To enable a blended learning environment, I “flipped” lab demonstrations to an online technical resource. The following is a full outline of the resource, each module contains a video and accompanying quiz questions. The “Overview” and “Extra Resources” areas contain outlines of the module, and extra links and other online tutorials (on the web) for further information and detail.
The online technical demonstration library was organized into 6 technical demonstration modules, and two appendixes. Each video was created from scratch and tailored to the curriculum and stages of development of an introductory class. Videos range from 4 – 30 minutes each, and can contain up to 8 quiz questions following. The modules are:
- Module 1: Fundamentals (6 videos)
- Module 2: Introductory Photoshop (10 videos)
- Module 3: Advanced Photoshop (4 videos)
- Module 4: Introductory Premiere (9 videos)
- Module 5: Advanced Premiere (6 videos)
- Module 6: Audacity (7 videos)
- Appendix A: Concepts (4 videos)
- Appendix B: UBC Facilities (3 videos)
MODULE 1: FUNDAMENTALS
This module presents a basic introduction to the computer, larger topics of digital imaging, and direction towards making decisions in the digital medium. You will gain an overview of fundamental knowledge needed to start your journey in digital media visual arts. In specific, the following videos will give a brief overview of:
Video 1.0 Welcome
This component will introduce you to the organization and structure of the online component, and how to use it alongside the class.
Video 1.1 OSX Interface
The OSX system is the Macintosh operating system, while it might be new to some, with time and practice it will become second nature. You should also start by formatting your external drive, so that you can use it cross-platforms if necessary. OSX Interface component includes basic file management and navigation in OSX, including naming, moving, deleting and copying files, creating folders, and folder management.
Video 1.2 Digital Workflow & Formatting your Drive
Good habits of digital workflow refers to the entire process of creating and outputting digital media. This includes formatting your hard drive or USB key for whichever platform you will be using, gathering content, naming, saving, and structuring your files and folders.
Having a structured workflow and knowledge of file management when working with digital media is important. When you are in the process of creating art, it is crucial to be able to navigate to any file or folder in order to keep the flow going, rather than sift through many folders looking for the image, sound, texture, etc. and sometimes end up losing track of your idea and vision. A consistent organizational structure for each project is instrumental in minimizing the time you spend looking for files and trying to rescue projects that have missing files and links. Practicing good habits at the beginning will help to create a solid foundation of workflow practice, and allow you to spend more time creating, and less time looking for files or lost content.
It is a good idea to set up a specific project folder for every project you start, and to be organized by putting everything that you need for that project into that one folder. As well, if the project you are starting is part of a class, labeling the folder and project file with your name can ensure that the teacher knows whose project it is. It is also wise to label your flashdrive, and all folders and files associated to you for collecting.
Video 1.3 Raster & Vector Graphics
General understanding of two types of digital imaging systems, raster and vector, are explained.
Video 1.4 Output & Software Summaries
Ways in which to output media towards realizing your visual arts projects in the format you desire. This section provides a brief introduction to different software/programs that we will be using in the course, as well as software we will not be using but are good to know that they exist, and what they do.
In general, it is wise to start with how you see your “output” (executed work) and go backwards towards the steps to take to get you there, including what program imaging system to use, and ways to digitize and gather input media. Output refers to the format of your finalized piece. Some examples are: a printed photograph to be hung on a gallery wall, a projected moving image for a theatre, a sound installation with various speakers around an auditorium, a small moving gif for distribution on the web, etc… Deciding on your output format, and the way you will execute your project, is vital to understanding how your project will be read or interpreted in the final setting. How your project is shown will lead to specific connotations in which the audience will read your work.
For example, if you create a photographic print, frame and hang it in a gallery, people will see the work as a very decisive specific work of art, that needs to be contemplated in a very attentive way in the serious space of the gallery as a work in a frame. If your work is an amateur-style video that you create to be circulated on youtube and social media, people will interpret that setting as geared towards a wider audience, with a democracy in who can approach it and how it communicates through its medium.
