All posts by travis sheppard

Final week

This was a great way to end the course. It consolidated everything that we have been learning about when it comes to making physical literacy part of everyday life of students. What better way to do that then to work in into different curricular areas. Hearing everyone’s ideas facilitated the idea of creating a drop box in which all of the students within the cohort could submit their lessons for future use. My only issue was that there were two different groups that were presenting that day and it didn’t seem as though there was enough time to do both. If two groups had presented in the penultimate week, it wouldn’t have been so bad; we would still have been pressed for time in that class but the last class seemed to be unfinished. With the yoga group unable to get to all areas of the lesson that they wanted to, the lesson seemed as though it were left hanging. I believe that there should have been more of a warm-up for it but there didn’t seem as though there was enough time. Because of this my hip is still hurting a week afterwards and I am thinking of going to see a doctor about it.

Summary of this weeks readings

Thinking of domains as a group creates a holistic approach to assessment


Physical educators have to make judgments based on collected assessment data utilizing checklists, analytic rating scales, and rubrics.

Should be continuous throughout the year and collaborative – Both students and parents could benefit from being involved in the assessment process and students become aware of their abilities strengths and weaknesses they can set and meet their own learning goals



– There should be a balance of curricular outcomes based on the inclusion of cognitive, psychomotor, and effective criteria and also be a variety of assessment strategies used, such as learning logs, performance task, and portfolios rather than simply skills-based testing



– Assessment needs to have a clear understanding of which criteria students are to be measured and evaluated


Norm-referenced and criterion referenced evaluation

– When the student’s abilities are referenced in relation to another; when the student’s abilities are referenced in relation to a standard deviation of average


– Three types of validity:

  1. Content validity-how well an assessment accurately measures student learning of what was taught 2. Criterion validity-how well an assessment aligns with articulated criteria
  2. Construct validity-how well an assessment measures what it supposed to be measured


Reliability based on how consistent a measure is implemented over a number of occasions

Internally consistent reliability: how well an assessment measures components that are equally challenging; Inter-rater reliability: how well assessment measures results when applied to different students



– What pre-existing knowledge the students have in relation to outcomes and expectations?

– Where are student’s cognitive psychomotor and affective knowledge in relation to other students?


Formative assessment

– provides ongoing feedback to the students and to the educator about the effectiveness of the lesson

– Students are able to appreciate their own improvements as well as others


Summative assessment

-coming at the end of the unit or term, this allows teachers to gauge skill levels at a certain point of time


Evaluation and grading

– There are many different ways to report student’s learning

– numerical scores and letter grades are the most common grading systems that are being replaced by the use of qualitative descriptors such as excellent, satisfactory, or needs improvement


Exit slips

– provide educators with knowledge of students understanding at the end of the term



– allow students to have immediate feedback on their progress, fair play, and cooperation



– should be made in collaboration with the students

– Should address all domains such as written assignments, fitness testing, and goals


Skill test– used to assess various movement tasks – Physical educators can isolate and assess particular movements and skills


Written tests– used to assess knowledge independent of psychomotor skills


Rubrics– rating scale with more detailed descriptors

  1. Allows students’ knowledge of expectations
  2. Help students understand what quality looks like
  3. Allow students to know what they should do differently the next time
  4. Allow students to self-assess
  5. Helps instructors plan lessons
  6. Allows teachers to justify grades
  7. Helps teachers communicate with caregivers


Movement domains: help provide a variety of activities for students

Five movement domains:

  1. Dance 2. Alternative environment physical activities 3. Individual physical activities 4. Games
  2. Gymnastics


Dance: There is much freedom within dance – Dance is cross-cultural – You can follow choreography or freestyle


Levels of Dance: 1. Movement for movement’s sake 2. Creating an aesthetic experience 3. To create a structured dance



– jumping rolling and climbing are fundamental skills of gymnastics that can be transferred for use in many sports – It’s an aesthetic sport that is concerned with movement – It has many forms but rhythmic gymnastics and educational gymnastics are usually taught in physical education

– Rhythmic gymnastics: incorporates dance, Music, and various apparatuses – Educational gymnastics: students work at their own level on tasks structured to develop understanding of movement, body awareness, and applied skill


Fundamental gymnastic skills:

  1. Locomotion– moving from place to place with emphasis on the way transference such as rolling and jumping, as well as, stepping actions such as running in skipping
  2. Statics– ask a balancing such as headstands, frog stands, and back arches

There are four different types of balances:

– Over-balance which involves shifting weight out of the base of support such as a forward roll

– Counter resistance which involves two or more people pushing against each other to achieve stability

– Counter attention involves partners pulling away from each other to create balance

– Suspension which usually happens in an apparatus

  1. Rotations– movements such as rolling, cartwheeling, and spinning
  2. Springs– involve any part of the body producing flight such as jumping or hopping
  3. Landings– The creation of stability after flight. It is the ability to absorb force.
  4. Swings– free-flowing movement on suspended from apparatus usually buy hands or knees on bars, ropes, and rings


Movement concepts:

  1. What is the body doing? 2. Where is the movement going? 3. What is the dynamic content or quality of movement? 4. With whom or two what is the movement relating?


Fundamental movement skills:

– Basic movement skills providing understanding and ability for more complex skills. They include running, stopping, turning, rolling, balancing, jumping, skipping, Etc.


Games theory

– All games are either individually, partner focused, or team focused – The students to know both the basic movements of a game as well as the rules pertaining to the game- Skills are both physical and tactical – Socio-affective factors such as relationships, motivation, and feelings of confidence and support are critical for games literacy


Games pedagogy

– Top down instruction about skills, tactics, and rules designed to meet learning objectives – Bottom up approach is more common in elementary physical education we’re mastering themes of the game is more important than mastering the technical aspects of it – Game is instructors need to know how to problem solve about the equipment; modify rules; and have students function in certain team roles


-Four stages of teaching games: 1. Developing control of an object 2. Control and combinations of skills 3. Knowledge of offense and defense 4. Complex gameplay


Individual physical activities

– Walking, swimming, and cycling are common individual physical activities

– Two types of physical fitness are health related fitness and skill related fitness

– Health related fitness: cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, body composition

– Skill related fitness: agility and coordination, balance, speed, power


Alternative environment activities

– Activities not normally performed in a gymnasium or a playing field such as curling, swimming, canoeing, or skiing

– Safety is of the utmost importance because these activities are not normally done and highly controlled settings

– Land oriented physical activities such as hiking in orienteering are usually noncompetitive



Question: What are some reasons, unstated in the book, that dance should be incorporated into the physical education curriculum?