Guest Post: Russia and Mongolia on the Eve of the Eastern Economic Forum 2021

By Alexey Mikhalev

Despite the fact that the world is still fighting the COVID-19 pandemic, every day it is becoming more relevant to hold major forums focusing on economic recovery. From 2 to 4 September 2021, another Eastern Economic Forum will be held in the Russian city of Vladivostok, previously canceled due to the 2020 pandemic. Along with delegations from China and France, guests from Mongolia are expected to arrive. Pres. U Khurelsukh won a landslide victory in the presidential elections in June 2021. Now everyone hopes that he and his team will announce the prospects of cooperation with Russia and other countries of the Asia-Pacific region at the forum. What will it be about?

This year, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) celebrates its 20th anniversary. Mongolia is still an observer there. It seems that the new president can also outline new prospects for cooperation with the SCO. It is obvious that the current format has outlived its usefulness. It’s apparent that relations Mongolia and SCO have long since grown into something more, but they do not receive any formal recognition. Whether U Khurelsukh can maintain the previous vector of relations with the SCO, whether he declares the need for closer cooperation or refrains from commenting – this is one of the intrigues of the forum. It is not obvious that Pres. Khurelsukh will change the vector of SOC policy but Moscow expects him to make this move.

In 2021, the two oldest Marxist parties in Asia celebrate their centenary, the Chinese Communist Party and the Mongolian People’s Party. Their influence on the development of the Asian region is undeniable; therefore, their historical experience is important for Russia as the successor to the USSR. Besides, the year 2021 is the centennial of the establishment of Russian-Mongolian diplomatic relations. This date is commemorated with numerous conferences and forums held throughout the year.

In these conditions, the presence of the Mongolian delegation at the Eastern delegation would be highly welcome.логичным продолжением юбилейных торжеств.

Vaccine diplomacy

Of course, the most important topic will be events related to the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the world. It is important for Russia to support and build on the success of its vaccines, so it will be interesting to discuss the Mongolian experience, a multivariate vaccination option has been chosen there. Mongolians have been vaccinated with almost all presently known vaccines. This is a unique situation that makes it possible to assess the advantages and disadvantages of vaccines. All this takes into account the Asian specifics, that is, mutations of the virus into regional strains. Vaccines have become a key factor in so-called vaccine diplomacy. They are not the only topic that has become relevant against the backdrop of the pandemic. Unexpectedly, questions, that are seemingly forgotten, may be added to the agenda. For example, the memory of Soviet doctors who fought epidemics in Central Asia.

We should not forget about vaccine diplomacy: Russia is interested in the promotion of Sputnik-V vaccine. Its creation was not only an act of supporting state prestige but also a contribution to struggle against the pandemic. Today, Sputnik-V is used in a number of countries including Mongolia, therefore it would be very interesting to know a consolidated opinion about the vaccine at the Eastern Economic Forum.

Power industry and economics

On June 1, 2021, Russian and Mongolian ministers of foreign affairs met to discuss the development of economic relations. Economic sphere is one of the most complex issues at the moment since the pandemic caused a crisis. It is possible to solve this crisis only if mutual efforts are taken. Therefore, economic matters were so thoroughly discussed at the meeting in Moscow. Also, the meeting in Moscow opens a number of further perspectives for other events at various levels. As for the topics for discussion, there is a number of them, and power industry is the most important.

The topic of hydropower appears relevant as well. Many stakeholders in the region are concerned about it. It is not known whether the Mongolian delegation is going to address this issue. But the Russian side should be ready. This is a sensitive issue, especially in the context of water conflicts in Central Asia. On one hand, this is about resource nationalism that strives to provide the national economy with national electricity; and on the other hand, the concerns balancing the ecological system of Lake Baikal.

Russia’s position here is to avoid using water resources in the conditions of abundance of alternatives sources of energy. For example, Mongolia has ideal conditions for solar energy generation. One of the panels at the Eastern Economic forum will be devoted to carbon-free economy. This topic is very important for Mongolia, an importer of carbohydrates from Russia and a country seeking energy independence. However, Mongolian Foreign Minister B Battsetseg said in her interview devoted to the centennial anniversary since the establishment of diplomatic relations that Mongolia would like to continue hydropower cooperation with Russia. An important component of the energy topic will be the discussion of Power of Siberia pipeline and its Mongolian section Soyuz Vostok. These topics were discussed at the meeting of foreign ministers and, undoubtedly, these topics remain important and can be included into the agenda of the Eastern Economic Forum.