This video will take you through the different considerations in a selection of programs that will allow you the output you desire to execute your project idea. These include different types of still imagery, including vinyl cut, photographic prints, posters, etc… As well, we will go through moving image including video for exhibition, internet circulation, and audio execution, etc… You will have to consider many different options before starting the project, and these options will greatly inform the concept of your work. There are different properties to each medium, and how you choose to use each medium that will affect your final output. Thinking about the properties of each medium will inform you on how to choose your input, information, and materials.
The most important information in the following videos is that you should always decide and know how you want the final execution of your project to be, before you start working on it. If you decide on the final format before you start working on it, you can start executing properly from the beginning, instead of having to go back and re-do things. Quality of time is much more productive than quantity, so know what you want and take the steps to get there. The following video will hopefully give you ideas towards what you want. It should be mentioned that there are no ‘wrong’ or ‘correct’ output decisions, just decisions that work well for your idea or project. It is a good idea to use these connotations towards directing ways that viewers can interpret the work. Every decision is important.
Some questions to ask yourself before you choose an output are:
- What is your project idea, and how do you imagine it executed?
- How do you best translate your idea into digital media?
- Does it work better as a still, moving image, audio, or combination of any of these?
- What quality would compliment your idea? For example, amateur aesthetic, prestige of fine art, preciousness, ‘slacker’ sensibility, or reference to commercial imagery?
- Does this media choice distract, compliment, or enhance complexity to your idea?
- How does your idea change when imagining it through different formats? For example, just try thinking of how you would translate it to different output, just to experiment!
- After all this, what is the final output destination of your idea?
- And finally, figure out the steps to get there.
- You can use many different formats for one idea, technically, but also conceptually.
- You can think of an idea for a project, and then try and figure out which formats you will need to achieve this project. For example, in the case of a video file, you might need audio, moving images, still images etc.
Video 1.5 Input
Input gives you a summary of ways to gather various media for use in your projects.
MODULE 2: INTRODUCTORY PHOTOSHOP
This module presents a basic introduction to Photoshop. It will go through the language you will use in Photoshop, from learning how to “read” photographic information to colour theory and the use of basic tools. With completion of this module, you will gain a basic comprehension of the framework, navigation, and features of Photoshop. Specifically, the following videos will give a brief overview of:
Video 2.0 Introduction to Photoshop
This component will introduce you to the organization and structure of the introduction to Photoshop online component.
Video 2.1 Bits, Bytes, Histogram & Density
In order to use Photoshop effectively and efficiently in your projects, it is important to understand the fundamentals in the program’s language. Digital images in greyscale are made up of 8 bits, otherwise known as 256 variations of grey. Compared to an image that is just 1 bit, an 8 bit image creates a more detailed, “photographic” look. Photoshop uses the Histogram, which shows the distribution of colour or tone on a scale from 0-256, using the number of variations of 8 bits. The Histogram is an extremely useful tool when used for colour correction. By reading the Histogram correctly, you can easily read the makeup, density, and contrast of your image, thus acting as a powerful tool when manipulating your image. In images, density is tonal quality, contrast, and the distribution of light and dark. When reading density in the Histogram, it is a good rule of thumb to have some information in both the pure white and pure black areas with plenty of information in between to achieve a clear, complex image. Practice reading Histograms in your own digital images to gain a better understanding of its workings.
Video 2.2 Channels
Colour is the balance that we give our hues, and is read by the computer through the “Channels” for the image. Knowing how to manage the density and colour of your media in Photoshop gives full control of successful colour and density balance. With these controls we are able to fix things that may not have been perfect in the original capturing of the media, such as colour correcting an image shot with improper white balance, or to remove a specific colour cast in order to make an image look more neutral. Becoming comfortable with these ideas and techniques will allow you to turn a wider variety of media into a professional, presentable final product. Familiarize yourself with professional colour and density balance by observing professional glossy magazines like National Geographic or Vogue, in order to ‘see’ what proper colour and density balance looks like. Once you have gained a sensitivity for the delicate nuances of a properly balanced work, then you will be able to find this balance for your own work.
