In the first topic of this module, we will look at the development of sustainable forest management. Current forest management practices evolved simultaneously in different parts of the world, although there was a common beginning in central Europe about 300 years ago. In some cases, attempts (usually unsuccessful) were made to strictly apply these early techniques designed for European forests to forests around the world. However, mostly, there have been local adaptations that take into account the tremendous diversity of forest types around the world.
It is particularly important that sustainable forest management did not develop in isolation. In particular concerns about the environment, and what humans are doing to it, progressively increased in the second half of the 20th century, resulting in the development of the ‘environmental movement’. Issues such as air and water pollution garnered a great deal of attention, resulting in strict legislation in some countries. Similarly concerns of water supply, loss of biodiversity, access to forests and other issues have all resulted in various types of legislation in many countries, with an impact on the way that forests are managed.
The written text addresses some of these issues, and provides a little background. It focuses on the evolution of ecosystem management in the USA, particularly in the Pacific Northwest where concerns about the future of the Northern Spotted Owl promoted major changes in forest management. The presentation discusses some of the international aspects of the background to the changes in forest management practices, emphasizing the importance of international activities such as the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992, and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.
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1.1.1 The evolving context of sustainable forest management
1.1.2 Sustainable development
1.1.3 Findings of millennium ecosystem effectiveness
1.1.4 Origins of sustainable forest management
- Leopold, A. (1948). The land ethic. Retrieved from http://home.btconnect.com/tipiglen/landethic.html
- Interagency Scientific Committee, United States. (1990). A conservation strategy for the northern spotted owl. Retrieved from http://www.fws.gov/arcata/es/birds/nso/documents/ConservationStrategyForTheNorthernSpottedOw_May1990.pdf
- Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team, United States. (1993). Forest ecosystem management: An ecological, economic, and social assessment (Book). Retrieved from http://books.google.ca/books/about/Forest_Ecosystem_Management.html?id=Exbbavi7bA0C&redir_esc=y
- Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management, United States. (1994). Standards and guidelines for management of habitat for late-successional and old-growth forest related species within the range of the northern spotted owl. Retrieved from http://www.reo.gov/documents/reports/newsandga.pdf
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- MacCleery, D. (n.d.). Re-inventing the United States forest service: Evolution from custodial management, to production forestry, to ecosystem management. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/ai412e/AI412E06.htm
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- Office of the Auditor General of British Columbia. (2010). Defining ecological integrity. Retrieved from https://www.bcauditor.com/sites/default/files/publications/2010/report3/files/oagbcconservationofecologicalintegritysupplemtalinfodefiningeiout.pdf
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- Chistensen, N.L., Bartuska, A.M., Brown, J.H., Carpenter, S., D’Antonio, C., Francis, R., Franklin, J.F., MacMahon, J.A., Noss, R.F., Parsons, D.J., Peterson, C.H., Turner, M.G., & Woodmansee, R.G. (1996). The report of the ecological society of America committee on the scientific basis for ecosystem management. Ecological Applications, 6 (3), 665-691. DOI:2307/2269460
- Gauthier, S., Vaillancourt, M.-A., Leduc, A., De Grandpré, L., Kneeshaw, D., Morin, H., Drapeau, P., & Bergeron, Y. (Eds.). (2009). Ecosystem management in the boreal forest. Québec: Presses de l’Université du Québec. ISBN-10:2760523810; ISBN-13: 978-2760523814
- Grumbine, R.E. (1994). What is ecosystem management? Conservation Biology 8, 27-38.
- Hammond, H. (2009). Maintaining whole systems on Earth’s crown: Ecosystem-based conservation planning for the boreal forest. Slocan Park, British Columbia: Silva Forest Foundation. ISBN-10:0973477903; ISBN-13: 978-0973477900
- Lertzman, K., Spies, T., & Swanson, F. (1997). From ecosystem dynamics to ecosystem management. In: P.K. Schoonmaker, B. von Hagen, & E.C. Wolf (Eds.) The rain forests of home: Profile of a North American bioregion. Washington DC: Island Press. pp. 361-382. ISBN-10:1559634804; ISBN-13: 978-1559634809