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Don’t worry, you can still look beautiful even if you are late for class.

Did you have an experience when your pretty classmate came late in the morning class and you did not recognize her? Please do not blame her for looking different. Women usually take at least 10 minutes to do makeup; however, if they wake up late, there are only two choices: give up on makeup or be really late on class or work. I am sure that most of the women have thought of this at least once, “uh, I am too lazy to do my makeup and remove it at the end of the day.”

There is one solution for that: permanent makeup. Your eyeliner will not smudge even when you cry unexpectedly, your eyebrow will stay at the pool party and your lip colour will stay vibrant even after you ate hamburger. If you cannot give up on your eyebrow and your eyeliner, but it is hard to wake up 10 minutes early, think about getting a permanent makeup. You can sleep 10 more minutes but still look great with your perfect looking (permanent) makeup.


Before and After the permanent makeup. Source: Click on the image will lead to flickr

Permanent makeup is also called micro pigmentation, which is a skill used for tattoo. Perhaps, the steps for getting a permanent makeup are very similar to the procedures for getting a tattoo. Permanent makeup has some good effects on people. For example, it gives hope to people who have lost their natural brows by disease such as alopecia totalis or accidents. Also, women would not have to worry everyday about drawing asymmetrical, two totally different looking eyebrows.

Eyebrow permanent makeup process. Source: Click on image will lead to flickr

However, there are many side effects for this makeup. According to CNN, the permanent ink that is used for eyeliner, lip color, or eyebrow may cause allergies, swelling, cracking, peeling, blistering, scarring, infection or granulomas. These reactions can be severe and hard to recover. FDA states that it has not administered the pigments used for tattoo or permanent makeup, but it did restrain some of the pigments that were reported to have side effects. Also, since permanent makeup is similar to tattoo, it cannot be removed easily. You would have to think carefully about the shape and the colour before you get it done. Moreover, permanent makeup is quite costly, so if you are okay with waking up a bit early and getting your makeup done, you might want to do that. However, if you do get permanent makeup, you will not need any extra makeup products, so you can save money. After all, it is fully up to you. Would you try getting a permanent makeup even though you know all those side effects?

Here is a video from a technician, Tracy Fensome. She shows the procedure for the lips permanent makeup.

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Michelle ShinHwo Bak

Factors That Reduce the Effectiveness of Your Anti-Ageing Skincare Products

People use anti-ageing products in skincare each day. Ranging from sunscreens to skin creams, serums, etc., these products are advertised by companies to help stave off your skin’s physical ageing and prolong youth. The skincare industry is so important that the global projected revenues for skincare is estimated to reach 102.3 billion dollars by year 2018. With all the glut of skincare products marketed towards maintaining youth, consumers feel the need to use multiple products at one time by layering one product over the other. Skin care products are advertised in a way that entices the customer to buy them. This can range from fancy packaging to the use of rare ingredients that supposedly unlock the secret to youthful skin.

Unfortunately, layering products on top of each other may not be the best way to get the most out them. This is because some products work effectively at different pH levels.

It seems intuitive to layer your skin care products that contain Retinol (vitamin A) with products that contain L-Ascorbic acid. Both are anti-oxidants that protect your skin against free radical damage, a main cause of ageing. Free radicals are oxygen molecules that have attached themselves to molecules in the skin. These new oxygen molecules break down your molecules in the skin.

Antioxidants work by destroying the chain of free radical molecules, preventing further break down. The consumer thinks that layering will give double duty protecting against ageing. From a scientific standpoint, that is not the case. Retinol works best at a neutral pH. On the other hand, L-Ascorbic acid works best at an acidic pH. Retinol requires a two step process to after it has been applied to the skin to work effectively. The acidity of L-Ascorbic acid decreases the efficacy of the two step process to occur, therefore reducing the effectiveness of retinol.

Skincare product in jar packaging. From Flickr.

The packaging and storage of skincare products also matters in the effectiveness of the ingredients inside. When the ingredient used in skincare products are constantly exposed to air, the chemicals break down much faster. This renders the ingredients less effective in combatting ageing. A study published in Pharmaceutical Development and Technology found that antioxidants in jar packaging degraded faster than antioxidants in more airtight packaging (i.e. squeeze tubes or pumps). This is due to the exposure to oxygen in the air. Repeated opening and closing of a jar of your favourite serum or moisturizer will introduce oxygen to the ingredients.