Video 2.3 Resolution
Understanding how resolution works is crucial to achieving successful projects. Unlike Analog photography, digital cameras use a Charged Couple Device (CCD). This is a chip that is inside of the camera that converts light that goes through the lens into electrons, which are then recorded as pixels. Therefore, depending on how sensitive your CCD is, your resolution will vary depending on your camera. With different cameras, they inherently will capture different numbers of pixels due to CCD size and camera settings. An image with more pixels have more information and detail, and therefore a higher resolution. It is important to remember that different modes of output have different resolution standards and requirements. Images on the web only require a 72-100 ppi resolution, while a Fine Art print has a standard 300 dpi resolution. Photoshop can resample your image to both downsample or upsample your image by using interpolation. While it can be a useful tool, it must be used with caution as it either destroys existing pixels (downsampling) or uses “fake” pixels (upsamping). The best route of practice is to always take photos with a large amount of pixel information for digital media projects.
Video 2.4 Photoshop Workspace
This video takes you into the Photoshop Workspace, showing the Toolbar, Properties Bar, and panels.
Video 2.5 Photoshop Tools
A run through of the basic tools in the Photoshop default toolbar: Select, Marquee, Crop, Eraser, Gradient/ Paint Bucket, Dodge/ Burn, Sponge, and Type tool. The best way to familiarize yourself with these tools is to play around with them in your own images and projects.
Video 2.6 Getting Started in Photoshop
Setting up your document correctly when getting starting on a new project is crucial for good workflow and organization. It is important to properly set up your project resolution from the beginning, while things like canvas size and can be changed throughout your project. As you progress along your projects, you will have to set up your images and workspace before beginning any image manipulation. Changing Image Size, adding rulers and grids, and transforming your image in different ways are all important things to consider when setting up a new project.
Video 2.7 Adjustment Layers
The video associated with this module will go through colour adjustments of raster-based images. Adjustment layers are powerful ways to transform your image without destructing any original information. Changing levels, adjusting the colour balance, and adding masks will allow you manipulate your image in sophisticated ways to achieve the effect you want.
Video 2.8 Exporting from Photoshop
Photoshop is able to export your file into a variety of different formats for the different platforms you may need them for. This video will explain a few commonly used formats and their differences. Understanding the ways in which to export will help you output your project properly for the means you need.
2.9 Frame by Frame GIF in Photoshop
Photoshop can not only manipulate static images, but it can also make simple frame by frame animations- specifically great for GIFs.
MODULE 3: ADVANCED PHOTOSHOP
With a basic understanding of Photoshop, this module will take you into more advanced uses of the program. You will be exposed to more advanced tools, how to manipulate your images in both subtractive and additive methods, and how to make GIFs from videos. Grasping these skills will allow you to dive deeper into your own projects, giving you the tools to achieve more complex and thorough products. The module will cover:
Video 3.0 Advanced Tools
When manipulating images, much of the work is done through selecting specific elements of a photo. This way, you have the agency to only edit your selected area instead of the image as a whole, allowing for much more artistic freedom and expression. With the many ways to select a specific part of your image, from the lasso tool to the magic wand tool, it is a good idea to test out these different ways to see which method works for you and what you are trying to achieve. This also covers a few tools such as clone, blur, sharpen, and smudge that can assist you in achieving multiple effects to be as much or as little photorealistic as you want.
Video 3.1 Subtractive Manipulation
If you want to get rid of certain aspects of your image, whether it be blemishes or visual litter, subtractive processes gets rid of information in your image. This video shows you the multiple ways in which you can do so- each with slightly different outcomes. It will cover how to delete information, and how to use tools such as spot healing, clone, and patch to “clean up” an image to look seamless. While these processes are appealing and can be used to look realistic with expertise, it should be used with caution as too much “subtraction” and repetition in texture can make your image look unconvincing.
Video 3.2 Addition Manipulation
If you have an image and want to add more information, manipulation through additive processes in Photoshop will help you to do so. Photoshop has many tools to achieve believable images. When adding new, different components into an image, there are many things to consider such as perspective, lighting, colour, and density. All of these can be balanced and corrected through various tools and functions in Photoshop. Additive manipulation takes time, patience, and practice to create photorealistic images.
