Methods (A-Z)

Methodological Genres :: Writing & Reporting (2005)
(The Methodological Writing Resources are examples of writing in specific research genres)
(Access through UBC Library Portal if Necessary)

Analysis (see Methods of Analysis)

Aboriginalizing Methods
Cole, P. (2002). Aboriginalizing methodology: Considering the canoe. Qualitative Studies in Education, 15(4), 447-459.

Action Research
Columbo, M. (2003). Reflexivity and Narratives in Action Research: A Discursive Approach. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 4(2).

Noffke, S. E.. (1997). Professional, Personal, and Political Dimensions of Action Research. In M. Apple (Ed.), Review of Educational Research, 22 (pp. 305-343). Washington, DC: AERA

Arts-Based Research
Barone, T. (2001). Science, art, and the predispositions of educational researchers. Educational Researcher, 30(10), 24-28.

Boetker, G. (2004). Entering research: Collapsing the personal, teacher, researcher identity.Paper presented at AARE.

Educational Insights.

Fels, L. (2004). Complexity, teacher education and the restless jury. Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity and Education, 1(1), 73-98.

Herman, L. (2005). Researching the images of evil events: An arts-based methodology in liminal space. Qualitative Inquiry, 11(3), 468-80.

McNiff, S. (2004). Research in new keys: An introduction to the ideas and methods of arts-based research [special issue on arts-based research]. Pedagogy Pluralism & Practice, 9.

Mullen, C. (2003). Guest editor’s introduction: “A self-fashioned gallery of aesthetic practice.” Qualitative Inquiry, 9(2), 165-81.

Petrina, S., Brennan, K., Krug, D., James, K., Peterson, J. & Mutt, R. (in press). Arts [and Crafts] -Based Research. Studies in Art Education.

Prendergast, M. (2003). I, me, mine: Soliloquizing as reflective practice. International Journal of Education and the Arts, 4(1).

Saldana, J. (2003). Dramatizing data: A primer. Qualitative Inquiry, 9(2), 218-36.

Scott-Hoy, K. (2003). Form carries experience. A story of the art and form of knowledge. Qualitative Inquiry, 9(2), 268-80.

Springgay, S., Irwin, R. & Wilson Kind, S. (2005). A/r/tography as living inquiry through art and text. Qualitative Inquiry, 11(6), 897-912.

Weber, S. & Mitchell, C. (2004). About arts-based research.

Arts and Crafts Based Research
Petrina, S., Brennan, K., Krug, D., James, K., Peterson, J. & Mutt, R. (2006). Arts [and Crafts] -Based Research. Unpublished Manuscript.

Arts, Crafts and Design Based Research
Petrina, S., Brennan, Feng, F., K., Krug, D., James, K. & Peterson, J. (2006). Arts, Crafts and Design Based Research. Unpublished Manuscript.

Baker, D. G. (2001). Future homemakers and feminist awakenings: Ethnography as a method in theological education and research. Religious Education, 96(3), 395-407.

Berry, T. R. (2005). Black on black education: Personally engaged pedagogy for/by African American pre-service teachers. Urban Review, 37(1), 31-48.

Denzin, N. (2003). Performing [auto} ethnography politically. Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, 25, 257-278.

Ellis, C. (1998). “I hate my voice:” Coming to terms with minor bodily stigmas. Sociological Quarterly, 39(4), 517-537.

Holt, N. (2003). Representation, legitimation and autoethnography. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(1).

Moore, P. (2004). Some notes on autoethnography.

Petrina, S. (under review). C&I high.

Kincheloe, J. (2001). Describing the bricolage: Conceptualizing a new rigor in qualitative research. Qualitative Inquiry, 7(3), 679-692.

Kincheloe, J. (2005). On to the next level: Continuing the conceptualization of the bricolage. Qualitative Inquiry, 11(3), 323-50.

Markham, A. N. (2005). “Go ugly early”: Fragmented narrative and bricolage as interpretive method.Qualitative Inquiry, 11(6), 813-839.

Case Study*
*Keep in mind that case study is not a method, per se. Rather, case study refers more to the parameters drawn around data and sites. A case study is an orientation to a particular phenomenon or specific phenomena. Researchers speak of “the case of x” or “the case of y” as a way of placing conceptual, spatial or temporal boundaries around data.

Case Study Resource Site

Tellis, W. (1997a). Introduction to case study. Qualitative Report, 3(2).

Tellis, W. (1997b). Application of a case study methodology. Qualitative Report, 3(3).

