Tag Archives: machine learning

Xiaoke Zhang’s Master’s Thesis

Xiaoke Zhang (2023). “How Does AI-Generated Voice Affect Online Video Creation? Evidence from TikTok”, Master’s Thesis, University of British Columbia

Supervisors: Gene Moo Lee, Mi Zhou

The rising demand for online video content has fostered one of the fastest-growing markets as evidenced by the popularity of platforms like TikTok. Because video content is often difficult to create, platforms have attempted to leverage recent advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) to help creators with their video creation process. However, surprisingly little is known about the effects of AI on content creators’ productivity and creative patterns in this emerging market. Our paper investigates the adoption impact of AI-generated voice – a generative AI technology creating acoustic artifacts – on video creators by empirically analyzing a unique dataset of 4,021 creators and their 428,918 videos on TikTok. Utilizing multiple audio and video analytics algorithms, we detect the adoption of AI voice from the massive video data and generate rich measurements for each video to quantify its characteristics. We then estimate the effects of AI voice using a difference-in-differences model coupled with look-ahead propensity score matching. Our results suggest that the adoption of AI voice increases creators’ video production and that it induces creators to produce shorter videos with more negative words. Interestingly, creators produce more novel videos with less self-disclosure when using AI voice. We also find that AI-voice videos received less viewer engagement unintendedly. Our paper provides the first empirical evidence of how generative AI reshapes video content creation on online platforms, which provides important implications for creators, platforms, and policymakers in the digital economy.

 

Generative AI and Creator Economy: Investigating the Effects of AI-Generated Voice on Online Video Creation

Zhang, Xiaoke, Mi Zhou, Gene Moo Lee Generative AI and Creator Economy: Investigating the Effects of AI-Generated Voice on Online Video Creation, R&R at Management Science.

Generative artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to revolutionize the creative industry by reshaping the human creative process. We explore the potential of generative AI in the creator economy by investigating the effects of AI-generated voice adoption on creators’ productivity and creative patterns on TikTok, one of the world’s largest video-sharing platforms. Using a unique dataset of 554,252 videos from 4,691 TikTok creators, we conduct multimodal analyses of the video data to detect the adoption of AI voice and to quantify video characteristics. We then estimate the adoption effects using a stacked difference-in-differences model coupled with propensity score matching. Our results suggest that AI voice adoption significantly increases creator productivity. This effect is larger among less experienced or less popular creators, suggesting an equalizing effect of generative AI. Moreover, we find that the use of AI voice enhances video novelty across image, audio, and text modalities, especially among experienced creators, suggesting its role in reducing routine workload and fostering creative exploration. Lastly, our study also uncovers a disinhibition effect, where creators conceal their identities with the AI voice and exert more negative sentiments because of diminished social image concerns. Our paper provides the first empirical evidence of how generative AI reshapes online video creation.

Ideas are Easy but Execution is Everything: Measuring the Impact of Stated AI Strategies and Capability on Firm Innovation Performance

Lee, Myunghwan, Gene Moo Lee (2022) “Ideas are Easy but Execution is Everything: Measuring the Impact of Stated AI Strategies and Capability on Firm Innovation Performance”Work-in-Progress.

Contrary to the promise that AI will transform various industries, there are conflicting views on the impact of AI on firm performance. We argue that existing AI capability measures have two major limitations, limiting our understanding of the impact of AI in business. First, existing measures on AI capability do not distinguish between stated strategies and actual AI implementations. To distinguish stated AI strategy and actual AI capability, we collect various AI-related data sources, including AI conferences (e.g., NeurIPS, ICML, ICLR), patent filings (USPTO), inter-firm transactions related to AI adoption (FactSet), and AI strategies stated in 10-K annual reports. Second, while prior studies identified successful AI implementation factors (e.g., data integrity and intelligence augmentation) in a general context, little is known about the relationship between AI capabilities and in-depth innovation performance. We draw on the neo-institutional theory to articulate the firm-level AI strategies and construct a fine-grained AI capability measure that captures the unique characteristics of AI-strategy. Using our newly proposed AI capability measure and a novel dataset, we will study the impact of AI on firm innovation, contributing to the nascent literature on managing AI.

Do Incentivized Reviews Poison the Well? Evidence from a Natural Experiment at Amazon.com

Park, Jaecheol, Arslan Aziz, Gene Moo Lee. “Do Incentivized Reviews Poison the Well? Evidence from a Natural Experiment at Amazon.comWorking Paper.