Video 3.3 Video to Frame Animation
This video will show how to import a video into Photoshop to creating an endless loop of frame by frame animation.
MODULE 4: INTRODUCTION TO PREMIERE
This module presents a basic introduction to Premiere. It will cover the language you will use when working with digital video, and the technical concepts required for properly understanding and working with this digital medium. An introductory series of video lessons in Premiere will guide you through digital video editing from start to finish. Upon completion of this module you will gain a deeper understanding of the digital video medium, a familiarity with the Premiere interface, and the skills necessary for basic video editing in Premiere. In specific, this module consists of the following videos:
Video 4.0 Introduction to Premiere
This video lesson will give you a brief explanation of the Adobe Premiere software, and introduce you to the structure and learning goals of this module.
Video 4.1 Technical Terminology
It is important to first understand the technical language that will be used throughout this module, and that you will use yourself when working with digital video, before jumping into Premiere. By understanding the technical language associated with digital video, you will be able to properly communicate the technical components of your digital video projects, understand the technical needs of your digital video projects, and use online resources to troubleshoot any technical issues that come up when working in Premiere. In this video lesson you will learn the differences between high definition video and standard definition video, the relationship between a video’s resolution and its frame aspect ratio, and how this relationship determines its pixel aspect ratio. Afterwards, interlacing will be explored, as well as the differences between interlaced scanning and progressive scanning, and an explanation of the importance of field order when working with interlaced video. This video lesson will finish with a brief overview of frame rate, and the frame as the basic unit of a moving image.
Video 4.2 Video File Formats & Codecs
A thorough understanding of the structure of the video file format, and the importance of codecs when saving and playing back digital video media, will greatly help you when exporting and playing back your finished projects. As well, understanding the file format of your exported project and the codecs it uses will help troubleshoot any playback or export issues you may encounter. In this video lesson, a video file will be opened up to explore its different components, giving you a thorough understanding of the anatomy of a video file and what makes it different from other files. These components include container types, video and audio signals, and codecs. The four common video container types MPEG-4, QuickTime, Windows Media Video, and Audio Video Interleave will be covered, as well as a demonstration of video and audio signals, and a demonstration of what codecs are used for and the different types of codecs you can expect to use. This video lesson will finish with instructions for resolving compatibility issues between video files and playback devices or programs, followed by a useful analogy for combining and understanding all the topics covered.
Video 4.3 Premiere Workspace
In this video lesson, you will gain a familiarity with the layout of the Premiere workspace. Specifically, this video lesson will provide a brief overview of the different windows in the Premiere workspace: the Source Monitor, Audio Track Mixer, Metadata Panel, Program Monitor, Timeline, Toolbox, Project Panel, Effects Panel, and Effects Controls Panel.
Video 4.4 Getting Started in Premiere
It is important to properly set up a new project in Premiere, and knowing what scratch disks are and how to properly set them up will ensure an organized and efficient workflow. As well, knowing how to properly use a USB to work between computers in Premiere, the different ways of importing media into your Premiere project, how to resolve issues that may arise when importing, and understanding how Premiere imports media into your project, will greatly enhance your workflow experience. These are fundamental to giving you more time to focus on creating and building your video project, rather than troubleshooting avoidable issues. In this video lesson, you will gain a solid understanding of these workflow essentials, including a close look at the Project Panel and Media Browser Panel in Premiere, how to keep your imported media organized in the Project Panel with bins and labels, and how to investigate the properties of your media in the Metadata Panel.
Video 4.5 Sequences
Sequences are an essential part of building video projects in Premiere, in fact, when you export your finished video project you are in fact exporting a finished sequence to a video file. This video lesson will cover the basics of working with sequences in Premiere, including: the different ways you can create a sequence in Premiere, how to properly set up and create a sequence for your intended media, what happens when you accidentally create the wrong sequence and how to resolve this issue, and how to properly keep sequences organized in the Project Panel.