Yin, R. K. & Heald, K. A. (1975). Using the case survey method to analyse policy studies.Administrative Science Quarterly, 20(3), 371-381.

Yin, R. K. (1981). The case study crisis: Some answers. Administrative Science Quarterly 26(1), 58-65.

Yin, R. K. (1981). The case study as a serious research strategy,” Knowledge, 3(1), 97-114.

Content Analysis
Petrina, S. (1998). The politics of research in technology education: A critical content and discourse analysis of the Journal of Technology Education. Journal of Technology Education ,10(1), 27-57.

Crafts-Based Research
Petrina, S., Brennan, K., Krug, D., James, K., Peterson, J. & Mutt, R. (in press). Arts [and Crafts] -Based Research. Studies in Art Education.

Critical Discourse Analysis
Luke, A. (1995). Text and discourse in education: An introduction to critical discourse analysis. In M. Apple (Ed.), Review of Educational Research, 21 (pp. 3-48). Washington, DC: AERA.

Critical Ethnography
Barton, A. C. (2001). Science education in urban settings: Seeking new ways of praxis through critical ethnography. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38(8), 899-917.

Elliston, D. A. (2005). Critical reflexivity and sexuality studies in anthropology : Siting sexuality in research, theory, ethnography, and pedagogy. Reviews in Anthropology, 34(1), 21-47.

Jordon, S. & Yeomans, D. (1995). Critical ethnography: Problems in contemporary theory and practice. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 16(3), 389-408.

Porter, S. (1993). Critical realist ethnography: The case of racism and professionalism in a medical setting. Sociology, 27(4), 591-609.

Roman, Leslie. (1993). Double exposure: The politics of feminist materialist
ethnography. Educational theory 43(3), 279-308.

Critical Incident
Woolsey, L. K. (1986). The critical incident technique: An innovative method of qualitative research. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 20(4), 242-54.

Critical Narrative (Resistance or Counter Narrative)
Burdell, P. & Swadner, B. B. (1999). Critical personal narrative and autoethnography in education: Reflections on a genre. Educational Researcher, 28(6), 21-26.

Casey, K . (1995). The new narrative research in education. In M. Apple (Ed.), Review of Educational Research, 21 (pp. 211-253). Washington, DC: AERA.

Critical Race Theory
Gordon, L. R. (1999).A short history of the “critical” in critical race theory. APA Newsletters, 99(2).

Hall, K. (1999). White feminists doing critical race theory:
Some ethical and political considerations
APA Newsletters, 98(2).

Simon, T. W. (1999). Racists versus anti-Semites?: Critical race theorists criticized. APA Newsletters, 98(2).

Tate, W. (1997). Critical race theory and education. In M. Apple (Ed.), Review of Educational Research, 22 (pp. 195-247). Washington, DC: AERA

Critical Theory
Boje, D. M. (1998). How critical theory and critical pedagogy can unmask Nike’s labor practices.(On Nike, see also Petrina under Political Ecology).

Brookfield, S. (2002). Overcoming alienation as the practice of adult education. Adult Education Quarterly, 52(2), 96-111.

Dantley, M. E. (2003). Critical spirituality: Enhancing transformative leadership through critical theory and African American prophetic spirituality. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 6(1), 3-17.

Ellsworth, E. (1989). Why doesn’t this feel empowering? Working throough the repressive myths of critical pedagogy. Harvard Educational Review, 59(3), 297-324.

Langman, L. (2005). From virtual public spheres to global justice: A critical theory of internetworked social movements. Sociological Theory, 23(1), 42-74.

Lather, P. (2002). Critical pedagogy and its complicities: A praxis of stuck places. Educational Theory, 48(4).

Petrina, S. (2000). The politics of technological literacy. International Journal of Technology and Design Education 10(2), 181-206.

Hedges, W. D. (1997). Derrida and deconstruction: Key points.

Hedges, W. D. (1997). Using deconstruction to astonish your firends & confound enemies.

Leggo, C. (1998). Open(ing) texts: Deconstruction and responding to poetry. Theory Into Practice, 37(3), 186-92.

Rolfe, G. (2004). Deconstruction in a nutshell. Nursing Philosophy, 5(3), 274-75.

Vandenberg, O. (1995). Deconstruction: Coming to terms. English Journal, 84(2), 122-23.

Yates, L. (1997). Research Methodology, Education, and Theoretical Fashions: Constructing a Methodology Course in an Era of Deconstruction. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 10(4), 487-98.

