Category Archives: Working Papers

How Does AI-Generated Voice Affect Online Content Creation? Evidence from TikTok

Zhang, Xiaoke, Mi Zhou, Gene Moo Lee (2022) How Does AI-Generated Voice Affect Online Content Creation? Evidence from TikTokWork-in-progress.

Video is one of the fastest-growing online services offered to consumers. A growing number of people today are participating in video creation and consumption in the digital economy. We study whether and how AI-generated voice affects users’ routine efforts and creative efforts in online video creation. Using a unique dataset of 2,617 creators and 273,244 videos collected from TikTok over a 25-week period, we first exploit deep learning models to detect the adoption of AI-generated voice from massive video data. Then we estimate its treatment effect on creators and viewers using a difference-in-differences model coupled with propensity score matching. We find that AI-generated voice increases creators’ routine effort and creative effort in the short term. While it has a long-lasting effect on improving the efficiency of video creation, AI-generated voice cannot consistently motivate creators to include more information in videos, and might even be detrimental to their creative effort in the long term. Our study provides the first empirical evidence on how AI tools reshape video content creation patterns on online platforms, which carries important managerial implications for individual creators, platforms, and policymakers in the digital economy.

Ideas are Easy but Execution is Everything: Measuring the Impact of Stated AI Strategies and Capability on Firm Innovation Performance

Lee, Myunghwan, Gene Moo Lee (2022) “Ideas are Easy but Execution is Everything: Measuring the Impact of Stated AI Strategies and Capability on Firm Innovation Performance”Work-in-Progress.

Contrary to the promise that AI will transform various industries, there are conflicting views on the impact of AI on firm performance. We argue that existing AI capability measures have two major limitations, limiting our understanding of the impact of AI in business. First, existing measures on AI capability do not distinguish between stated strategies and actual AI implementations. To distinguish stated AI strategy and actual AI capability, we collect various AI-related data sources, including AI conferences (e.g., NeurIPS, ICML, ICLR), patent filings (USPTO), inter-firm transactions related to AI adoption (FactSet), and AI strategies stated in 10-K annual reports. Second, while prior studies identified successful AI implementation factors (e.g., data integrity and intelligence augmentation) in a general context, little is known about the relationship between AI capabilities and in-depth innovation performance. We draw on the neo-institutional theory to articulate the firm-level AI strategies and construct a fine-grained AI capability measure that captures the unique characteristics of AI-strategy. Using our newly proposed AI capability measure and a novel dataset, we will study the impact of AI on firm innovation, contributing to the nascent literature on managing AI.

Do Incentivized Reviews Poison the Well? Evidence from a Natural Experiment at

Park, Jaecheol, Arslan Aziz, Gene Moo Lee. “Do Incentivized Reviews Poison the Well? Evidence from a Natural Experiment at Amazon.comWorking Paper.

  • Presentations: UBC (2021), KrAIS (2021), WISE (2021), PACIS (2022), SCECR (2022), BU Platform (2022)

The rapid growth in e-commerce has led to a concomitant increase in consumers’ reliance on digital word-of-mouth to inform their choices. As such, there is an increasing incentive for sellers to solicit reviews for their products. Recent studies have examined the direct effect of receiving incentives or introducing incentive policy on review writing behavior. However, since incentivized reviews are often only a small proportion of the overall reviews on a platform, it is important to understand whether their presence on the platform has spillover effects on the unincentivized reviews which are often in the majority. Using the state-of-the-art language model, Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) to identify incentivized reviews, a document embedding method, Doc2Vec to create matched pairs of Amazon and non-Amazon branded products, and a natural experiment caused by a policy change on in October 2016, we conduct a difference-in-differences analysis to identify the spillover effects of banning incentivized reviews on unincentivized reviews. Our results suggest that there are positive spillover effects of the ban on the review sentiment, length, helpfulness, and frequency, suggesting that the policy stimulates more reviews in the short-run and more positive, lengthy, and helpful reviews in the long run. Thus, we find that the presence of incentivized reviews on the platform poisons the well of reviews for unincentivized reviews.

Learning Faces to Predict Matching Probability in an Online Dating Market

Kwon, Soonjae, Sung-Hyuk Park, Gene Moo Lee, Dongwon Lee. “Learning Faces to Predict Matching Probability in an Online Dating Market”. Working Paper.