Eastern Economic Forum is a place to discuss the future. In particular, it is a place to discuss the architecture of Asian Pacific regional order. Of similar importance is the future of digital policy, and this topic is to become one of the discussed topics. Mongolia’s position in all aforementioned topics in contemporary conditions is very important.

The challenges above are the most important to Russian-Mongolian relations. In fact, there are many more of them — the only question is, to what extent will the parties’ expectations correspond to the agenda of the Eastern Economic Forum? For all the complexity of relations between the two countries, one of the key goals of the forum is to promote the Russian Far East, which makes up about 40% of the territory of Russia. This involves cooperation and dialogue.

About Alexey Mikkhalev

Alexey Mikhalev is a Political scientist (Asian Studies), Political observer and Doctor of Science (Russian degree). He mostly works with the Russian politics in Inner Asia and is currently researching «Russian World Policy» and Memory studies in Inner Asia.

Posted in Alexey Mikhalev, Energy, Foreign Policy, Health, Mongolia and ..., Mongolian People's Party, Russia, SCO | Leave a comment

Untold Blogpost Episode 13: Education Means Competitiveness in Business

By Mendee Jargalsaikhan

Oidov Vaanchig, (@OidovVaanchig) a disability activist, business entrepreneur, good husband, and father of three wonderful children. He has a diverse educational background: elementary school in Russia, secondary school in Umnugobi province, the National University of Mongolia, and business administration in Switzerland. Our guest shared his views on business, education, and challenges concerning the people with disabilities.

Going Into Business

After having worked for over ten years in the humanitarian sector, Oidov decided to become a business entrepreneur. At that time, he had already learned about the market and the needs of disabled customers. Working for the international non-governmental organizations in Mongolia, Oidov travelled all over the country to provide assistive devices and disability equipment, provided by the United States, to disabled people at free of charge. The only thing that he needed was to study business, and he was fortunate to be accepted to the Swiss scholarship program to pursue international business administration. The first few years of the business had been challenging, as he explains, but his experience and education helped him to do successful crowdfunding to continue his business.

Photo: Oidov and his company “REHTUS” (with the permission of Oidov)

He talked about his three businesses: the first being the sale of disability equipment. For example, when someone asks about wheelchairs, he always puts himself in his customer’s shoes to understand their needs and requirements. In his words, “I try to solve the problem from their perspective.” His second business is the provision of services and technology to those who need to take care of their disabled family members without interrupting their jobs. Because of the absence of such services, many people need to quit their jobs to take care of their close ones. The last business – he just started – is an inclusive, eco-friendly housing project. As Oidov argues, people experience disability throughout their life, or, at any stage of their life: a newborn baby, pregnancy, injury, and ageing. Therefore, this inclusive, eco-friendly house will be designed and built with two concepts in mind: being inclusive of a wide range of people from young couples to older ones and, eco-friendliness, especially in regard to heating. We agreed that he would be showing this project on our first vlog – an upcoming new feature of the Untold.

The Right Hand Doesn’t Know What the Left Hand is Doing

As we asked about the key challenges concerning the people with disabilities, Oidov answered: the lack of consideration and coordination with regard to policies. For many years, government officials declared to be in the making of an inclusive society. But in reality, not much has been done.

Taking the example of inclusive education, Oidov explained the soft and hard factors. Soft factors are teachers and parents. So, the state has only pressured already busy, stressed schoolteachers to promote inclusive education. Although teachers and parents are a key, the most important aspect are the hard factors: the infrastructure inside schools (i.e., lifts, washrooms, hallways) and outside schools (public and private transportation, loading/unloading zones, parking). For instance, most schools have three-story buildings and classes starting from the fifth and sixth grades are on the upper floors. Schools do not have lifts and lack accessible washrooms. Kindergartens are usually two-story buildings and do not have lifts. But, in developed societies, the kindergartens must be located on the ground floor of the buildings because of potential emergencies (fire, earthquake). So, until the infrastructure has changed, inclusive education would simply remain a political rhetoric.

Moreover, the law and standards on accessibility have not been enforced in Mongolia. The construction companies that failed to comply with the standards should be banned from future tenders. And, our guest regrets, big companies are building supermarkets without thinking about serving people with disabilities (over 120,000) and, of course, parents with small children. So, Oidov argues that the people who make and implement policies concerning disabled people lack the knowledge. Moreover, they simply ignore those who have the knowledge and experience.

Education, Education, and Education

Throughout the podcast, our guest picked up on the importance of education. To become successful business people, they must have education, especially starting with kindergarten. People, who were included in the kindergarten level of education, are more likely to pursue further education. Therefore, kindergartens should be accessible and inclusive of children with disabilities.