Delphi Survey Technique
Custer, R., Scarcella, J. & Stewart, B. R. (1999). The modified Delphi technique- A roational modification. Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, 15(2).

Illinois Institute of Technology (n.d.). The Delphi method.

Descriptive Statistics (Cohort Analysis & Demography)
Bryson, M., Petrina, S., Braundy, M. & de Castell, S. (2003). “Conditions for Success”?: Gender in technology-intensive courses in British Columbia secondary schools. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 3(2). 185-193.

Petrina, S. (2004). Structural racisim at UBC? Faculty Focus: Newsletter of the Faculty Association of UBC, 37(7), 4-5, 7.

Design-Based Research
Gorard, S., Roberts, K. & Taylor, C. (2004). What kind of creature is a design experiment? British Educational Research Journal, 30(4), 577-590.

Kelly, A. E. (Ed.). (2003). Special issue: The role of design experiments in educational research. Educational Researcher, 32(1), 3-37.

Petrina, S., Brennan, K., Feng, F., Krug, D., James, K., Peterson, J. & Mutt, R. (2006). Arts, Crafts and Design Based Research. Unpublished Manuscript.

Discourse Analysis
Antaki, C., Billig, M., Edwards, D. & Potter, J. (2004). Discourse analysis means doing analysis. Discourse Analysis Online.

Hook, D. (2001). Discourse, knowledge, materiality, history: Foucault and discourse analysis. Theory & Psychology, 11(4), 521-47.

MacMillan, K. (2005). Discourse analysis– A primer.

Potter, J. (2004). Discourse analysis. In M. Hardy & A. Bryman (Eds.), Handbook of data analysis (pp. 607-24). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Discursive Analysis
Ainsworth, S. (2002). The ‘feminine advantage’: A discursive analysis of the invisibility of older women workers. Gender, Work and Organization, 9, 579-91.

Eisenhardt, M. (2001). Educational ethnography past, present and future: Ideas to think with. Educational Researcher, 30(8), 16-27.

Thorp, L. (2003). Voices from the garden: A performance ethnography. Qualitative Inquiry, 9(2), 312-24.

Feminist Research & Standpoint Epistemology
Clough, P. (1993). On the brink of deconstructing sociology: A critical reading of Dorothy Smith’s standpoint epistemology. Sociological Quarterly, 34(1), 169-182.

Roman, Leslie. (1993). Double exposure: The politics of feminist materialist
ethnography. Educational theory 43(3), 279-308.

Smith, D. (1993). High noon in textland: A critique of Clough. Sociological Quarterly, 34(1), 183-192.

Brown, J. R. (2002). Thought experiments. In the Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy.

Department of Psychology, Langara College. Writing Experimental Research.

Goodlad, L. M. (2005). Toward a Victorian’s theory of androgynous experiment. Vistorian Studies, 47(2), 215-29.

Gorard, S., Roberts, K. & Taylor, C. (2004). What kind of creature is a design experiment? British Educational Research Journal, 30(4), 577-590.

Howe, K. (2005). The question of education science: “Experiment”ism versus “experimental”ism. Educational Theory, 55(3), 307-321.

Kelly, A. E. (Ed.). (2003). Special issue: The role of design experiments in educational research. Educational Researcher, 32(1), 3-37.

Mutz, D. (2005). Social trust in e-commerce: Experimental evidence for the effects of social trust on individual economic behavior. Public Opinion Quarterly, 69(3), 393-416.

Ryan, T. (2002). Evaluation of two (2) quantitative research articles.

Writing@CSU. (2005). Differences between experimental and quasi-experimental research.

Howard, J. (2000). Left out: Politics and postmodern hermeneutics. Journal of Social and Poliotical Thought, 1(2), 1-15.

Jardine, D. (1996). Restoring the Life of Language to Its Original Difficulty”: On Hermeneutics, Whole Language, and “Authenticity.” Language Arts, 73(4), 255-259.

Laverty, S. (2003). Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(3), 1-29.

Perez-Gomez, A. & Bronfman, S. R. (1999). Heremeneutics of architectural discourse.

von Post, I & Eriksson, K. (1999). A hermeneutic textual analysis of suffering and caring in the peri-operative context. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 30(4), 983-989.

Wattchow, B. (2004). Many voices speak the river: Education in an adventureÏriverÏlandscape Educational Insights, 9(1)

Willis, P. From “the things themselves” to a “feeling of understanding”: Finding different voices in phenomenological research. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, 4(1), 1-13.

Petrina, S. (2002). Getting a purchase on “The School of Tomorrow” and its constituent commodities: Histories and historiographies of technologies. History of Education Quarterly, 42(1), 75-111.

