibility: Applications to Oligopoly Theory. European Economic Review, 36(8, Dec), 1601-1626.

Spencer, B.J., Jones, R. (1992). Trade and Protection in Vertically Related Markets. Journal of International Economics, 32(1/2, Feb), 31-56.

Spencer, B.J., Jones, R. (1991). Vertical Foreclosure and International Trade Policy. Review of Economic Studies, 58(1, Jan), 153-170.

Brander, J., Spencer, B.J. (1989). Moral Hazard and Limited Liability: Implications for the Theory of the Firm. International Economic Review, 30(4, Nov), 833-849.

Jones, R., Spencer, B.J. (1989). Raw Materials, Processing Activities and Protectionism. Canadian Journal of Economics, 22(3, Aug), 469-486.

Spencer, B.J. (1988). Capital Subsidies and Countervailing Duties in Oligopolistic Industries. Journal of International Economics, 25(1/2, Aug), 45-69.

Brander, J., Spencer, B.J. (1988). Unionized Oligopoly and International Trade Policy. Journal of International Economics, 24(3/4, May), 217-234.

Brander, J., Spencer, B.J. (1987). Foreign Direct Investment with Unemployment and Endogenous Taxes and Tariffs. Journal of International Economics, 22(3/4, May), 257-279.

Brander, J., Spencer, B.J. (1985). Tacit Collusion, Free Entry and Welfare. Journal of Industrial Economics, 33(3, Mar), 277-294.

Brander, J., Spencer, B.J. (1985). Export Subsidies and International Market Share Rivalry. Journal of International Economics, 18(1/2), 83-100. Reprinted in International Trade, Volume 1. Welfare and Trade Policy, J. Peter Neary ed., Elgar Reference Collection, International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, 1995, Aldershot U.K. and Brookfield, Vt., 59, 201-218.

Brander, J., Spencer, B.J. (1985). Ramsey Optimal Two-Part Tariffs: The Case of Many Heterogeneous Groups. Public Finance, 40(3), 335-346.

Brander, J., Spencer, B.J. (1984). Trade Warfare: Tariffs and Cartels. Journal of International Economics, 16(3/4, May), 227-242.

Spencer, B.J., Brander, J. (1983). International R&D Rivalry and Industrial Strategy. Review of Economic Studies, 50 (4)(163), 707-722. Reprinted in Industrial Policy and Competitive Advantage, Volume 1. The Mandate for Industrial Policy, Audretsh, David B. ed., Elgar Reference Collection. International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, 1998, Cheltenham U.K. and Northampton MA, 84

Spencer, B.J., Brander, J. (1983). Second Best Pricing of Publicly Produced Inputs: The Case of Downstream Imperfect Competition. Journal of Public Economics, 20(1, Feb), 113-120.

Brander, J., Spencer, B.J. (1983). Strategic Commitment with R&D: The Symmetric Case. Bell Journal of Economics, 14(1,Spring), 225-235.

Spencer, B.J. (1982). Asymmetric Information and Excess Budgets in Government Bureaucracies: A Principal and Agent Approach. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 3(2-3 Jun/Sept), 197-225.

Brander, J., Spencer, B.J. (1981). Tariffs and Extraction of Foreign Monopoly Rent Under Potential Entry. Canadian Journal of Economics, 14(3, Aug), 371-389. Reprinted in Readings in International Trade (revised edition), 1987, Jagdish Bhagwati ed. M.I.T. Press

Spencer, B.J. (1980). Outside Information and the Degree of Monopoly Power of a Public Bureau. Southern Economic Journal, 47(1, July), 228-233.

Spencer, B.J., Hum, D. (1977). Workload and Seasonal Variations in Birthrates: Reconsidered. American Anthropologist, 79(4, Dec), 911-912.

Hum, D., Lobdell, R., Spencer, B.J. (1977). Plantations, Staple Exports and the Seasonality of Births in Jamaica, 1880-1930. Social and Economic Studies, 26(1, Mar), 63-85.

Spencer, B.J., Hum, D., Deprez, P. (1976). Spectral Analysis and the Study of Seasonal Fluctuations in Historical Demography. Journal of European Economic History, 5(1, Spring), 171-190.

Spencer, B.J. (1976). Size of Population and Variability of Demographic Data (17th and 18th Centuries). GENUS, 32(3-4), 11-42. Published by: Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza” Issue Stable URL:

Spencer, B.J., Hum, D. (1976). Workload and Seasonal Variation in Birthrates: Some International Comparisons. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 17(1-2), 48-58.

Nicolaou C., Spencer, B.J., (1975). Product Diversification and the MultiProduct Firm. Southern Economic Journal, 42(1),1-10.

Refereed Chapters in Books

Spencer, B.J., Dimand, R. (2010). The Diagrams of the Solow-Swan model. In M. Blaug, P. Lloyd (Eds.), Famous Figures and Diagrams in Economics. (pp. 426-431). U.K.: Edward Elgar.

Spencer, B.J., Brander, J. (2008). Strategic Trade Policy. In S. Durlauf, L. Blume (Eds.), The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. UK: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd.

Spencer, B.J. (1995). The Theory and Consequences of Results-oriented Trade Policy: Comments. In A. Deardorff, J. Levinsohn, R. Stern (Eds.), New Directions in Trade Theory. (pp. 327-336). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Spencer, B.J. (1988). Countervailing Duty Laws and Subsidies to Imperfectly Competitive Industries. In R. Baldwin, C. Hamilton, A. Sapir (Eds.), Issues in US-EC Trade Relations. (pp. 313-334). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press

Spencer, B.J. (1986). What Should Trade Policy Target? In P. Krugman (Ed.), Strategic Trade Policy and the New International Economics. (pp. 69-90). U.K and MA: Cheltenhan and Northampton. Reprinted. In J. Oxley, B. Yeung (Eds.), Structural Change, Industrial Location and Competitiveness. Globalization of the World Economy Series, Edward Elgar, 1998. U.K and MA: Cheltenhan and Northampton

Spencer, B.J., Brander, J. (1984). Tariff Protection and Imperfect Competition. In H. Kierzkowski (Ed.), Monopolistic Competition and Product Differentiation and International Trade. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Reprinted. In G. Grossman (Ed.), Imperfect Competition and International Trade. (pp. 107-120). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992

Spencer, B.J., Brander, J. (1983). Local Telephone Pricing, Two-Part Tariffs and Price Discrimination. In L. Courville, A. DeFonteney, R. Dobell (Eds.), Economic Analysis of Telecommunications: Theory and Applications.

Working Papers

Brander, J.A., Spencer, B.J. (2015). Intra-Industry Trade with Bertrand and Cournot Oligopoly: The Role of Endogenous Horizontal Product Differentiation, NBER working paper w21008. Much revised version now published as Brander, J.A., Spencer, B.J. (2021). Differentiated Entry or “Me-too” Entry in Bertrand and Cournot Oligopoly, Review of Industrial Organization,

Croft, Elizabeth W. and Barbara J. Spencer, “Fees and Surcharging in ATM Networks: The Role of Nonbanks and Depositor Base”, Revised Oct 2004; earlier version: NBER working paper w9883, August 2003.

Brander,James.A. and Barbara J. Spencer (2021). “Intellectual Property Infringement by Foreign Firms: Import Protection through the ITC or Court”, NBER working paper w28496