  • Presentations: DS (2021), AIMLBA (2021), WITS (2021), ICIS (2022)
  • Based on an industry collaboration

With the increasing use of online matching platforms, predicting matching probability between users is crucial for efficient market design. Although previous studies have constructed various visual features to predict matching probability, facial features, which are important in online matching, have not been widely used. We find that deep learning-enabled facial features can significantly enhance the prediction accuracy of a user’s partner preferences from the individual rating prediction analysis in an online dating market. We also build prediction models for each gender and use prior theories to explain different contributing factors of the models. Furthermore, we propose a novel method to visually interpret facial features using the generative adversarial network (GAN). Our work contributes to the literature by providing a framework to develop and interpret facial features to investigate underlying mechanisms in online matching markets. Moreover, matching platforms can predict matching probability more accurately for better market design and recommender systems.

Trustworthy Face? The Effect and Drivers of Comprehensive Trust in Online Job Market Platform

Kwon, Jun Bum, Donghyuk Shin, Gene Moo Lee, Jake An, Sam Hwang (2020) “Trustworthy Face? The Effect and Drivers of Comprehensive Trust in Online Job Market Platform”. Work-in-progress.

The abstract will appear here.

Robots Serve Humans: Does AI Robot Adoption Enhance Operational Efficiency and Customer Experience?

Lee, Myunghwan, Gene Moo Lee, Donghyuk Shin, Sang-Pil Han (2022) “Robots Serve Humans? Understanding the Economic and Societal Impacts of AI Robots in the Service IndustryWorking Paper.

  • Presented at WITS (2020), KrAIS (2020), UBC (2021), DS (2022)
  • Research assistants: Raymond Situ, Gallant Tang

Service providers, such as restaurants, have been adopting various robotics technologies to improve operational efficiency and increase customer satisfaction. AI Robotics technologies bring new restaurant experiences to customers by taking orders, cooking, and serving. While the impact of industrial robots has been well documented in the literature, little is known about the impact of customer-facing service robot adoption. To fill this gap, this work-in-progress study aims to analyze the impact of service robot adoption on restaurant service quality using 4,610 restaurants and their online customer reviews. We analyzed the treated effect of robot adoption using a difference-in-differences approach with propensity score and exact matching. Estimation results show that restaurant robot adoption has a positive impact on customer satisfaction, specifically on perceived service quality. This study provides both academic and practical implications on emerging AI robotics techniques.

What Fuels Growth? A Comparative Analysis of the Scaling Intensity of AI Start-ups

Schulte-Althoff, Matthias, Gene Moo Lee, Hannes Rothe, Robert Kauffman, Daniel Fuerstenau. “What Fuels Growth? A Comparative Analysis of the Scaling Intensity of AI Start-ups”. Under Review. [ResearchGate]

  • Previous title: “A Scaling Perspective on AI startup”
  • Presented at HICSS 2021 (SITES mini-track), Copenhagen Business School 2021, FU Berlin 2021, University of Cologne 2021, University of Bremen 2021, Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society 2021, University of British Columbia 2022.

AI technologies automate ever more complex tasks and promise new efficiencies for firms to provide new market offerings and grow. Economists argue that complementarities from AI innovations have not diffused widely enough to yield higher productivity yet though. We examine how firm revenue scales with labor for revenue-per-employee (RPE) and is moderated by firm-level AI investment. We compare AI start-ups, in which AI provides a competitive advantage, with digital platform and service start-ups. We use propensity score matching (PSM) to explain the scaling of start-ups and find evidence for sublinear scaling intensity for revenue as a function of labor. Surprisingly, our study suggests similar scaling intensities between AI and service start-ups, while platform start-ups produce higher scaling intensities. We show that an increase in employee counts is associated with major increases in revenue for platform start-ups, while increases were modest for service and AI start-ups. We also consider AI-enabled service start-ups that incorporate both service and AI-based business models and AI-enabled platform start-ups that combine AI and platform business models. AI-enabled service start-ups have a scaling intensity between service and AI start-ups, so they may not yet have achieved scaling benefits because AI adoption requires manual work from human experts. AI-enabled platform start-ups, in contrast, have a higher scaling intensity. Our study provides new perspectives on the role of AI as an emerging technology resource that supports economies of scale and scope for start-ups. 

Corporate Social Network Analysis: A Deep Learning Approach

Cao, Rui, Gene Moo Lee, Hasan Cavusoglu. “Corporate Social Network Analysis: A Deep Learning Approach,” Working Paper.