The inclusive education will help others to understand and learn how to deal with people with disabilities. When he was studying at the secondary school in Umnugobi province, he was the only student with a disability. Students, five grades lower and above knew him. And his classmates learned how to study, play, and live with a person like Oidov. Then, at university, he was aware of only two other disabled students studying at different universities. Indeed, this is a sad fact. Very few people with disabilities decided to go to university. One of our earlier guests, Battulga, regretted that his friend did not pursue his graduate degree freely, as entitled by the law, because the procedural documents were not approved by the Ministry of Education for so many years.

Photo: Oidov in the Alps (with the permission of Oidov)

According to Oidov and many other of our guests, education is key to empowering the people with disabilities, to learn about their rights and, as Oidov highlights, it is a foundation for everything: getting out of poverty and/or to become a successful businessperson. When Oidov was working with the international organization, they found out that many students with disabilities leave the school. For example, only three students out of thirteen disabled students who entered the first grade, continued by the fifth grade. Ten of them left the school by the third and fourth grade because the conditions were not right for them. Although national reports on education show a high number of disabled children attending schools, in reality, the consistency of education for these kids is a crucial issue to be addressed immediately.  Here, Oidov directs us to a crucial policy research – one needs to find out why these children are giving up.

This was one of the interviews that all participants did not want to come to an end. We all hope to have many successful business entrepreneurs like Oidov – who have big dreams and pursue them tirelessly and skillfully. Not only in business, Oidov has been known for his entrepreneurship of localizing the profession of occupational therapy in Mongolia. He helped the Health Science University and Nursing Schools to develop the Bachelor’s and Master’s program. And he asked our young listeners to check out this occupational therapist program – which is regarded as one of the top-ranking professions globally in the 21st century. As soon as things go back to normal, we will present you a vlog about Oidov’s inclusive, eco-friendly housing projects.

The Untold podcast and blog post are made available by the generous support of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation in Mongolia. We also want to thank our editor Riya Tikku.

Posted in Education, Health, Mendee Jargalsaikhan, People with Disabilities, Podcast, Uncategorized | Tagged | Leave a comment

Guest Post: Mongolian Olympic Team in Tokyo 2020

By Zorigtkhuu Bat-Erdene 

A Mongolian National Olympic Team of 43 athletes participated in the 2020 Summer Olympic Game in Tokyo, Japan in ten different sports.  Mongolian athletes have been participating in every Summer Olympic Games since 1964 in Tokyo, except the one in the 1984 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles due to its support of the Soviet Union boycott.

The 43 athletes participated in the following sports:

# Sport Men Women Total
1 Archery 1 1 2
2 Athletics 2 1 3
3 Basketball (3X3) 0 4 4
4 Boxing 2 1 3
5 Judo 7 5 12
6 Shooting 1 3 4
7 Swimming 1 1 2
8 Table tennis 1 1 2
9 Weightlifting 0 2 2
10 Wrestling Freestyle 3 6 9
Total 18 25 43

 First Mongolian team sport in Olympic history

Although many new and young athletes qualified for the Olympic Games for the first time, I want to emphasize the Mongolian Women’s 3×3 Basketball team. This is the first time ever Mongolia is participating in the Olympic Games with a team sport. The team is one of only eight countries that qualified for Tokyo 2020. However, two of the original members of the team, D.Ganzul and B.Bolor-Erdene were not able to participate in the Olympic game at the last minute. The head coach announced that these players were excluded because of their injuries. Whereas, one of the two players posted on her Facebook, saying that she is ready for the Olympic Game, does not have any injuries, and wishes success for her teammates.

This caused some social discussion and debate, as these two players are highly skilled and experienced and had contributed to the team’s success in winning the Olympic qualification for the Mongolian team. The main discussion about the two basketball players not being able to join was that the coaches and the 3×3 basketball association had chosen players affiliated with politicians and wealthy families. However, it was too late to complain since the final names of the players were already given to the Olympic officials. Hopefully, there were not political influences, and the coaches made the right decision.

The selected players played incredibly well against leading basketball countries such as the USA, France, Italy, etc., although they could not win against any of their opponents. They have built the path for future basketball players as well as other team sport athletes. It has been a dream for Mongolian basketball fans to see their basketball team playing at the Olympic Games.

