Module 2 A Note on Tainos: Whither Progress?

This article originally came out in the Northeast Indian Quarterly, and provides a lengthy description of what the Tainos—the Indigenous peoples who lived on the Caribbean Islands before Columbus’s arrival.   The account of these people, as the author, Jose Barriero, points out, is a classic example of “the gaze” at work.  The description comes from observations made by Europeans.  These peoples are described, for instance as peaceably people, although curiously they are also described as cannibals, healthy, strong, muscular, closely connected the earth, and for whom working with the hands to till the soil was perhaps the greatest honor.  The commentators who made these observations then called these peoples primitive.  Unfortunately turning around these stereotypes proves difficult because entire populations of these peoples on some islands, for instance Jamaica, were wiped out within 200 years of Columbus’s arrival.

Barriero sums up the issue succinctly when he states

The history of the European contact with America and its subsequent conquest has been written and rewritten but seldom from an indigenous perspective and never from the continuity of an Indian survival over that history Western historians have had a tendency to disregard the Indian oral sources and many a fundamental lie about Indian culture has been carried from early written texts into the modern day.


Barreiro, J. (1990).  A Note on Taino:  Whither progress? Northeast Indian Quarterly, Fall.  Retrieved from

October 17, 2011   No Comments

Module 2 Columbus Day protest widens

Denver, October 10, 2011.  Although icy rains kept spectators at bay, a few braved the cold, damp Colorado weather to participate in the annual Columbus Day parade.  Among the participants were a group of individuals protesting the idea of paying homage to a man whom they feel is responsible for present-day greed and injustice, Christopher Columbus.  Although fighting for the discontinuation of Columbus Day celebrations, the protestors had a few, more pressing demands, which reflect contemporary issues.

They wanted the Occupy Wall Street protestors, and the Occupy Denver Protestors to remember the plight of the Native Americans and their lands and cultures.  Specifically, they called for “repudiating ‘Doctrine of Christian Discovery,’”  and allowing Indigenous peoples to give their “free” and “informed consent” to land development before such lands are captured and developed.  The protestors refer specifically to the proposed Keystone XL tar sands pipeline.  In the midst of the dominant culture protesting the ills that are meted out to them in the various Occupy protests, one Indigenous protestor at the Columbus Day parade notes, “Without addressing justice for Indigenous Peoples, there can never be a genuine movement for justice and equality in the United States.”


Berry, C. (2011, October 10).  “Columbus Day protests widens.”  Indian Country.  Retrieved from

October 17, 2011   No Comments

Module 2 “Will the real Aborigine please stand up”

This discussion paper explores issues of identity that have unwittingly been adopted by Aborigine peoples of Australia, identities that were created by non-Indigenous Australians, but which have filtered into the Indigenous communities with disastrous effect.  White Australians, for instance, view Indigenous peoples as lacking in education, healthcare, and economic development.  They try to make these peoples more mainstream (more Western), and in the process removes control of their lifestyles from the Aborigines.  The seeming deficit that plagues Indigenous peoples carries with it negative connotations and stereotyping.

The paper shows that the “stereotype threat”—where peoples may not believe in the stereotypes themselves, but they are deeply affected because they know that others subscribe to them—is a significant issue that carries currency for Australian Aborigines.  This even causes divisiveness among tribes as some tribes view others as more or less “Aboriginal” than the others.

The paper summarizes a workshop held in 2009 at the University of Queensland, and attended by 16 Aborigines from various tribes.  The workshop provided a safe place for these members of various backgrounds to discuss the issues and explore possible solutions.

The workshop was conducted not following the agenda of non-Indigenous peoples, but on the Aborigine’s terms.  The workshop followed the Engoori method, which is an Aborigine practice focusing on strengths by 1)  Remembering and reconnecting with the what makes people strong 2) Re-examining and re-learning behaviors, and abandoning those that are harmful 3) recreating and renewing.  The workshop was designed to reverse the practice of lateral violence (performing acts of violence among members of the same Indigenous group instead of at the system that imposed the false identity in the first place).

They took as their model a similar workshop convened in 2007 which aimed to develop strong relationships between the Ipswich Aboriginal and the Torres Strait Islanders , and the Australian government.  The participants identified six issues to address:  developing a sense of place, space and center; maintaining strong family ties; strengthening the capacity of organizations and groups; renewing traditions and customs; acquiring education and skills for employment; exploring ways to be financially independent.  The idea was to remove the cultural “ideals” imposed on these people by non-Indigenous peoples.  Instead of focusing on what they wanted, what they didn’t have, and what they needed, the participants, who represented varying backgrounds and ages were encouraged to focus on what made them strong, what they had, and what they could do.