Identifying inter-firm relationships is critical in understanding the industry landscape. However, due to the dynamic nature of such relationships, it is challenging to capture corporate social networks in a scalable and timely manner. To address this issue, this research develops a framework to build corporate social network representations by applying natural language processing (NLP) techniques on a corpus of 10-K filings, describing the reporting firms’ perceived relationships with other firms. Our framework uses named-entity recognition (NER) to locate the corporate names in the text, topic modeling to identify types of relationships included, and BERT to predict the type of relationship described in each sentence. To show the value of the network measures created by the proposed framework, we conduct two empirical analyses to see their impacts on firm performance. The first study shows that competition relationship and in-degree measurements on all relationship types have prediction power in estimating future earnings. The second study focuses on the difference between individual perspectives in an inter-firm social network. Such a difference is measured by the direction of mentions and is an indicator of a firm’s success in network governance. Receiving more mentions from other firms is a positive signal to network governance and it shows a significant positive correlation with firm performance next year.

When Does Congruence Matter for Pre-roll Video Ads? The Effect of Multimodal, Ad-Content Congruence on the Ad Completion

Park, Sungho, Gene Moo Lee, Donghyuk Shin, Sang-Pil Han. “When Does Congruence Matter for Pre-roll Video Ads? The Effect of Multimodal, Ad-Content Congruence on the Ad Completion, Under Review [Submitted: June 27, 2022]

  • Previous title: Targeting Pre-Roll Ads using Video Analytics
  • Funded by Sauder Exploratory Research Grant 2020
  • Presented at Southern Methodist University (2020), University of Washington (2020), INFORMS (2020), AIMLBA (2020), WITS (2020), HKUST (2021), Maryland (2021), American University (2021), National University of Singapore (2021)
  • Research assistants: Raymond Situ, Miguel Valarao

Pre-roll video ads are gaining industry traction because the audience may be willing to watch an ad for a few seconds, if not the entire ad, before the desired content video is shown. Conversely, a popular skippable type of pre-roll video ads, which enables viewers to skip an ad in a few seconds, creates opportunity costs for advertisers and online video platforms when the ad is skipped. Against this backdrop, we employ a video analytics framework to extract multimodal features from ad and content videos, including auditory signals and thematic visual information, and probe into the effect of ad-content congruence at each modality using a random matching experiment conducted by a major video advertising platform. The present study challenges the widely held view that ads that match content are more likely to be viewed than those that do not, and investigates the conditions under which congruence may or may not work. Our results indicate that non-thematic auditory signal congruence between the ad and content is essential in explaining viewers’ ad completion, while thematic visual congruence is only effective if the viewer has sufficient attentional and cognitive capacity to recognize such congruence. The findings suggest that thematic videos demand more cognitive processing power than auditory signals for viewers to perceive ad-content congruence, leading to decreased ad viewing. Overall, these findings have significant theoretical and practical implications for understanding whether and when viewers construct congruence in the context of pre-roll video ads and how advertisers might target their pre-roll video ads successfully.

On the Heterogeneity of Startup Tech Stacks

Schulte-Althoff, Matthias, Kai Schewina, Gene Moo Lee, Daniel Fuerstenau. “On the Heterogeneity of Startup Tech Stacks”. Working Paper [HICSS version]

  • Presented in HICSS 2020 (Maui, HI)
  • Previous title: On the Heterogeneity of Digital Infrastructure in Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

Digital infrastructure is the backbone on which digital startups realize business opportunities, and the homogeneity or heterogeneity of the technological base can have significant downstream impacts on business risks, inflexibilities, and growth barriers. On the nexus of digital entrepreneurship and infrastructure studies, we suggest a conception of startup digital infrastructure as organized in tech stacks; tech stacks contain individual technological elements that are combined in a single startup, while the way this is done will be inspired by shared templates within the ecosystem. Given that there is limited understanding of the heterogeneity (or homogeneity) of startup tech stacks, we use public registry datasets from StackShare and Crunchbase to identify common tech stacks of startups. Through our analysis, we identify ten commonly used startup tech stacks, which we use to measure and analyze the heterogeneity of startup tech stacks and its antecedents. OLS regression analysis shows that a startup’s technologies’ interrelatedness, its age, and investor funding are associated with the heterogeneity of startup tech stacks. The overall analysis suggests that while startups may make individual choices regarding technology usage, there could be underlying commonalities and imprinting effects across startups, exposing them to common risks in terms of their digital infrastructures. This could pose important implications for startups, investors, and society at large