Next time you want to layer your skin care products on top of each other, consider how the ingredients inside them will interact. In addition, consider the packaging that the products are in.

Jade Lu

The ketogenic diet: the world’s most counter-intuitive diet

Last week my co-workers gaped at me as they watched me pour 33% fat whipping cream into my unsweetened black tea. Their judgemental looks were then followed by choruses of “Wow, what a treat” and “Aren’t you lucky to be able to eat something like that”. The truth was I was not treating myself at all, but trying to get ingest my required fat intake for the day of 137g. Why am I drinking whipped cream in my tea? I have decided to follow the ketogenic diet.

The ketogenic diet is essentially a high fat, moderate protein, low carbohydrate diet with most people aiming for about 65% of daily calories from fats and only about 5% of daily calories from carbohydrates. Many people dismiss the idea of this diet as extremely unhealthy due to its almost exact opposite ideology of Canada’s Food Guide which recommends 45-65% of your daily calories to come from carbohydrates and only 25-30% from fats. This is not an unfair assumption as most popular media and famous science seems to tell us that low fat is the key to healthy eating, but recent studies are starting to suggest otherwise.

A ketone

The goal of the ketogenic diet is to achieve a constant biological state called ketosis, in which the liver produces biomolecules called ketones derived from fatty acids to provide energy to the body when glycogen stores in our body are depleted. This results in a shift in our metabolism from carbohydrates as a primary energy source to fats as a primary energy source. This can be done by greatly limiting the carbohydrates in our diets and essentially starving that metabolic pathway. For a more in depth explanation of the biochemical process, check out this video by Khan Academy.

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High fat/ low carbohydrates diet have traditionally been used in medicine for the treatment of various health problems such as epilepsy and obesity. Ketogenic diets have been used in epileptic children for years and has been proven to work as an effective anticonvulsant. In a recent study, researchers compared obese patients on a low fat diet to a low carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet. Not only did they find that the patients on the low carbohydrate diet lost significantly more weight than the patients on the low fat diet, but they were more likely to persist on the diet. Perhaps one of the most exciting results of ketogenic diet research has found the diet to have an anti-tumor quality due to the reduced circulation of free glucose in the bloodstream: an essential nutrient to tumor growth and development.

While my days are filled with high fat creams, bacon, steak, cheese, and green vegetables, this diet is not as easy as it may sound. I did not realize how intense carbohydrate cravings could get (as demonstrated by this study that found sweets to have a stronger reward pathway than cocaine) and occasionally find myself staring longingly at the fruit section of the grocery store. But so far I am enjoying this experience and the great thing about diets is that you can always change them if they are not for you.

Biomechanics and Human Mobility

The biomechanical operations of the human body can be largely attributed to the classes of lever systems composing the human musculoskeletal system. The human body is predominantly composed of first class lever systems and third class lever systems with high distance advantages. A first class lever system consists of an exertion of effort on one side of a fulcrum and an acting force on the other side of the fulcrum. A third class lever system consists of an exertion of effort close to a fulcrum and an acting force further from the same fulcrum. A Wikipedia image of lever classes with first class at the top (load and effort reversed from most human muscle systems) and third class at the bottom can be found here:

By applying a large amount of effort, humans are able to move limbs in relatively wide arcs with appreciable speed, but humans are not relatively well equipped to exert large amounts of force in comparison to other animals. In other words, humans are more capable of greater feats of mobility than they are of feats of great power and generally can’t carry much more than their own body weight. Muscles operate by contracting and pulling, not by pushing. The biceps, for instance, attach to the forearm near the elbow and pull to lift the load of the arm all the way out to the hand at the same angle corresponding to a larger arc around the elbow joint. If a human were to extend their arm and pushed on an object with the back of their hand, the triceps attached to the forearm would contract and pull the hand in the opposite direction around the elbow joint.

Further clarification of human muscle lever system biomechanics can be found here: YouTube Preview Image

– Jared Martin