Video 4.6 Marking Clips & Populating Sequences
Marking is the process of making specific selections from clips for use in your sequences, and Premiere offers many different options and strategies for bringing media into your sequences. This video lesson will take a close look at the Source Monitor, specifically: the different components of the Source Monitor and their respective uses, the different ways you can play, navigate through, and view your clips, and how to mark your clips. This video lesson will then cover the basics of bringing marked and whole clips into an opened sequence from the Source Monitor through insert edits, overwrite edits, and how source patching plays an important role in these editing processes, as well as a different look at the Project Panel. This video lesson will finish with what track targeting is, how to use it, and how to selectively bringing in audio and video components of video clips.
Video 4.7 Timeline, Tools & Trimming
Premiere offers many different tools for editing the clips you place on your sequences, and a good understanding of the different tools available to you will make the editing process flow smoothly, allowing you to focus more on the creativity behind your editing actions rather than how to accomplish those actions. The bulk of editing that you will most likely be doing in Premiere will be trimming, and Premiere also offers many different trimming tools. Trimming is the refining of in and out points of already placed clips in your sequences, allowing you to quickly adjust a composition, or play around with different variations and placements of clips. In this video lesson, the Timeline will be covered in detail, including different Timeline components and their respective uses as well as a brief look at standard playback options, available viewing options, and how to selectively play a sequence by including or excluding specific tracks. Afterwards, strategies for selectively editing tracks will be covered with the sync-lock and lock options for tracks, followed by the different basic editing tools available in the Toolbox, including in-sync edits and out of sync edits. This video lesson will finish with the different trimming tools, options, and strategies Premiere makes available through the Toolbox and Source Monitor.
Video 4.8 Exporting from Premiere
Learning how to properly export a finished sequence is crucial for creating a stable video file containing your video project, this will guarantee that it plays in a way you expect it to. As well, a good understanding of the different exporting options available in Premiere, and how to properly use them, will ensure that your finished project exports with the best possible quality available to it. This video lesson covers the basics of exporting from Premiere, including some useful suggestions for ensuring universal compatibility between your exported video file and different playback devices or programs.
MODULE 5: ADVANCED PREMIERE
Having completed the Premiere Fundamentals Module, you now have a good understanding of the basics of working with moving image in Premiere. This module will take your understanding further, and help you refine your editing skills in Premiere to more advanced uses of the program. Upon completion of this module, you will have gained the skills necessary for using advanced editing strategies, analyzing, adjusting, and resolving clip properties, using and animating video effects and transitions, intermediate and advanced audio editing, and creating your own Ken Burns effect in Premiere. In specific, this module will cover:
Video 5.0 Sequences and Clip Techniques
Now that you are familiar with the editing process from beginning a new project to exporting a populated and finished sequence, this video lesson will introduce you to some of the ways that you can streamline this editing process. You’ll be exposed to the advanced editing strategies of nesting sequences, proper uses of Match Frame, three useful methods for cycling between clip selections in your sequence, and a different way to prepare and mark your clips ahead of time.
Video 5.1 Fixing Clip Distortions
Clip distortions can happen for a number of reasons in your sequence, especially when importing and using media from many different sources. This video lesson will cover the three most common types of potential video distortions between clips and sequences, including a brief analysis on how they occur, and the strategies for fixing them.
Video 5.2 Effects & Transitions
Effects and transitions, when used appropriately, can enhance a moving image piece greatly. This video lesson will demonstrate the proper practices of applying video effects and transitions to placed clips in a sequence, and how to further refine these effects parameters. A close look at the Effects Panel, and Effects Controls Panel will be covered as well.
Video 5.3 Audio Techniques
The choice of either including or excluding silence can greatly change the feel, message, and intended delivery of a final moving image piece. Knowing how to work with silence, as well as with audio, is a crucial skill to have when editing in Premiere. This video will cover some important technical terminologies required for properly understanding and speaking about digital audio, and then move on to cover audio extraction and editing in the Project Panel, and audio editing and keyframing audio effects in the Timeline, including good audio editing practices.
Video 5.4 Extended Audio Techniques
The Audio Track Mixer, and the different Automation Modes available will be explored in detail, including track faders for volume control and panner dials for panning effects.