  • Presentations: UBC (2021), KrAIS (2021), WISE (2021), PACIS (2022), SCECR (2022), BU Platform (2022), CIST (2022), BIGS (2022)
  • Preliminary version in PACIS 2022 Proceedings

The rapid growth in e-commerce has led to a concomitant increase in consumers’ reliance on digital word-of-mouth to inform their choices. As such, there is an increasing incentive for sellers to solicit reviews for their products. The literature has examined the direct and indirect effects of incentivized reviews on subsequent organic reviews within consumers who received incentives. However, since incentivized reviews and reviewers are often only a small proportion of a review platform (only 1.2% in our sample), it is important to understand whether their presence and absence on the platform affect the organic reviews from other reviewers who have not received incentives, which are often in the majority. We theorize two underlying effects that incentivized reviews can generate on other organic reviews: the herding effect from imitating incentivized reviews and the disclosure effect from the increased trust or skepticism by explicit incentive disclosure statements. Those two effects make organic reviews either follow or deviate from incentivized reviews. Using Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) to identify incentivized reviews and a natural experiment caused by a policy change on Amazon.com in October 2016, we conduct difference-in-differences with propensity score matching analyses to identify the effects of banning incentivized reviews on organic reviews. Our results suggest the disclosure effects are salient: banning incentivized reviews has positive effects on organic reviews in terms of frequency, sentiment, length, image, and helpfulness. Moreover, we find that the presence of incentivized reviews has poisoned the well for organic reviews regardless of the incentivized review ratio and that the effect is heterogeneous to product quality uncertainty. Our findings contribute to the literature on online review and platform design and provide insights to platform managers.

Learning Faces to Predict Matching Probability in an Online Dating Market (ICIS 2022)

Kwon, Soonjae, Gene Moo Lee, Dongwon Lee, Sung-Hyuk Park (2024) “Digital Cupid: Empowering Generative AI for Fair and Efficient Matchmaking,” Working Paper.

  • Previous title: Learning Faces to Predict Matching Probability in an Online Dating Market
  • Presentations: DS (2021), AIMLBA (2021), WITS (2021), ICIS (2022)
  • Preliminary version in ICIS 2022 Proceedings
  • Based on an industry collaboration

With the increasing prevalence of online transactions, enhancing matching efficiency has emerged as a critical objective for most matching platforms. However, these efforts often lead to decreased fairness, making it challenging to balance these two elements. This study presents a novel generative AI-based approach to increase the platform’s efficiency and fairness simultaneously in the context of online dating. By developing a model that utilizes users’ multimodal features to predict individual preferences, we assess the impact of various matching algorithms on platform efficiency and fairness. Extensive simulations show that our fairness-aware algorithm significantly enhances both metrics, addressing conventional methods’ severe efficiency-fairness tradeoff issue. We also introduce a novel generative AI-based personalization technique that modifies users’ profile images in different directions according to their counterparts, further boosting efficiency without sacrificing fairness. Our matching framework can be applied to platforms with various objectives, contributing to all stakeholders in digital platforms.

My thoughts on AI, Big Data, and IS Research

Last update: June 10th, 2021

Recently, I had a chance to share my thoughts on how Big Data Analytics and AI will impact Information Systems (IS) research. Thanks to ever-growing datasets (public and proprietary) and powerful computational resources (cloud API, open-source projects), AI and Big Data will be important in IS research in the foreseeable future. If you are an aspiring IS researcher, I believe that you should be able to embrace this and take advantage of this.

First, AI and Big Data are powerful “tools” for IS research. It could be intimidating to see all the fancy new AI techniques. But they are just tools to analyze your data. You don’t need to reinvent the wheel to use them. There are many open-source projects in Python and R that you can use to analyze your data. Also, many cloud services (e.g., Amazon Rekognition, Google Cloud ML, Microsoft Azure ML) allow you to use pre-trained AI models at a modest cost (that your professors can afford). What you need is some working knowledge in programming languages like Python and R. And a high-level understanding of the idea behind algorithms.

Don’t shy away from hands-on programming. Using AI and Big Data tools may not be a competitive advantage in the long run because of the democratization of AI tools. However, I believe it will be the new baseline. So you need to have it in your research toolbox. Specifically, I believe that IS researchers should have a working knowledge of Python/R programming and Linux environment. I recommend these online courses: Data ScienceMachine LearningLinuxSQL, and NoSQL.