Tilly, C. (1990). How (and what) are historians doing? American Behavioral Scientist, 33(6), 685-711.

Casey, K. (1995). The new narrative research in education. Review of research in education, volume 21 (pp. 211-253). Washington, DC: AERA. (JSTOR Download)

Conle, C. (2000). Thesis as inquiry or “what is the inquiry of narrative inquiry?” Curriculum Inquiry, 30(2), 189-210.

Moss, G. (2004). Provisions of trustworthiness in critical narrative research. Qualitative Report, 9(2), 359-374.

Narrative Inquiry

Link to Texts in Phenomenology Online
Phenomenology Online

Barritt, L., Beekman, T., Bleeker, H. & Mulderij, K. (1983). Analyzing phenomenological descriptions. Phenomenology + Pedagogy, 2(1), 1-17.

Briod, M. (1985). The young child’s sense of time and the clock. Phenomenology + Pedagogy, 4(1), 9-19.

Burch, R. 1990. Phenomenology, lived experience: Taking a measure of the topic. Phenomenology + Pedagogy, 8(1), 130-160.

Gagnon, R. (n.d.). Understanding depression. Phenomenology Online.

Political Ecology
Petrina, S. (2000). The political ecology of design and technology education: An inquiry into methods. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 10(3), 207-237.

Political Economy
Poterba, J. (1997). Demographic structure and the political economy of public education. Journal of Policy and Analysis and Management, 16(1), 48-66.

Gallagos, B. P. (2002). Whose Lady of Guadalupe? Indigenous Performances, Latina/o Identities, and the Postcolonial Project. Journal of Latinos and Education, 1(3), 177-91.

Gaztambide-Fernandez, R. A. (2002). Reggae, Ganja, and Black Bodies: Power, Meaning, and the Markings of Postcolonial Jamaica in Perry Henzell’s “The Harder They Come.” Review of Education, Pedagogy, & Cultural Studies, 24(4), 353-76.

Kanu, Y. (2005). Tensions and Dilemmas of Cross-Cultural Transfer of Knowledge: Post-Structural/postcolonial Reflections on an Innovative Teacher Education in Pakistan. International Journal of Educational Development, 25(5), 493-513.

Karmat, S. (2004). Postcolonial aporias, or what does fundamentalism have to do with globalization? the contradictory consequences of education reform in India. Comparative Education, 40(2), 267-287.

(See Bricolage and Deconstruction)

Maclure, M. (1995). Postmodernism: A postscript. Educational Action Research, 3(1), 105-126.

Willinsky, J. (1991). Postmodern literacy: A primer. Interchange, 22(4), 56-76.

(See Bricolage and Deconstruction)

Lather., P. (1992). Critical Frames in Educational Research: Feminist and Post-structural Perspective. Theory Into Practice, 31(1), 87-99.

Lather, P (2002). Critical pedagogy and its complicities: A praxis of stuck places. Educational Theory, 48(4).

Tisdell, E. J. (1998). Poststructural Feminist Pedagogies: The Possibilities and Limitations of Feminist Emancipatory Adult Learning Theory and Practice. Adult Education Quarterly, 48(3), 139-56.

Methodological Issues

Reviews of Literature
Boote, D. N. & Beile, P. (2005). Scholars before researchers: On the centrality of the dissertation literature review in research preparation. Educational Researcher, 34(6), 3-15.

Cooper, H. M. (1982). Scientific guideline for conducting integrative research reviews. Review of Educational Research, 52(2), 291-302.

Custer, R. L. (1993). Reviewing the literature. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 30(3), 7-12.

Jackson, G. B. (1980). Methods for integrative reviews. Review of Educational Research, 50(3), 438-60.

Nielsen, H. B. (1995). Seductive texts with serious intentions. Educational Researcher, 24(1), 4-12.

Petrina, S. & Guo, R. (in press). Developing a large-scale assessment of technological literacy. In M. Hoepfl & M. Lindstrom (Eds.), Assessment in technology education. New York: Glencoe-McGraw Hill.

See also issues of the Review of Educational Research.

Theoretical Frameworks
Camp, W. C. (2001). Formulating and evaluating theoretical frameworks for career and technical education research. Journal of Vocational Education Research, 26(1), 4-25.

Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding reliability and validity in qualitative research.. The Qualitative Report, 8(4), 597-607.

Lather, P. (1993). Fertile obsession: Validity after postmodernism. Sociological Quarterly, 34(4), 673-693.