Video 5.5 Ken Burns Effect in Premiere
The Ken Burns effect is a type of panning and zooming effect used in video production from still imagery. The name derives from extensive use of the technique by American documentarian Ken Burns. This video lesson will demonstrate how you can create your own Ken Burns effect in Premiere, and save it as a preset for future use in other projects.
MODULE 6: AUDACITY
This module will go over an introduction to Audacity, an open source freeware sound editing program. It will go through basics in sound terminology, the workspace layout, basic tools, and how to export of the program. With the completion of this module, you will have the knowledge to create and manipulate your own sound files. The following videos will give you an overview of:
Video 6.0 Introduction to Audacity
Audacity is an open source freeware sound editing program that is comparable to professional paid sound editing programs. This lesson will explain what the software is, what it does, and how to install it onto your machine.
Video 6.1 Sound Terminology and File Types
It is important to understand how the dynamics of sounds are digitized. This lesson will go over some of the terminology used when describing sound. You will learn how sound waves work and how it is represented. When describing the properties of sound, we use the terms amplitude and frequencies to describe and communicate what the human ear interprets as volume and pitch, respectively. You will learn about how sample rates and bit depths can describe sounds when there are multiple sound sources at once when digitizing them. Furthermore, the video will go over terms used in digital audio such as “channel”, “mono”, “stereo”, “track”, “Gain and Clipping”, and “Equalization”. We will go over an example of the process of an audio recording and when different terms come into effect along the process of audio production. This video ends with an explanation of audio file types, more specifically, going over how codecs work and differentiating different file types such as .MP3 and .WAV files. Being familiar with the terminology used in audio production and the appropriate file types will greatly help when beginning an audio project.
Video 6.2 Audacity Workspace
Video 6.3 Getting Started in Audacity
It is helpful to know how to get started in a project in Audacity before jumping in right away. Knowing what to expect when opening up the program can help your project workflow and make for a more effective and efficient process. In this video, we will begin with installing the LAME MP3 Encoder and the FFmpeg Library to expand the program’s functionality for working with audio files. We will go over how to import audio files, record audio tracks, play back audio, how Audacity displays audio, and how to save a project. Knowing how to understand and read these functions will greatly save you time when beginning your first project.
Video 6.4 Basic Tools & Effects
Using Audacity’s Tools and Effects can refine and add more meaning into your project. Being able to control the many aspects of your audio composition post-recording gives you agency to manipulate your project into its most effective and powerful form. In this lesson we begin with learning about a number of different editing tools. Specifically, we will begin with a brief explanation of what Clips are, which is the audio present in a track. We will then go into the many different tools we can use, such as the Selection tool, Zoom tool, Envelope tool, Draw tool, Timeshift tool, and the Multi-Tool. We will then go over the edit toolbar and cover options such as Cut, Copy, Paste, Undo and Redo, Trim audio, and Silence audio. We can also label tracks to organize specific areas in our audio that are receiving the same editing actions. We can also split clips in our track, using the Remove Special submenu. Some common effects and filters are the Fade-In, Fade-Out, Reverse, Pitch, Speed, and Tempo effects along with the EQ filters Low Pass and High Pass. Using these can put more intention and emphasis behind certain points in your audio tracks and allow for smoother transitions when combining multiple tracks together. Finally, we will go over the track control panel which has the gain slider and pan slider where you can adjust your track’s overall loudness and balance. This is also where we can switch the channels of our tracks, edit channels separately, and combine mono tracks. This lesson will go into depth on how to remap mono tracks onto different channels so that you will understand the difference between panning and balancing sound.
Video 6.5 The Compressor
Video 6.6 Exporting
APPENDIX A: CONCEPTS
This module contains video’s on particular stylistic concepts of working in digital media, covering a general introductory understanding. The concepts are Layout, Chronology, Manipulation and Basic Design. Each concept contains a video that introduces fundamental understanding of that concept, and provides you wish links and extra resources to help create projects within that concept. Please be aware that there are no quiz questions for any of the videos in this module, as you will ‘prove’ your use of the concepts in your projects.
