Designerly Ways of Being, Knowing, Doing and Having
Franc Feng, Mirela Gutica, Stephen Petrina, PJ Rusnak, Fareed Teja & Yifei Wang
University of British Columbia
There is a point in every intelligent activity where effort ceases; where thought and doing fall back upon a course of events which effort and reflection cannot touch. There is a point in deliberate action where definite thought fades into the ineffable and undefinable— into emotion. Dewey (1922, pp. 263-264) Human Nature and Conduct
1. Girls, Games and Designerly Ways
2. Learning by Design: Youth Building and Programming Robots
3. Designing Chatbots for Learning
4. Emotional Design: Perspectives of Designers
5. Researching Design and Engineering Cognition
This symposium aims to extend Cross’ (1982, 2006) influential “Designerly Ways of Knowing” to include designerly ways of being, doing and having. This necessarily acknowledges ontological implications of design and engineering cognition along with Cross’ epistemological implications. The symposium explores these implications through five empirically based papers. The first paper focuses on designerly ways of being at play and the work of eleven girls in designing a mother’s day game. The second paper focuses on designerly ways of knowing and doing and the work of a group of adolescents building and programming robots. The third paper focuses on designerly ways of being and knowing and a group of young adults responding to chatbot designs for learning a second language. The fourth paper focuses on designerly ways of being and having and a group of professional software designers’ perspectives on incorporating emotions into software development process and products. The fifth paper explores the design and engineering cognition literature, providing a larger framework for research into designerly ways of being, knowing, doing and having.
Girls, Games and Designerly Ways
This empirical study examines girls? designerly ways of being, knowing and playing @ 101 Technology Fun, a game design and technology research camp(UBC campus). Building upon Laurel’s (2003) designerly ways of researching and Denner et al.’s (2005) “Girls Creating Games” model, design theories meet design realities as 11 co-researcher girls (ages 9-13) are placed in roles of games designers with real-world design challenges, heuristics and constraints. The design brief: to create a massively-collaborative alternate reality game(ARG) for Mother’s Day 2010. The design solution: a high-social, low-tech ARG that celebrates the unique relationship between mothers and daughters (of all ages and cultures) with a storyline that explores a new world currency of care. As females continue to be under-represented in a gaming industry dominated by a masculine culture of play (AAUW, 2000; Fullerton et al., 2008; Krotoski, 2004), what do the designerly experiences of girls tell us?
Learning by Design: Youth Building and Programming Robots
This part of the symposium reports on data collected during a robotics research camp where fourteen adolescents came together to design robots using Lego Mindstorms NXT technology. By leveraging Hutchins’ (1995, 2000, 2005) theory of distributed cognition and method of cognitive ethnography, I discuss initial findings from the video and audio data gathered during this research camp. In particular, I explore the cognitive implications of design-based learning by observing how adolescents followed a design model while building and programming robotic pets. I connect findings from my research to Cross’ (1986, 2006) designerly ways of knowing and expand this discussion into the realm of education by extending the idea to designerly ways of doing.
Designing Chatbots for Learning
This paper reports on an ethnographic study that investigated ESL learners’ designerly ways of being and knowing with chatbot technology. The purpose of this study was to examine how such a chatbot technology can be better designed to support ESL learners’ oral English practices in informal and formal settings. The research was mainly based on an ethnographic laboratory study with fifteen ESL learners’ interactions with five models of chatbot language learning interfaces. The findings revealed the promises of chatbot technology in terms of its communicative function for creating an optimal oral English learning environment. This study identified five conditions for effective chatbot-facilitated oral English learning, namely, sense, emotion, culture, individualized content and relational engagement. This paper also reconsiders how designers conceptualize, design, develop and deploy chatbot technology in support of ESL teaching and learning.
Emotional Design: Perspectives of Designers
Learners interact with various software applications and online environments, from rich media to intelligent tutors, but little is known about the effectiveness of these applications and environments. Theorists agree that interaction between humans and computers will be more effective if computer applications are able to perceive and respond to emotions (Bates, 1994; Busso et at, 2004; Johnson et al. 2000; Picard, 1997; Picard & Klein, 2002). Adaptive interfaces that respond to the users’ goals and emotional needs should be considered for solutions aimed to overcome current problems of educational software. Although progress had been made with respect to emotion classifiers, emotion recognition, and affect analysis in the context of adaptive interfaces, very little had been done with respect to the intelligent tutor’s response when emotion is detected. My research explores intelligent tutors that can respond to the dynamics of a learner’s emotional states. Participants in my study (36 software design specialists from various fields) strongly supported the idea of emotional design and confirmed the need for methodologies and theoretical models to research emotional design. Based on a review of theory, surveys and interviews, I identified a set of themes for heuristics of emotional design and recommended future research directions. Attention was given to consequences; participants in this study raised issues of manipulation, ethical responsibilities of designers, and the need for regulations, and recommended that emotional design should carry standard ethical guidelines for games and any other applications.
Researching Design and Engineering Cognition
Petrina, Stephen & Feng, Franc
Recent economic and environmental crises remind us of the urgencies of understanding ingenuity and technology. Hence, throughout the past century it has become increasingly important to study how designers, engineers, and inventors think or process information at hand and what goes through their minds. Given new demands and expectations of design and engineering cognition for new responsive or interactive consumer products, it is arguably just as important to study the cognitive processes of everyday users and novice re/designers of new technologies. Sampling cognitive processes among these distinct groups is important not only for facilitating and regulating inventive practices and innovation, but also for the challenges of learning and teaching technology. In this paper, we review research into design and engineering cognition beginning with its scope and theoretical framework followed by a historical overview and analysis of current trends. What do or can researchers of design and engineering cognition contribute to or prescribe for learning and teaching technology?