What is health literacy?
Health literacy is the ability to access, understand, assess, communicate, and demonstrate information to promote, maintain, and improve a healthy lifestyle. In order to be literate in this subject, one needs to understand the basics and fundamental proponents of being healthy and staying healthy. Self-evaluation is one key strategy in the comprehension of health literacy. According to the BC Ministry of Education, students should be involved in monitoring and evaluating their own knowledge, attitudes, and skills in the four aspects of healthy living: healthy eating, active living, healthy relationships and healthy practices.
What is DPA and how is it different from PE?
Daily Physical Activity (DPA) was introduced by the Ministry of Education to encourage all schools and students in B.C. to include daily physical activities in their lessons. PE focuses more on the educational course relating to the physique of the human body, and the proper technique for fundamental movement skills and strategies. DPA, however, focuses more towards participating in activities at a moderate to intense levels that will benefit all aspects of our well-being. The duration of daily physical activities differs between grades. From Kindergarten to grade 9, thirty minutes of DPA is required. However, in grade 8 and up, students are required to do additional physical activity and log them as part of their graduation transition program.
Staying healthy is important to all learners. In each grade from Kindergarten to Grade 7, the students are expected to participate in physical activities for a minimum of 30 minutes each day, and participate in a range of endurance (e.g., speed walking, jogging, soccer), strength (e.g., push-ups, core strength training, skating) and flexibility (e.g., stretches, dancing) activities.
1. I thought the flow of our station rotation and the lessons within each station worked really well. The different skills taught in each station were gradual, as it started off with basic movements to more challenging ones. I also thought we worked really well with the time given, and we were able to modify/adapt our lesson plan to fit our schedule.
My fellow group members and I shared the workload evenly between the lesson plan and reading summaries. It worked out really well. Although, credit for activity ideas goes to Klara!
2. There were a number of changes to our lesson plan. Within my station, I did not realize how difficult it was for students to do the bear walk and crab walk while weaving between 5 cones -back and forth, and because we started with only two line ups, there was more wait time for them than actually moving around. So, I made three lines instead of two, to spread the students more evenly, and removed 2 cones. In the end, they were able to weave between 3 cones (spaced out), and challenge themselves with the beanbag. This modification gave everyone more time to practice their walk at least two times before adding the bean bag.
3. When I started off with 5 cones and 2 line ups, the students found it difficult to weave through the cones. Also, with a number of people lining up in the two lines, there was a lot of wait time, and I noticed the students just hanging around. So, I created a third line up so I could space the students out more evenly, and to quicken up the pace of the line. I heard a lot of responses that told me that it was too difficult and tiring weaving through 5 cones, so I changed it and used three cones instead, and spaced it out so they had more time to walk forward than focus on weaving in and out. It worked really well – students had enough time to do the walk with and without the bean bag.
Grade 6- Gymnastics
Lesson Plan Outline:
- Shape of the day, and definitions, safety (5 mins)
- Group discussion (10-15 mins)
- Basic Movement Patterns/Skills (2 mins)
- Instant Activity (5 mins)
- Haunted Halloween Line Tag (10 mins)
- Four stations (8 mins)
- Gymnastics Relay (5 mins)
- Cool down/ Goodbye Circle (2 mins)
Introduction (5 minutes):
- “Good morning grade 6, we are excited to continue with our gymnastics unit. We would just like to remind you all of the safety rules”
- 1 whistle blow: stop, look at the instructor, and listen for further instructions
- 2 whistles: hurry into the center circle quietly, and sit down to wait for further instructions. Ask for clarity → “Does everyone understand?”
- When we are using equipment, we must be mindful of others, and make sure everyone is able to have a turn. While waiting for your turn, keep a safe distance. Equipment that we are not using at the moment will be off-limits.
- We will be assessing the class on their individual participation throughout the class, their ability to follow along in the drills as instructed and are able to complete the tasks at their best ability (see assessment at the bottom the lesson plan).