Video on Layout:
A layout is the set arrangement of material on a surface. Layout can imply a specific order, chronology, or an un-ordered inventory of images, a collage of sources, etc. It can include many materials, including shapes, borders, orientation, text and images. The video will take you through layout techniques and essential decisions you will have to make before planning your layout. If you will be creating a layout using photographic images, you should use Photoshop.The bonus video instructs on how to use Photoshop to create an organized layout using multiple raster photographic images by placing the images on different layers, using guides and rules, and the ability to transform, select and delete parts of an image on a layer.
How we distribute information in a layout can communicate to our audience, therefore we must be aware of what our juxtapositions and decisions in arrangements may be saying/implying about the materials they are displaying. It is a good idea to start by examining what you want to ultimately create as your layout. Some advice to get you thinking of the formal arrangement imposed by your layout, you may want to ask yourself:
- What do you wish to relay through the decisions of your layout?
- What is the hierarchy order (or lack thereof) of your information?
- Is there a chronology or order of the images that may relate to time?
*Please note that the layout concepts video also contains a workshop video that can be helpful.
Video on Chronology:
Chronology Concepts Video explains basic ideas in creating a timeline in a project. The order of clips, pages, or sounds, in time, creates a chronology. This can invoke narrative or ordered arrangement, and can make connections between two scenes or two spaces in time. The decision of what would come after what, and how that juxtaposition informs the narrative is key. To deconstruct how the property of time relays information can be trickier, and abstracting the sense of what comes after what can be a more creative endeavor.
For moving image, how we manipulate the order of time can create a narrative, and the juxtaposition of clips can imply meaning. For example, the Kuleshov Effect is a film editing effect demonstrated by Soviet filmmaker Lev Kuleshov in the 1910s and 1920s. It is a mental phenomenon by which viewers derive more meaning from the interaction of two sequential shots than from a single shot in isolation.
The rules of order or chronology can be manipulated, challenged or broken. For example – a ‘loop’ would take away the idea of a beginning and an end to a time-based work, or a “choose your own adventure” book would constantly change the order of a narrative.
Video on Manipulation:
Although photo manipulation has existed since its photography’s inception, digital tools have made it easier for us to transform a photograph; we can do this many ways. This section will examine how we can manipulate by addition or subtraction. When we add to manipulate, we may be applying an effect or pixels to super-impose something to our image. When we subtract to manipulate, we may be erasing something out of an image to take it away. Manipulating an image is a very influential effect on what is rendered, therefore you must be precise in how, why and what you are doing it for. Some things to consider:
- Research the history and understand what a preset effect or filter is referring to, and what that will mean for your subject matter/project.
- Ask yourself if a stylistic addition effect is useful to the piece or if it is distracting. Are you using this effect because it has meaning you wish to refer to in the concept of your project, or are you doing it purely for aesthetic reasons? If it is purely for aesthetic reasons, then take a moment to realize what it might do to the reading of your subject matter and content.
- If you are adding pixels or another image on top of an image, always work within your means! It takes years of practice with the program to have something look ‘natural’ when it comes to super-imposing an image on to another scene. It also takes a detailed eye to get it all right, such as ways in which light plays in the scene and on the object you are super-imposing, or the way a shadow is cast, colour-casts, etc… Therefore you must pre-plan and arrange your photo shoot as specifically as possible, and must give yourself a lot of time to make the effect work in post-production.
- Taking information away or covering up something in an image, all with the aim to make it disappear is a rather violent thing to perform. What does it mean that you are erasing, or subtracting, proof and evidence that an object, person, or thing was not in the picture? How does its disappearance affect the way in which the image is received?
The manipulation video demonstrates ways in which we can manipulate still, moving and audio media by adding to them; these additions could be effects, filters, or changed pixel information of imagery. There are many reasons why we may add special effects or an object to an image, or subtract elements of our image. It may be used in a subtle effect as an attempt to deceive or it may be purposeful and quite noticeable. Overall, any altering that we may do to an image will affect how it communicates and how it is read. As artists we only have control of what is inside of the frame of our four sides and four corners, so we should take that opportunity to have control of exactly how that is rendered.