Mithaka, S., Ross, J., Crossing, F., & Fforde, C. (2011).  “Will the real Aborigine please stand up”:  Strategies for breaking the stereotypes and changing the conversations.  Retrieved from

October 17, 2011   No Comments

Module 2 Belo Monte Dam Project Draws even more Concerns

Brazil plans to build the third largest hydroelectric dam which will have devastating effects.  Not only will it flood out over 300 acres of land, but it will displace thousands of inhabitants, most of whom are indigenous peoples.  It will also destroy the wildlife habitats of land mammals and fish.  The latest concerns center on the plants that will now lie at the bottom of the dam, rotting slowly and releasing the greenhouse gas methane into the atmosphere.

This article points out the global ramifications of building this dam, but it does not focus on the plight on the indigenous peoples.  In fact the article’s rhetoric suggests that it might actually be a good thing for the inhabitants along the Xingu River to relocate because “The thousands of indigenous people and peasants who scratch a living out of the forest and the river will see their main source of drinking water and food dwindle.”  The writer doesn’t take into account that what she perceives as poverty is a way of life for the Indigenous peoples:  not only will their food, water, and transportation be threatened, but their culture, history, rituals, stories will be flooded out as well.


Gerken, J. (2011, September 15).  Belo Monte Dam Project Draws even more Concerns.  Huffington Post Green.  Retrieved October 2, 2011 from

October 17, 2011   No Comments

Module 2 Indigenous Peoples Protect their Lands and Rights

Maintaining land ownership continues to challenge Indigenous peoples as governments of the dominant societies capture lands that have been the center of tribal life for many Indigenous peoples.  Recently the government of British Columbia sided with local industries to turn Fish Lake, a body of water that not only provided food and water for the Tsilhqot’in people, but served as the place where ceremonies were held for centuries, as a dumping ground for mining waste.

The Tsilhqot’in people had traditionally isolated themselves from the mainstream societies.  They successfully prevented roads from being built on their lands; they have resisted measures to bring electricity to their area, and they teach their children their traditional language.  The latest move to capture their lake forced the Tsilhqot’in to use technology to get their message across.  They chose film.

The film, Blue Gold:  The Tsilhqot’in fight for Teztan Biny (Fish Lake), features members from the tribe speaking about the lake and the impact that the government’s proposed policy would have not only on their lives, but on the area’s ecosystem.  The grizzly’s habitat would be threatened, for instance.

The Tsilhqot’in won their case, and it was the film that swayed the panel who reviewed the case, as well as the general public who offered their support towards the cause.

This site is useful to research in place-based learning because it shows that the Tsilhqot’in peoples used narrative to tell the story about the Lake.  Narratives play a major role in disseminating the knowledge of this and other Indigenous tribes through the generations.  Film was the ideal media for this tribe to tell their story to the outside world.  The film also shows the inter-connectedness of nature, culture and religion to Indigenous peoples.  In place-based learning, geographical places are taught from the perspective of the stories and traditions that are meaningful to Indigenous peoples.  In this type of learning, disciplines are not separated as specialities, but are tightly interwoven in the fabric of learning, changes in the land, the seasons, are understood from the perspective of their relationship to the divine.


Indigenous Peoples protect their lands and rights.

October 17, 2011   No Comments

My Research Interests

I do not pretend to be knowledgeable about Indigenous cultures, and all that I know about these cultures I have learned from popular media.  This course is helping me think critically about issues that surround Indigenous education, especially when Westerners impose their ways and modes of knowing on these peoples.

My research interests will focus on place-based learning.  This topic interests me, not only because of its novelty to me had (I had no idea what it was prior to ETEC 521), but because it is related to two areas of cognition that interest me:  situated learning and embodied knowing.  Place-based learning is a form of situated learning, where learning takes place in social and environmental contexts in which the knowledge is used. Learning takes place when problems that are authentic to the context are tackled.  Embodied knowing is a bit more difficult to define simply because it has different meanings.  One definition which is useful in this context is placing the learner in the context in which he will need to use specific types of knowledge.  For instance, although a driver’s manual is helpful, the way to learn how to drive a car is to sit behind the wheel of one and drive.

September 25, 2011   No Comments

Finding a Place to Stand

This is a blog post written by Tasha Beeds, who is of nêhiyaw (Cree), Métis and Caribbean ancestryShe asserts that traditional and Western knowledge can co-exist and be taught, as long as the Indigenous knowledge isn’t compromised.  The author advocates writing down narratives that pre-existed in oral forms.  She states that the written form will not supersede the oral because orality comes from a lived experience, and whatever is written down must emanate from the experiential.