Group Discussion (10-15 minutes):
- Name students as: Witch (Alana), Zombie (Klara), Vampire (Jess), Ghost (Elissa)
Basic Movement Patterns/Skills (2 minutes):
- Springs: coordinated limb movement to produce force
- Locomotions: animal movements, jumping
- Landings: absorption of body force
- Rotations: centre of gravity
- Practising a variety of non-locomotor (balancing), locomotor (rolling), and manipulative movement skills
- Movement concepts (e.g. body awareness, spatial awareness, relationships to/with others and objects)
- Able to participate in different types of physical activities (e.g. rhythmic activities, game)
Prescribed Learning Outcomes:
- A1: relate personal physical and emotional health benefits of regular participation to physical activity (eg. energy, endurance, stress managements, fresh air and sunshine when activities are done outside)
- A2: relate the development of muscular strength and endurance, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility to participation in specific physical activities
- B1: practise learned non-locomotor, locomotor, and manipulative movement skills in order to improve
- B4: apply a combination of learned skills to create original sequence, drills, challenges, or games
- C1: demonstrates safe procedures for specific physical activities
- C3: demonstrate leadership in respecting individual differences and abilities during physical activity
- bean bags
- hula hoops
Instant Activity (5-7 minutes):
- Blow whistle twice to meet in centre circle
- Jumping activity:
- Warm up our bodies and mind by using a progressive coordination activity. Refer to YouTube.
- Be sure to note that this is a challenging activity and to try their best to keep up. It is okay if they can not complete this warm up flawlessly. It is meant to challenge their brains and bodies.
- Haunted Halloween Line Tag:
- Learn the different shapes (V-Sit, Pike sit, Tuck sit, Straddle sit) explain the importance of balance in gymnastics, and use your body to express your character (witch, zombie, vampire, ghost).
- Explain that once you get tagged, you are not out! Just perform all 4 body shapes on the side of the gym before you join in again. (This works on spatial awareness)
- Blow whistle once to freeze, then twice to meet in centre circle
4 Stations (8 minutes: 2 minutes/station):
- Break into 4 groups again and go to each station → Witches (Jess: Balancing), Zombies (Klara: Forward rolls/log rolls), Vampires (Elissa: Bear Walk/Crab walk), Ghosts (Alana: jumping)
- Blow whistle for freeze after 2 minutes/station. Yell: “STATION ROTATION!”
- arrange 4 benches in a square
- next student may begin once student in front of them has finished first bench
- walking forwards, walking backwards, walking on tippy toes, walking with kicks
- modifications: walk on lines if benches are too challenging
- balancing involves non-locomotor movement and movement concepts. With modifications you can incorporate rotational movement and increase cognitive development.
- Forward Rolls and Log Rolls:
- Rolling down mats one way, coming back on another set of mats doing log rolls
- student may begin their turn once first student has finished their forward rolls.
- Log rolls may begin once first student is half way down mat.
- Bear Walk/ Crab Walk with bean bag:
- Split group into 3 teams, and line up in front of the three columns of cones (4 cones per column)
- Teams begin on the same side, and practice weaving in between cones, starting off with the bear walk in one direction, and then the crab walk when coming back.
- Next, to make it slightly more challenging, bear walk with bean bag tucked under chin, and crab walk with bean bag on stomach → if it falls, stop and place back on stomach
- modifications: to simplify, remove the number of cones so to lower the difficulty level. Also, remove bean bags if necessary.
- Start with students in a circle practicing their jumping and landings. First on one foot, then the other foot. Then focus on two foot jumps forwards and backwards over a line, followed by high jumps and hanging in a motorcycle landing.
- arrange hula hoops on the floor for jumping drills (side-to-side one foot jumps, and side-to-side two foot jumps)
- Have two stackable vaults set at different heights for the students to jump off of and practice their landings. Focus on their soft motorcycle landings. Making sure the students always feels safe and are not forced to do something they feel uncomfortable doing.
- Rotate through the little circuit.
- Blow whistle to freeze, blow whistle twice to meet in centre circle
- balancing arms → “Stretch your arms out like an airplane!”
- looking forwards
- stretch up high → “Make your body tall and long like a pencil!”
- straight legs
- one foot in front of the other
- Forward Rolls & Log Rolls:
- tall like a tree, make a tunnel with your body, tuck your chin in, and push your body forwards
- “Make your body tall and long like a pencil!”
- Keep chin tucked in
- long legs and arms
- keep stomach up when doing crab walk
- arm drive
- bending knees to absorb impact
- motorcycle landing
- lower your center of gravity
Closure/ Cooldown (2 minutes):
- stretching circle
- goodbye circle → “Head and shoulders, knees and toes, stretch up high and wave goodbye”
- Equipment is dry, clean, and not broken
- Secure landing mats
- Flat landing area
- Ensure that the athletes shoe laces are tied
- Dress accordingly for the activity
Assessment & Evaluation:
- Based on effort, participation and behavior which is given through oral feedback, rubric provided at the end of the document
- Each station has a specific skill that will be practiced and will be evaluated by the leading TC
- The class will be notified before the activity and again at each station.
