In this topic, we look at some of the indicators that have been used to measure whether management objectives in the area of conservation of soils and water are being met. This is a difficult area, as the most informative indictors require very detailed measurements, and these are generally not being done, especially in jurisdictions where the management units are very large. Instead, as you will see, there is now a tendency to move away from such costly indicators, with indicators focusing on the presence of suitable management guidelines and practices.
We will also briefly look at how you might undertake a geomorphological hazard assessment. This is a complex area that requires a great deal of skill, not least because the consequences of an incorrect decision could be very serious (for example, resulting in fatalities). In many situations, the assessment is best done by a trained geomorphologist or geo-engineer, but it is important that a forester be able to recognize situations for which a professional opinion should be sought.
3.4.1 Indicators for the conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources
3.4.2 Hazard assessment in forests
- Chapter 7 of the course text:
Innes, J., & Tikina, A. (Eds.). (2014). Sustainable forest management: From principles to practice. London: Earthscan Publications. ISBN: 1844077241
- Pike, R. G., Feller, M. C., Stednick, J. D., Rieberger, K. J., & Carver, M. (n.d.). Water quality and forest management. Retrieved from https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/lmh/Lmh66/Lmh66_ch12.pdf
For an account of the relationships between forest management and water quality in British Columbia, Canada, see the PDF at the above link.
- Daniels, B., McAvoy, D., Kuhns, M., & Gropp, R. (2004). Managing forests for water quality: Forest roads. Retrieved from https://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/factsheet/NR_FF_010.pdf
A useful account on forest road management in relation to water quality, specifically for Utah in the USA, is provided at the above link.
- British Columbia Ministry of Forest. (1999). Forest practice code of British Columbia: Hazard Assessment Keys for evaluating site sensitivity to soil degrading processes guidebook (2nd ed.). ISBN 0-7726-4657-0. Retrieved from: https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/tasb/legsregs/fpc/fpcguide/HAZARD/HazardAssessKeys-web.pdf.
- British Columbia Ministry of Forest. (1999). Forest practices code of British Columbia: Mapping and assessing terrain stability guidebook (2nd ed.). ISBN 0-7726-3893-4. Retrieved from: https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/TASB/LEGSREGS/FPC/FPCGUIDE/terrain/zipped/terrain.pdf
- Brundsen, D., & Prior, D.B. (1984). Slope instability. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
- Dikau, R., Brunsden, D., Schrott, L., & Ibsen, M.-L. (Eds.) (1996). Landslide recognition. Identification, movement and causes. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN: 978-0-471-96477-3
- Downs, P.W., & Gregory, K.J. (2004). River channel management: Towards sustainable catchment hydrosystems. London: Arnold. ISBN-10: 0340759690; ISBN-13: 978-0340759691
- Weir, P. (2002). Snow avalanche: Management in forested terrain. Victoria: Ministry of Forests. ISBN 0-7726-4881-6. Retrieved from: https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/Docs/Lmh/Lmh55.pdf