Beeds, T. (2011).  Finding a place to stand:  Indigenous education through oral and written narratives.  Canadian Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences.  Retrieved from

September 25, 2011   No Comments

Western Science Meets Native Reality

For Indigenous Peoples (IP) knowledge and place are bound together.  Western educational systems run counter to IPs concept of an “interdependent universe, and the importance of place in their societies.” The authors work from the premise that Westerners could use the Native worldview to promote a sustainable way of living.  Traditional educational processes involve observing natural phenomenon, adapting lifestyle in order to survive, obtaining sustenance from plants and animals, using natural materials to make tools and other implements.  Knowledge is passed down inter-generationally through stories and demonstration.

Westerners test competency through testing; among IPs, competency is determined by survival.  They have their own system for understanding and articulating meteorology, chemistry, physics, psychology, and the sacred.  They have also devised a way of dealing with the flora and fauna of their environment in ways that are sustainable.  They see all of these disciplines as inter-related, while in the Western educational system, disciplines are detached from each other, and learning takes place within four walls.  The practice of deconstruction/reconstruction of Western thought doesn’t hold in traditional worldviews where everything is seamlessly interconnected

The authors advocate teaching subject matter in ways that IP understand it, then explaining it in Western terms.  Their idea is to show IP that Western and traditional knowledge enhance each other.  There is a problem to this, however, for the IP knowledge is an everyday part of life.  When they learn the Western worldview in school, it remains there.  They will not use this worldview in their tribes when they go home in the evening.  Thus, they will see that the Western worldview is best used in school, but the traditional worldview is used in the tribe to survive.  Therefore, the traditional worldview will always take precedence, and be superior in their eyes.

The site includes a chart outlining differences in worldview between IP and West.  The authors illustrate these differences by recounting a meeting between representatives from the State Department of Fish and Game in Fairbanks, Alaska and the Minto peoples.  The agency wanted to measure sediment in the water supply; the Minto people wanted to know what was being doing about the fires.  Wild fires are left to burn themselves out until they approach man-made structures, at which time agencies mobilize to put out the fires.  The Minto people tried to explain that the issue of sediment in the water supply would be controlled if the fires were put out promptly.  The representatives said the policy regarding fires were handled by a different agency, and because there were no representatives with them that day, they could not address the issue of fires.  This example illustrates the separation and specialization of areas of knowledge and approaches to handling natural phenomenon.

Conclusions:  Native people may need to understand western science, but not at the expense of their own knowledge.  Traditional knowledge must be recognized as credible.


Kawagley, A., and Barnhardt, R. (2007).  Education indigenous to place:  Western science meets native reality.  Alaska Native Knowledge Network (ANKN).  Retrieved from

September 25, 2011   No Comments

Eight Aboriginal Ways of Learning

This site outlines ways in which Native Australians learn.  Learning for them isn’t a curriculum, the content of a course, but it is a process.  There are eight involved, one of which involves a sense of place—“land links.”  Teaching takes place away from classrooms and desks, and in the community.  Students construct stories and they share them.  The pedagogy is narrative-driven, and the eight ways are interconnected.  They are:

Use of symbols and images
Land links
Deconstructive/Reconstructive (starting with the whole and picking it apart)
Community Links

There’s a link to a wiki site that discusses these eight ways in greater detail, complete with a discussion forum.  I will write about this site in a later blog post.


Kalantzis, M., and Cope, B. (2011).  Eight Aboriginal ways of Learning.  New Learning:  Transformational designs for pedagogy for assessment.  Retrieved from

September 25, 2011   No Comments

What it means to be attached to a place

“[a] Sense of place is the set of all meanings and attachments a person or a group invests in a place” (slide no.7)

This site features a series of powerpoint slides by Steven Smeken in School of Earth and Science Education at the Arizona State University, a US state where many Native American tribes live.  The department teaches earth sciences by using students’ prior sense of place as leverage for learning.

Classes begin with advanced organizers:  meeting the students where they are.  Students must pick a place that holds intellectual and cultural significance for them, and describe characteristics of the place, as well as ways in which they interact with the place and come to know it.  Then students are introduced to the Western scientific concepts that explain the place’s natural phenomena.

The department teaches the discipline both in and about these places.  The presenter makes a great point:  “Places populate the cultural landscape, just as landforms and biota make up the physical landscape” (slide no. 4).

Place means different things to different peoples, of whatever culture.  Place can have aesthetic, economic, ceremonial, historical, spiritual, scientific significance.  People even develop emotional attachments to places.

In place-based teaching, place defines the curriculum instead of global standards.   It is local, trans-disciplinary (it takes into account history, art, geography/geology, hydrology, etc), experiential (students work in the actual place or in the community), cross cultural.

Each slide lists ways in which students’ meanings can be incorporated into the learning of earth sciences, including using the names for places that students know and already use.  Slide 24 contains a few points to consider when offering a place-based course for the first time.

The presentation concludes with an extensive bibliography, which will be helpful to researchers interested in place-based education.


Smeken, P.  (2010).  Place-based teaching and learning.  Retrieved from

September 25, 2011   No Comments