- Leading TC’s will provide oral feedback for the students to implement
We were planning on including these additional activities if time permitted.
- Separate teams into their 4 halloween groups (Witch, Zombie, Ghost, Vampire)
- Have each group create a 1 minute routine incorporating the body shapes and locomotor movements that they have learned in class.
- Have each group present their routine to the other groups
- Separate teams into their 4 halloween groups (Witch, Zombie, Ghost, Vampire)
- Have students complete a sequence of activities learned in class by completing the activities with their best technique and creativity skills. This is set up across the gymnasium in groups of four (each group will be completing this on their own). This allows for creativity and incorporating all the new skills they have learned.
- Set up equipment:
- 4 benches → balance across backwards
- 8 mats (2 per each line) → 1 forward roll, 2 complete rotation log rolls
- 16 cones (4 per each line) → bear walk bean back under chin through cones
- 16 hula hoops (4 per each line) → jump like a frog from lily pad to lily pad
- **Emphasize that this is not a race! We are looking for PROPER form and execution of practiced skills**
Gymnastics Assessment. Exported from: http://gymnasticsassessment.weebly.com/uploads/1/6/8/7/16879858/gymnastics_rubrics.pdf
Cool Games & Fun Warm-Ups, YouTube. Exported from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iHkTKRGfgf8
Collaborated Reading Summary
Physical Education, Safety and the law:
- Educators are held to a higher standard – must respect students and treat with care and prudence as if own child
The Law of Torts:
- The term tort is derived from the Latin word tortus, meaning twisted or crooked,Torts is constantly evolving.- centuries of creation, elaboration, and explanation
- Definition: civil wrong a person commits against another
- “The law of torts is concerned with the compensation of losses suffered by private individuals in their legally protected interests, through conduct of others which is regarded as socially unreasonable”
- Torts is either intentional or unintentional. Intentional tort involves an effort by someone to interfere with or cause harm to another person (i.e. assault, battery, false imprisonment, and mental languish). Unintentional are usually referred to as negligence.
The Tort of Negligence:
- Duty of Care
- Breach of the Standard of Care
- Damage resulting from a breach of the standard of care
Facilitating inclusion in educational gymnastics. Teaching Elementary Physical Education
- Techniques in teaching depends on the particular needs of students (e.g. age group, make-up of your class, availability of support staff, equipment, facilities)
- Adapt and modify instruction to meet various needs of students (promotes success across all ability levels)
- Instructional Techniques:
- 1. Instructional Environment
- 2. Peer Tutors
- 3. Time and Duration
- 4. Routines and Rituals
- 5. Modification Criteria
Teaching within the law: Liability for physical harm and the need for proper risk management
- understanding one’s legal obligations and potential liability is critical for teachers’ self-preservation
- risk has 2 dimensions:1. relative chances of something bad occurring 2. the chances that this misfortune will be serious
Duty of Care to Students with Disabilities:
- 1. paying particular attention to an individual student’s characteristics in determining negligence
- 2. displayed the usual judicial reluctance to deviate from use of the careful-parent test
- Defense to Negligence Based on Student Responsibility: Passing the Risk?
- Question to ask: Are students ever responsible for their own injuries?
- Voluntary Assumption of Risk: it can be shown that the plaintiff voluntarily assumed the risk that caused his/her injuries
- students are usually minors which makes the defence much more problematic
- 1. Must convince court that the activity or the student’s actions giving rise to the injury were “voluntary”
- 2. It is not enough that the physical risk of the activity be understood and voluntarily assumed → assumption of risk in law also includes the assumption of the legal risks
- 3. Problem of proving components of consent
- Contributory Negligence:
- students are rarely held responsible for their own actions and injuries
- coordinated effort to protect an organization’s human, physical, and financial assets
- 1. Managing physical risk:
- 2. Managing legal risk
Critical Approaches to Pedagogy
- Relates to social justice, marginalized groups, inadequacies of power relationships, and influences that impact production of knowledge and teaching practices in schools
- Challenge status quo and defends ideals of democracy and empowerment of individuals
- Be aware of political, social, cultural landscapes to promote social justice and adopt vision of education based on justice and equality
- Be critically engaged: speak up, ask reasonable and respectful questions about critical issues to educators and researchers
Cognition and Physical Activity benefits to physical Education
Content Specific Pedagogy for Educational Gymnastics
- Establishing an Environment for learning
- The Role of Intratask Development
- Refining Skills
- Establish Protocols
- Safety Rolls
- Appropriate Clothing
- Maintaining Equipment
- Handling and Moving Equipment
- Progressive Skill Development
- Providing Assistance
- Getting Ready
- Monitoring Fatigue Level
- Controlling Access to Equipment
- Positive Press
Teaching within the Law (Gregory M. Dickinson Reading)
- Discrimination occurs when differential treatment is based on stereotypical assumptions about persons’ abilities or worth
- Safety (environment vs disability, physical e.g. head gear vs religion, emotional vs differences in sexuality/sexual orientation)
- Promote respect and tolerance for all the diverse groups, as long as safety, respect, and tolerance – and core curricular requirements are not compromised
- Be sensible and respectful with diverse groups (e.g. disability, ethnicity, religion, sexuality, sexual orientation)
A respectful and Harassment-free learning Environment
- Under Canadian Law, students have to right to a learning environment free from discrimination.
