This week’s assignment is to define a relatively complex term used often within our respective fields. I have chosen the term Ethnography, which is a common term within Anthropology which describes both the method and the product of anthropological research. My goal with defining this term to to clearly illustrate the various ways this word can be used for non-anthropologists.
Chosen Term: Ethnography
Parenthetical Definition: Ethnography (the scientific description of the customs of individual peoples and cultures) is a fundamental aspect of social science research.
Sentence Definition: Ethnography refers to either a methodological approach or a peer reviewed text. Ethnography as methodology involves participating with and observing the person or group of people engaging with the anthropologist, while ethnography as product refers to the peer reviewed texts which anthropologists produce.
Expanded Definition: Derived from the Greek ἔθνος (ethnos) and the French suffix –graphie meaning “writing,” ethnography originally developed as a research strategy in academic anthropological circles at the turn of the 20th century (Murchison 5). Early anthropologists like Bronisɫaw Malinowski, E. E Evans-Pritchard, Margaret Mead, and Ruth Benedict needed a methodology which could offer insight into the cultural practices of newly colonized peoples in order to satisfy the desires of colonial governments (ibid). Ethnography consists of both qualitative and quantitative strategies, and involves both of the following:
- Participant observation: A strategy of data collection that often involves taking field notes, learning a new language, engaging in ritual practice, or otherwise immersing oneself in a culture so that the ethnographer can intellectualize what they’ve seen and heard (Bernard 256-8).
- Field Notes: Usually hand written notes and other accumulated material which form the base for writing ethnographic texts. There are four types of field notes: jottings, a diary, a log, and field notes proper (Bernard 291-9)
While many ethnographers travel as part of their work, ethnography is a methodological approach to one or many research questions, not an account of one’s travels through exotic locations. The French Anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss famously claimed “I hate travelling and explorers. Adventure has no place in the Anthropologist’s profession; it is one of those unavoidable drawbacks which detract from [their] effective work through the incidental loss of weeks or months” (Levi-Strauss 17).
Bernard, Russell H. 2011. Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. AltaMira Press. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. 5th Ed. Pp. 256-8, 291-9
Levi-Strauss, Claude. 1961. Triste Tropiques. New York: Criterion Books. Pp. 17-21
Murchison, Julian. 2010. Ethnography Essentials: Designing, Conducting, and Presenting your Research. Jossey-Bass . Pp. 1-15