Video is one of the fastest-growing online services offered to consumers. A growing number of people today are participating in video creation and consumption in the digital economy. We study whether and how AI-generated voice affects users’ routine efforts and creative efforts in online video creation. Using a unique dataset of 2,617 creators and 273,244 videos collected from TikTok over a 25-week period, we first exploit deep learning models to detect the adoption of AI-generated voice from massive video data. Then we estimate its treatment effect on creators and viewers using a difference-in-differences model coupled with propensity score matching. We find that AI-generated voice increases creators’ routine effort and creative effort in the short term. While it has a long-lasting effect on improving the efficiency of video creation, AI-generated voice cannot consistently motivate creators to include more information in videos, and might even be detrimental to their creative effort in the long term. Our study provides the first empirical evidence on how AI tools reshape video content creation patterns on online platforms, which carries important managerial implications for individual creators, platforms, and policymakers in the digital economy.
Park, Sungho, Gene Moo Lee, Donghyuk Shin, Sang-Pil Han. “When Does Congruence Matter for Pre-roll Video Ads? The Effect of Multimodal, Ad-Content Congruence on the Ad Completion“, Under Review [Submitted: June 27, 2022]
Previous title: Targeting Pre-Roll Ads using Video Analytics
Funded by Sauder Exploratory Research Grant 2020
Presented at Southern Methodist University (2020), University of Washington (2020), INFORMS (2020), AIMLBA (2020), WITS (2020), HKUST (2021), Maryland (2021), American University (2021), National University of Singapore (2021)
Research assistants: Raymond Situ, Miguel Valarao
Pre-roll video ads are gaining industry traction because the audience may be willing to watch an ad for a few seconds, if not the entire ad, before the desired content video is shown. Conversely, a popular skippable type of pre-roll video ads, which enables viewers to skip an ad in a few seconds, creates opportunity costs for advertisers and online video platforms when the ad is skipped. Against this backdrop, we employ a video analytics framework to extract multimodal features from ad and content videos, including auditory signals and thematic visual information, and probe into the effect of ad-content congruence at each modality using a random matching experiment conducted by a major video advertising platform. The present study challenges the widely held view that ads that match content are more likely to be viewed than those that do not, and investigates the conditions under which congruence may or may not work. Our results indicate that non-thematic auditory signal congruence between the ad and content is essential in explaining viewers’ ad completion, while thematic visual congruence is only effective if the viewer has sufficient attentional and cognitive capacity to recognize such congruence. The findings suggest that thematic videos demand more cognitive processing power than auditory signals for viewers to perceive ad-content congruence, leading to decreased ad viewing. Overall, these findings have significant theoretical and practical implications for understanding whether and when viewers construct congruence in the context of pre-roll video ads and how advertisers might target their pre-roll video ads successfully.