Second, AI and Big Data Analytics are creating a lot of interesting new “phenomenon” in personal lives, firms, and societies. How AI and robots will be adopted in the workplace and how that will affect the labor market? Are we losing our jobs? Or can we improve our productivity with AI tools? How AI will be used in professional services by the experts? What are the unintended consequences (such as biases, security, privacy, misinformation) of AI adoptions in the organization and society? And how can we mitigate such issues? There are so many new and interesting research questions.

In order to conduct relevant research, I think that IS researchers should closely follow the emerging technologies. Again, it could be hard to keep up with all the advances. I try to keep up to date by reading industry reports (from McKinsey and Deloitte) and listening to many podcasts (e.g., Freakonomics Radio, a16 Podcasts by Andreessen Horowitz, Lex Fridman Podcast, Stanford’s Entrepreneurial Thought Leaders, HBR’s Exponential View by Azeem Azhar).

I hope this post may help new IS researchers shape their research strategies. I will try to keep updating this post. Cheers!

 

 

IS / Marketing Papers on Multimodal Data Analytics (Image, Video, Audio)

Last update: Sep 7, 2023

With the advent of social media and mobile platforms, visual and multimodal data are becoming the first citizen in big data analytics research. Compared to textual data that require significant cognitive efforts to comprehend, visual data (such as images and videos) can easily convey the message from the content creator to the general audience. To conduct large-scale studies on such data types, researchers need to use machine learning and computer vision approaches. In this post, I am trying to organize studies in Information Systems, Marketing, and other management disciplines that leverage large-scale analysis of image and video datasets. The papers are ordered randomly:

  1. Yang, Yi, Yu Qin, Yangyang Fan, Zhongju Zhang (2023). Unlocking the Power of Voice for Financial Risk Prediction: A Theory-Driven Deep Learning Design Approach. MIS Quarterly 47(1): 63-96.
  2. Ceylan, G., Diehl, K., & Proserpio, D. (2023). EXPRESS: Words Meet Photos: When and Why Visual Content Increases Review HelpfulnessJournal of Marketing Research, forthcoming.
  3. Alex Burnap, John R. Hauser, Artem Timoshenko (2023) Product Aesthetic Design: A Machine Learning Augmentation. Marketing Science, forthcoming.
  4. Gao, Jia, Ying Rong, Xin Tian, Yuliang Yao (2023) Improving Convenience or Saving Face? An Empirical Analysis of the Use of Facial Recognition Payment Technology in Retail. Information Systems Research, forthcoming.
  5. Guan, Yue, Yong Tan, Qiang Wei, Guoqing Chen (2023) When Images Backfire: The Effect of Customer-Generated Images on Product Rating Dynamics. Information Systems Research, Forthcoming.
  6. Son, Y., Oh, W., Im, I. (2022) The Voice of Commerce: How Smart Speakers Reshape Digital Content Consumption and Preference. MIS Quarterlyforthcoming.
  7. Hou, J., Zhang, J., & Zhang, K. (2022). Pictures that are Worth a Thousand Donations: How Emotions in Project Images Drive the Success of Crowdfunding Campaigns? An Image Design Perspective. MIS Quarterly, Forthcoming.
  8. Lysyakov, Mikhail, Siva Viswanathan (2022) Threatened by AI: Analyzing Users’ Responses to the Introduction of AI in a Crowd-Sourcing Platform. Information Systems Research, Forthcoming.
  9. Hanwei Li, David Simchi-Levi, Michelle Xiao Wu, Weiming Zhu (2022) Estimating and Exploiting the Impact of Photo Layout: A Structural Approach. Management Science, Forthcoming.
  10. Bharadwaj, N., Ballings, M., Naik, P. A., Moore, M, Arat, M. M. (2022) “A New Livestream Retail Analytics Framework to Assess the Sales Impact of Emotional Displays,” Journal of Marketing, 86(1): 24-47.
  11. Chen, Z., Liu, Y.-J., Meng, J., Wang, Z. (2022) “What’s in a Face? An Experiment on Facial Information and Loan-Approval Decision“, Management Science, forthcoming.
  12. Lu, T., Wang, A., Yuan, X., Zhang, X. (2020) “Visual Distortion Bias in Consumer Choices,” Management Science, forthcoming.
  13. Zhou, M., Chen, G. H., Ferreira, P., Smith, M. D. (2021) “Consumer Behavior in the Online Classroom: Using Video Analytics and Machine Learning to Understand the Consumption of Video Courseware,” Journal of Marketing Research 58(6): 1079-1100.
  14. Zhang, Shunyuan, Dokyun Lee, Param Vir Singh, Kannan Srinivasan (2021) What Makes a Good Image? Airbnb Demand Analytics Leveraging Interpretable Image Features. Management Science 68(8):5644-5666.
  15. Gunarathne, P., Rui, H., Seidmann, A. (2021) “Racial Bias in Customer Service: Evidence from Twitter,” Information Systems Research 33(1): 43-54.
  16. Shin, D., He, S., Lee, G. M., Whinston, A. B., Cetintas, S., Lee, K.-C. (2020) “Enhancing Social Media Analysis with Visual Data Analytics: A Deep Learning Approach,” MIS Quarterly 44(4): 1459-1492[Details]
  17. Li, Y., Xie, Y. (2020) “Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Words? An Empirical Study of Image Content and Social Media Engagement,” Journal of Marketing Research 57(2): 1-19.
  18. Zhang, Q., Wang, W., Chen, Y. (2020) “Frontiers: In-Consumption Social Listening with Moment-to-Moment Unstructured Data: The Case of Movie Appreciation and Live comments,” Marketing Science 39(2).
  19. Liu, L., Dzyabura, D., Mizik, N. (2020) “Visual Listening In: Extracting Brand Image Portrayed on Social Media,Marketing Science 39(4): 669-686.
  20. Peng, L., Cui, G., Chung, Y., Zheng, W. (2020) “The Faces of Success: Beauty and Ugliness Premiums in E-Commerce Platforms,” Journal of Marketing 84(4): 67-85.
  21. Liu, X., Zhang, B., Susarla, A., Padman, R. (2020) “Go to YouTube and Call Me in the Morning: Use of Social Media for Chronic Conditions,” MIS Quarterly 44(1b): 257-283.
  22. Zhao, K., Hu, Y., Hong, Y., Westland, J. C. (2020) “Understanding Characteristics of Popular Streamers in Live Streaming Platforms: Evidence from Twitch.tv,” Journal of the Association for Information Systems, Forthcoming.
  23. Ordenes, F. V., Zhang, S. (2019) “From words to pixels: Text and image mining methods for service research,” Journal of Service Management 30(5): 593-620.
  24. Wang, Q., Li, B., Singh, P. V. (2018) “Copycats vs. Original Mobile Apps: A Machine Learning Copycat-Detection Method and Empirical Analysis,” Information Systems Research 29(2): 273-291.
  25. Lu, S., Xiao, L., Ding, M. (2016) “A Video-Based Automated Recommender (VAR) System for Garments,” Marketing Science 35(3): 484-510.
  26. Xiao, L., Ding, M. (2014) “Just the Faces: Exploring the Effects of Facial Features in Print Advertising,” Marketing Science 33(3), 315-461.
  27. Suh, K.-S., Kim, H., Suh, E. K. (2011) “What If Your Avatar Looks Like You? Dual-Congruity Perspectives for Avatar Use,” MIS Quarterly 35(3), 711-729.
  28. Todorov, A., Porter, J. M. (2014) “Misleading First Impressions: Different for Different Facial Images of the Same Person“, Psychological Science 25(7): 1404-1417.
  29. Todorov, A., Madnisodza, A. N., Goren, A., Hall, C. C. (2005) “Inferences of Competence from Faces Predict Election Outcomes“, Science 308(5728): 1623-1626.
  30. Mueller. U., Mazur, A. (1996) “Facial Dominance of West Point Cadets as a Predictor of Later Military Rank“, Social Forces 74(3): 823-850.
  31. Lee, H, Nam, K. “When Machine Vision Meets Human Fashion: Effects of Human Intervention on the Efficiency of CNN-Driven Recommender Systems in Online Fashion Retail”, Working Paper.
  32. Lysyhakov M, Viswanathan S (2021) “Threatened by AI: Analyzing users’ responses to the introduction of AI in a crowd-sourcing,” Working Paper.
  33. Park, S., Lee, G. M., Shin, D., Han, S.-P. (2020) “Targeting Pre-Roll Ads using Video Analytics,” Working Paper.
  34. Choi, A., Ramaprasad, J., So, H. (2021) Does Authenticity of Influencers Matter? Examining the Impact on Purchase Decisions, Working Paper.
  35. Park, J., Kim, J., Cho, D., Lee, B. Pitching in Character: The Role of Video Pitch’s Personality Style in Online Crowdsourcing, Working Paper.
  36. Yang, J., Zhang, J., Zhang Y. (2021) First Law of Motion: Influencer Video Advertising on TikTok, Working Paper.
  37. Davila, A., Guasch (2021) Manager’s Body Expansiveness, Investor Perceptions, and Firm Forecast Errors and Valuation, Working Paper.
  38. Peng, L., Teoh, S. H., Wang, U., Yan, J. (2021) Face Value: Trait Inference, Performance Characteristics, and Market Outcomes for Financial Analysts, Working Paper.
  39. Zhang, S., Friedman, E., Zhang, X., Srinivasan, K., Dhar, R. (2020) Serving with a Smile on Airbnb: Analyzing the Economic Returns and Behavioral Underpinnings of the Host’s Smile,” Working Paper.
  40. Park, K., Lee, S., Tan, Y. (2020) “What Makes Online Review Videos Helpful? Evidence from Product Review Videos on YouTube,” UW Working Paper.
  41. Doosti, S., Lee, S., Tan, Y. (2020) “Social Media Sponsorship: Metrics for Finding the Right Content Creator-Sponsor Matches,” UW Working Paper.
  42. Koh, B., Cui, F. (2020) “Give a Gist: The Impact of Thumbnails on the View-Through of Videos,” KU Working Paper.
  43. Hou J.R., Zhang J., Zhang K. (2018) Can title images predict the emotions and the performance of crowdfunding projects? Workshop on e-Business.