- Sexual harassment can be defined as unwelcome sexual advances, requests for favours, or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature
This week, the group teach focused on invasion games. Jenny, Zoe, and Vivian did a wonderful job in breaking down the fundamental skills and movement, which allowed us to work on the basic skills necessary to play invasion games, such as running, dodging, and working on strategizing as a team. We gradually added one skill on top of the other and were given enough time to really improve our skills. They did a great job keeping in mind the concept of physical literacy and how these basic skills are necessary to develop the ability to understand, apply, and analyze other forms of movement, and demonstrate these movements confidently and competently across other health-related physical activities.
I was in Jenny’s group for discussion, and she did a great job summarizing the concept of Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU). It’s important to expose students to different ways of utilizing basic fundamental skills within various multi activities, to give them the opportunity to succeed in their own way.
Great job, ladies!
Friday was a wonderful day, albeit cold – so cold. If I had a choice, I’d be wearing my jacket during most of the time in class. In any case, I must give thanks to Mr. Rogers for that crazy shuffle warm up he made us do for what seemed like a very. long. time. That really got my heart pumpin’, my blood boilin’, and the heat risin’! A great start to the day.
The main goal of the day was going through the group lesson on volleyball! Oh, volleyball. If you asked me what my least favourite sport of all time was, I’d respond with that. Anyhow, I really enjoyed the activity presented, and it might have made me reclaim my liking for volleyball. We were split into four sections; each group focused on a specific skill: setting, bumping, serving, and free play (focusing on either or all three skills mentioned earlier). The amount of time spent within each section allowed everyone to develop good form and a range of skills – it was perfect.
I also thought Clarissa, Amanda, Terence, and Rylan executed the lesson impeccably. The energy they brought to the gym floor was great; it was clear that the energy level was then transferred and shared to the rest of the class. I was also impressed by their time management, and planning skills. As mentioned earlier, there was ample time to practice and perform well, individually, within the sections. Despite the fact that I thought the warm up at the beginning seemed a bit long (though, that’s probably because I have low stamina), the warm up did its job. As well as the stretch at the end was a good way to cool down. Anyways, great job guys and gals!
Am I sweating? My thoughts are unclear as I walk into the gym. I cannot fathom whether it’s from walking all the way from Scarfe building, or whether the word ‘P.E.’ and the associations with it, make me shiver and feel angsty. I am not one to be proud of my failing memory, but if I recall, there seems to be an invisible target on me that invites flying objects my way. And to add the cherry on top, my face seems to be the sweet spot. Also, I admit I have observed and experienced inclusion and exclusion before, so the inkling feeling of P.E. being fun does not come to mind.
As I walk into the gym, a basketball flies towards me. The angst comes back. I lift my arm to shield my face from the impact. Scared, I wait. Yet, I feel nothing! I look up, and notice the ball lands three feet away from me. With a sigh of relief, it is safe to say I can restart my P.E. experience on a good note. We start the day with free play by choosing props that I have not seen for ages, such as the parachute, skipping ropes, and tennis balls; we also play a game of Mission Impossible and Chuck the Chicken – both highly entertaining.
By the end of the day, I feel a sense of relief and joy. The activities we played, reminds me of how fun P.E. was and still is! It just proves to show that I need to face my fears (of getting hit by the ball) so I will not miss the good things in life (like having fun in P.E.). However, I look forward to learning about strategies from the curriculum on how to avoid exclusion, and refresh my memory on past activities, and learn some new games.