Results from the Olympics

As a result of the Tokyo 2020, Mongolia is ranked 71st  out of 206 nations, including Refugee Olympic Team (EOR), with four  medals, one silver and three bronze medals. These  medals have been taken by the judo and freestyle wrestlers as follows:

Silver Saeid Mollaei Judo Men’s 81 kg
Bronze Urantsetseg Munkhbat Judo Women’s 48 kg
Bronze Tsogtbaatar Tsend-Ochir Judo Men’s 73 kg
Bronze Bolortuya Bat-Ochir Freestyle Wome’s 53 kg

Interesting statistics regarding Mongolian participation in the Tokyo 2020 based on the number of medals

Total Medals per Capita Mongolia is ranked 20th
Weighted Medals per Capita Mongolia is ranked 30th
Weighted Medals by GDP Mongolia is ranked 11th
Total Medals Mongolia is ranked 47th

Two sides of Nationalism

Mr. Saeid Mollaei is the first foreign-born athlete who represents Mongolia in the Olympic Games in Mongolian history. He is an Iranian-born Mongolian judoka. The Iranian authorities ordered him to lose deliberately in the semi-final at the Tokyo 2019 World Judo Championship to avoid wrestling against the Israelian judoka in the final round of that tournament. After fleeing to Germany with a two-year visa, he accepted an offer to become a Mongolian citizen from the Mongolian president in 2019. He is delighted that he has Mongolian citizenship and expressed his sincere gratitude to the International Judo Federation (IGF), the former president of Mongolia, Kh Battulga, who offered him the citizenship and specials thanks to the people of Mongolia.

Mongolians warmly welcomed him when he decided to immigrate to Mongolia. He was given the Mongolian name “Molom.” When he got his silver medal from the Tokyo Olympics, it was clear that he is very well respected, loved and embraced like other Mongolian Olympic medal winners.

Molom’s story is inspirational; in a sense, it shows two sides of nationalism. On the one hand, he left Iran due to the country’s nationalism. On the other hand, he represented Mongolia in Judo – a country that harbours strong nationalistic sentiments, especially in wrestling, yet Mongolians were united behind him, embracing him as a son. This is truly a beautiful story of the Olympics and sports.

Boxing in Olympics

Another Olympic sport that Mongolian athletes had a good chance of winning a medal was boxing. The boxers had won the gold, silver and bronze medals in boxing from the previous three Olympic Games, Rio 2016, London 2012 and Beijing 2008. Unfortunately, our boxers were not able to get any Olympic medals from Tokyo 2020.

E. Tsendbaatar (Men’s 52-57 kg) fought for the bronze medal against a Russian boxer. The referees gave his opponent a very doubtful victory even though Tsendbaatar dominated for the first two rounds. Regarding this decision, the Mongolian Olympic Committee appealed it formally, unlike the protest in 2016 where the coaches took off their clothes. Unfortunately, the decision remained as it was.

After his fight, he mentioned during the interview that he lost his bronze medal opportunity along with his chance to change his life. Meaning that if he could have got any medal from the Olympics, he had an opportunity to change his life because Mongolia awards a one-time cash prize and a monthly stipend for its Olympic medalists. As a Mongolian watching the games, his expression made me feel sad realizing the fact that he was carrying a burden of his whole life along with the punches from his opponent.

Mongolia rewards its Olympic medalists as follows:

One-time Monthly
Gold 120 000 000 MNT 4 000 000 MNT
Silver 60 000 000 MNT 3 000 000 MNT
Bronze 30 000 000 MNT 2 000 000 MNT

In addition to the state rewards, there will also be rewards from the sponsor organizations, local councils and businesses.

Issues that require further attention to improve the success

Many athletes ( weightlifting, boxing, judo, freestyle wrestling etc.) competed for the medals in the semi-final, which shows that our athletes are highly competitive in individual sports and have the high physical potential to take more medals from the Olympics. However, sports are not all about physical training; athletes need more psychological support and their physiotherapist before, during and after their contests. A Japanese sport’s physiotherapist who has been working with the Mongolian judo team had posted on his social account about the importance of physiotherapy. Unfortunately, he was not able to go to Tokyo 2020 with his team for some reason. He could have helped not only the judo team, but he could also have provided his treatment to wrestling, boxing teams etc., if he went to the Tokyo 2020 with the team and results might have been different, who knows.

Hopefully, officials and sports associations will ensure sending the essential people such as psychologists and physiotherapists on time with the athletes to both the summer and winter Olympic games.

Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics Game is on its way. Although Mongolians are not expecting medals from the athletes who will participate in the winter Olympics, we hope that our athletes will be breaking their personal and our country’s records in Beijing. I look forward to seeing more athletes succeed in the next Olympic Games.

About the author

Bat-Erdene ZORIGTKHUU currently lives in Vancouver, Canada. He graduated from MUST and is aiming to complete a Master’s degree at Norman B. Keevil Institute of Mining Engineering of the University of British Columbia. Zorigtkhuu’s research focuses on Mining Local Procurement (Local Content) in Mongolia.