Trustworthy Face? The Effect and Drivers of Comprehensive Trust in Online Job Market Platform

Kwon, Jun Bum, Donghyuk Shin, Gene Moo Lee, Jake An, Sam Hwang (2020) “Trustworthy Face? The Effect and Drivers of Comprehensive Trust in Online Job Market Platform”. Work-in-progress.

The abstract will appear here.

Robots Serve Humans: Does AI Robot Adoption Enhance Operational Efficiency and Customer Experience?

Lee, Myunghwan, Gene Moo Lee, Donghyuk Shin, Sang-Pil Han (2022) “Robots Serve Humans? Understanding the Economic and Societal Impacts of AI Robots in the Service IndustryWorking Paper.

  • Presented at WITS (2020), KrAIS (2020), UBC (2021), DS (2022)
  • Research assistants: Raymond Situ, Gallant Tang

Service providers, such as restaurants, have been adopting various robotics technologies to improve operational efficiency and increase customer satisfaction. AI Robotics technologies bring new restaurant experiences to customers by taking orders, cooking, and serving. While the impact of industrial robots has been well documented in the literature, little is known about the impact of customer-facing service robot adoption. To fill this gap, this work-in-progress study aims to analyze the impact of service robot adoption on restaurant service quality using 4,610 restaurants and their online customer reviews. We analyzed the treated effect of robot adoption using a difference-in-differences approach with propensity score and exact matching. Estimation results show that restaurant robot adoption has a positive impact on customer satisfaction, specifically on perceived service quality. This study provides both academic and practical implications on emerging AI robotics techniques.

Corporate Social Network Analysis: A Deep Learning Approach

Cao, Rui, Gene Moo Lee, Hasan Cavusoglu. “Corporate Social Network Analysis: A Deep Learning Approach,” Working Paper.

Identifying inter-firm relationships is critical in understanding the industry landscape. However, due to the dynamic nature of such relationships, it is challenging to capture corporate social networks in a scalable and timely manner. To address this issue, this research develops a framework to build corporate social network representations by applying natural language processing (NLP) techniques on a corpus of 10-K filings, describing the reporting firms’ perceived relationships with other firms. Our framework uses named-entity recognition (NER) to locate the corporate names in the text, topic modeling to identify types of relationships included, and BERT to predict the type of relationship described in each sentence. To show the value of the network measures created by the proposed framework, we conduct two empirical analyses to see their impacts on firm performance. The first study shows that competition relationship and in-degree measurements on all relationship types have prediction power in estimating future earnings. The second study focuses on the difference between individual perspectives in an inter-firm social network. Such a difference is measured by the direction of mentions and is an indicator of a firm’s success in network governance. Receiving more mentions from other firms is a positive signal to network governance and it shows a significant positive correlation with firm performance next year.