Video Design Basics:
Basic aspects of design are presented through this video such as how value contrast, colour relationships, typography can add more depth to a project when implemented carefully. When layering images, objects, and text together, it is important to consider how their contrast value will affect the readability of your work. For example, having a low contrast in values in your image will prevent elements to stand out and your overall image will appear to be more subdued. When bringing colour into your project, the use of complimentary colours and analagous colours can help you achieve different effects. Our eyes also process colour in specific ways with certain compositions. For example, the same colour will appear different when against different backgrounds. There are certain things to consider when adding text into a project. Certain typefaces communicate differently than others. There are also many different ways to manipulate your text, including tracking, kerning, and leading.
While this video goes through some basic fundamentals in design that can assist you in your projects, the key to a successful project is its effectiveness in communicating your intention behind the work. Some questions to keep in mind when developing a project include:
- What are you trying to convey?
- How will you use your images, text, and media to convey that idea?
- How will you use the various tools and software to convey that idea?
- How will you present your project in a way that communicates to and evokes others?
APPENDIX B: UBC FACILITIES
UBC has many useful resources on campus to help you complete your visual art work. The following Appendix goes through some of these resources.
UBC utilizes the WordPress platform and allows students to use their site to host their own sites, ranging from e-Portfolios, blogs, and other personal and academic platforms. This video will go through some basic features of WordPress. It will go over the interface, including both the Front and Back End, the features included in the Admin panel, explain the different between a post and page and how to organize them properly through tags, categories, and creating sub-pages. It will also cover some elements of online design, such as how to design a page with efficient and easy navigation, and what to consider in terms of layout. This video is meant to be supplementary to the UBC ePortfolio Guide (link can be found in the Extra Resources section).
To import successfully, you must know your output! How you wish for your project to end up looking and functioning must be understood in order to correctly chose your input/import settings and resolution. In order to create a digital project, for the most part we take media from outside sources, and bring them into our programs in order to make them our art. Importing refers to the insertion of media into a program in order to be able to use, alter and manipulate that media information to create your project. Input media is a variety of different media that can be used as source material for your project, such as video, images from your camera or downloaded from the Internet. Importing media is important because this is how we bring in the information we are going to work with, whether it be photographs from a camera, a found video from online, or a sound recording. We need input our media in consideration of what we would like to output. Therefore, how we gather our input, our initial format and resolution, and the settings by which we import it into a program is important to our whole project being a success. Understanding and using the appropriate settings when importing media will eliminate compatibility issues between imported components during the construction of a moving image project. In still images you need to define the resolution you will need to execute the project you want. Doing this upon importing will save you time, and allow you to focus more on creating your project, rather than fixing format issues. The following video will go through ways to bring in raw media for your projects, images, video, and audio files, the video will explain how.
Printing in the BC Binning Lab:
To use the Visual Arts professional fine art printer, please review the video “Printing in the Binning Lab” where you will find information on where the BC Binning Lab is, how to properly set up your file, and the procedure for getting your artwork printed. There are some specific guidelines and things to keep in mind when printing in BC Binning:
- The printers can print in 3 different widths: 16″, 24″, and 44″ and can be as long as up to 100 ft.
- There is a 48 hour turnabout rime for your prints so please manage your time accordingly when printing for a deadline.
- It is recommended to do a small test print first as the colours of your artwork will appear different than on your computer screen.
- Your project’s profile must be in RGB 1998.
- Make sure that you work in RGB mode (not CYMK) and that your project is at 300 dpi for the best resolution. You can resample your project up to 30% before it begins to look blurry and pixelated so the best way to work is to begin with a high quality image.
- When saving your work onto your USB, make sure that it is a .psd or .tiff file type.
- Make sure to name your file correctly, with your name and “FOR PRINTING”, “PRINT”, etc. For example: HanSolo_FORPRINTING.psd
- When saving your project for printing, it must be a flattened image.
- When dropping off your USB at BC Binning, you will fill out a form indicating some specifics of your project such as border size and project dimensions. You will need to pay for your project when you drop your USB off, so bring an adequate amount of cash as the lab is cash only.