Microbes, life forms too small to be seen by the unaided human eye, make our bodies their home and use it to live and reproduce. Among these microbes are viruses, more like machines than organisms, with only one purpose: to keep making more of themselves. Viruses inhabit living cells and use the cells’ machinery to reproduce, so the cells can’t work the way they’re supposed to. The results are generally horrible, and none more so than those of Zaire ebolavirus. Zaire ebolavirus can kill about 90% of the people it infects, though the current outbreak in West Africa has killed only about 65% of the confirmed cases according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Zaire ebolavirus image courtesy of The Tech Journal (click image).
Ebola is transferred through contact with infected bodily fluids, even sweat, and people infected with Ebola must be isolated in a health care facility. Symptoms of Ebola include vomiting, diarrhea, and haemorrhage (losing blood through openings on the surface of the body). In spite of this, contact with infected bodily fluids is not hard to come by, and Ebola is quite easy for a healthy person to contract. In addition, Ebola has started making its way around the world, and nobody is really safe. Humans have no official pharmaceutical defense (vaccines, drugs, medicine, etc.) against Ebola, making Ebola the deadliest virus in the world to humans, even more so than the almost invariably fatal (if untreated) rabies virus since humans have developed effective vaccines and treatments for rabies.
So how can we avoid Ebola? It’s worth pointing out that Z. ebolavirus can be killed with soap, so wash your hands frequently. If someone diagnosed with or suspected to have Ebola has been on your property, the area should be professionally cleaned and disinfected. Everyone who’s been on the property since the infected individual should be tested for Ebola as symptoms do not appear immediately after infection and may have been contracted by a visitor or resident. Ebola has a horrifying reputation, and the results are very real. Nonetheless, if we all do our part, Ebola is unlikely to become a global pandemic (rapid infections and outbreaks all over the world). A YouTube video by TestTube puts this matter in clear perspective:
– Jared Martin
Universal communication embodies among the most organized literature in the world. Standard style and format that must be agreed upon and understood throughout the globe make universal communication a tricky subject. Formal scientific writing is perhaps one of the best examples of how universal standard guidelines influence literature all over the world. In the scientific community, researchers must be able to communicate with each other in a way they can all understand and interpret. To illustrate, in essence, scientific journal articles written in Africa, Eurasia, and America could not be visually distinguished by country of origin when translated into the same language.
Universal communication guidelines are established in scientific writing to make scientific writing recognizable in the entire scientific community. This is because the scientific community is a global community since scientific laws, theories, and principles are universal as well. In addition, scientific communication is often of key importance in studying and even solving a worldwide problem such as the current Ebola epidemic in western Africa finding its way around the world and making itself a global issue.
Zaire ebolavirus, the most lethal virus in the world. Image courtesy of Wikipedia (click on image to visit page).
Here’s a video taken from YouTube, courtesy of BBC News, to address the global concern of the current Ebola outbreak and the importance of global communication in managing the epidemic.
The biomechanical operations of the human body can be largely attributed to the classes of lever systems composing the human musculoskeletal system. The human body is predominantly composed of first class lever systems and third class lever systems with high distance advantages. A first class lever system consists of an exertion of effort on one side of a fulcrum and an acting force on the other side of the fulcrum. A third class lever system consists of an exertion of effort close to a fulcrum and an acting force further from the same fulcrum. A Wikipedia image of lever classes with first class at the top (load and effort reversed from most human muscle systems) and third class at the bottom can be found here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lever#mediaviewer/File:Lever_%28PSF%29.png
By applying a large amount of effort, humans are able to move limbs in relatively wide arcs with appreciable speed, but humans are not relatively well equipped to exert large amounts of force in comparison to other animals. In other words, humans are more capable of greater feats of mobility than they are of feats of great power and generally can’t carry much more than their own body weight. Muscles operate by contracting and pulling, not by pushing. The biceps, for instance, attach to the forearm near the elbow and pull to lift the load of the arm all the way out to the hand at the same angle corresponding to a larger arc around the elbow joint. If a human were to extend their arm and pushed on an object with the back of their hand, the triceps attached to the forearm would contract and pull the hand in the opposite direction around the elbow joint.
Further clarification of human muscle lever system biomechanics can be found here:
– Jared Martin