Tag Archives: randomized field experiment

Understanding Security Vulnerability Awareness, Firm Incentives, and ICT Development in Pan-Asia (JMIS 2020)

Zhuang, Yunhui, Yunsik Choi, Shu He, Alvin Chung Man Leung, Gene Moo Lee, Andrew B. Whinston (2020) “Understanding Security Vulnerability Awareness, Firm Incentives, and ICT Development in Pan-Asia“. Journal of Management Information Systems, 37(3): 668-693.

This paper investigates how the awareness of a security vulnerability index affects firms’ security protection strategy and how the information awareness effect interacts with firm incentives and country-wide IT development level. The security index is constructed based on outgoing spams and phishing website hosting, which may serve as an indicator of a firm’s security controls. To study whether security vulnerability awareness causes firms to improve their security, we conducted a randomized field experiment on 1,262 firms in six Pan-Asian countries and regions. Among 631 randomly selected treated firms, we alerted them of their security vulnerability index and their relative rankings compared to their peers via advisory emails and websites. Difference-in-differences analyses show that compared with the controls, the treated firms improve their security over time, with a statistically significant reduction of outgoing spam volume according to one of the data sources but not phishing website hosting. However, a statistically significant reduction in phishing website hosting was observed among non-web hosting firms, suggesting that firms’ underlying incentives play an important role in the treatment effect. Lastly, exploiting the multi-country nature of the data, we found that firms in countries with high information and communications technology (ICT) development are more responsive to our intervention because they have higher IT capabilities and more resources to resolve security issues. Our study provides cybersecurity policymakers with useful insights on how firm incentives and ICT environments play roles in firms’ security measure adoption.

Developing Cyber Risk Assessment Framework for Cyber Insurance: A Big Data Approach (KIRI Research Report 2018)

Lee, G. M. (2018). Developing Cyber Risk Assessment Framework for Cyber Insurance: A Big Data Approach (in Korean)KIRI Research Report 2018-15.

As our society is heavily dependent on information and communication technology, the associated risk has also significantly increased. Cyber insurance has been emerged as a possible means to better manage such cyber risk. However, the cyber insurance market is still in a premature stage due to the lack of data sharing and standards on cyber risk and cyber insurance. To address this issue, this research proposes a data-driven framework to assess cyber risk using externally observable cyber attack data sources such as outbound spam and phishing websites. We show that the feasibility of such an approach by building cyber risk assessment reports for Korean organizations. Then, by conducting a large-scale randomized field experiment, we measure the causal effect of cyber risk disclosure on organizational security levels. Finally, we develop machine-learning models to predict data breach incidents, as a case of cyber incidents, using the developed cyber risk assessment data. We believe that the proposed data-driven methods can be a stepping-stone to enable information transparency in the cyber insurance market.

How would information disclosure influence organizations’ outbound spam volume? Evidence from a field experiment (J. Cybersecurity 2016)

He, Shu*, Gene Moo Lee*, Sukjin Han, Andrew B. Whinston (2016) How Would Information Disclosure Influence Organizations’ Outbound Spam Volume? Evidence from a Field ExperimentJournal of Cybersecurity 2(1), pp. 99-118. (* equal contribution)

Cyber-insecurity is a serious threat in the digital world. In the present paper, we argue that a suboptimal cybersecurity environment is partly due to organizations’ underinvestment on security and a lack of suitable policies. The motivation for this paper stems from a related policy question: how to design policies for governments and other organizations that can ensure a sufficient level of cybersecurity. We address the question by exploring a policy devised to alleviate information asymmetry and to achieve transparency in cybersecurity information sharing practice. We propose a cybersecurity evaluation agency along with regulations on information disclosure. To empirically evaluate the effectiveness of such an institution, we conduct a large-scale randomized field experiment on 7919 US organizations. Specifically, we generate organizations’ security reports based on their outbound spam relative to the industry peers, then share the reports with the subjects in either private or public ways. Using models for heterogeneous treatment effects and machine learning techniques, we find evidence from this experiment that the security information sharing combined with publicity treatment has significant effects on spam reduction for original large spammers. Moreover, significant peer effects are observed among industry peers after the experiment.