Buxbaumia piperi is typically found growing on rotten logs or other organic material of stabilized banks. This species may be found from high elevations down to sea level.
The gametophyte is very small, and thus appears almost absent. Shoots grow solitarily.
The sporophyte is much larger than the gametophyte. The sporangium is light brownish-green when immature. The sporangium has a peculiar shape: it has a smooth curved surface on the oblique face.
The sporangium is pale brown when mature.
The peristome consists of a pleated endostome and a jointed exostome. The seta is papillose.