Professional background: Zorigtkhuu worked for the biggest coal mining company (Energy-Resources) in Mongolia and an “International Medical Center (Intermed Hospital)” project that was jointly commissioned by MCS group in Mongolia.





Posted in Cultural Diplomacy, London 2012, Nationalism, Olympics, Pop Culture, Society and Culture, Sports, Tokyo 2020, Wrestling, Youth, Zorigtkhuu Bat-Erdene | Leave a comment

Untold Blogpost Episode 12: Wonderful Children Captivated Me

By Mendee Jargalsaikhan

Our guest is E. Enkhzul, a teacher at the 116th school – the only school for the visually impaired and blind children in Mongolia. Having worked both during the socialist and democratic periods, Enkhzul shared her insightful views full of contrasts.

Facing Her Prejudice

In 1987, a young graduate of the Mongolian State Pedagogical University (now Mongolian State University of Education) needed to face her fear of working at the 25th school, known as a school for children with intellectual disability. Otherwise, she would be assigned to work in a remote rural school. When she was studying at the secondary school, parents and even teachers used to threaten kids with sending them to the 25th school if they would not behave or study well. People spread rumors telling ugly, frightening stories about this school. So, she decided to teach there with the hope of being assigned to a different school whenever the opportunity would arise. The first year was hard, she recalls, all previous misconceptions and prejudices kept her scared and even pushed her to quit. However, experienced senior teachers and the beautiful, smart children motivated her to teach for now over 34 years, and she still loves to teach. 

Photo: Enkhzul with her students (with the permission of Enkhzul)

Special Education During the Socialist Period

Special schools were established in the 1960s. Core faculty members were educated in the former Soviet Union and, on a monthly basis, specialists from the Soviet Union used to run workshops and seminars for Mongolian teachers who were working in the special schools. At that time, there were no special training programs or courses on teaching children with disabilities at the Mongolian State University of Education. Therefore, teachers assigned to work in special schools, were coached by senior teachers and specialists from the Soviet Union. Also, a nation-wide survey on children with disabilities was jointly conducted by three ministries (Ministries of Health, Education, and Social Welfare) on a regular basis. Covering all soums and city districts, the survey would present the exact number of children with disabilities and the type/degree of disabilities. Based on this data, the student and teacher ratio was determined by the Ministry of Education. But things got worse during the political and economic transition periods of the 1990s.

Special Schools

From 1964 to 2007, both, children with visual and children with hearing impairment used to go to the 29th school. Then, in 2007, the 116th school was designated for the visually impaired children, while the 29th school was designated for hearing impaired children. The school programs of these schools are similar to those of other public schools; therefore, students take the general exam to apply to post-secondary schools. Children with intellectual disabilities have different programs. Enkhzul, who is teaching elementary school students, Enkhzul explains that children with disabilities can have multiple disabilities. For example, six of seven students in her class have other types of disabilities (e.g., autism, cerebral palsy) in addition to visual impairment. Therefore, a teacher’s workload at the special schools is heavier than that of the teacher at a public school. Each student requires a specific pacing and teaching methodology. This requires having an assistant teacher even for a class of four or five students.  

Advice to Parents – Education is Important

The most important thing is to observe your children from an early age and to assess their behaviors, physical skills, and linguistic development. Parents should seek advice from family doctors and specialists on how to assess and help their children improve their skills. Many parents loose valuable time and loose the momentum for their children to develop self-help skills and social skills. As Enkhzul sighs, it was incredibly sad to see ten-to fourteen-year-olds joining the elementary schools because they did not go to school at the age of six or seven. Some parents are afraid to send their children to special schools because they presume that their children cannot live away from them. This is understandable, especially for those who live in the countryside. However, some parents want to keep their children so that they can work for money or carry out the household chores. It was common practice during the economic hardships in the 1990s. But parents should understand that these children are entitled to study, and for many, education is key to unlock their talents. 

Photo: Enkhzul with her students (with the permission of Enkhzul)

A Story of Her Student

One story, she shared, was a good example of the role education plays. There was a girl, who lived in the ger district of the capital city. Her dad was unemployed and an alcoholic. The only breadwinner in the family was her mom, who was a tailor and was working the nightshifts in a textile company. The girl was overwhelmed with the tasks of looking after her brothers and sisters, housekeeping, helping her mom overnight, and going to school. Sometimes, she did not show up for her class. Enkhzul insisted and almost forced her to take the final exam for the 9th grade, so she could get a certificate and apply for jobs or vocational schools. Luckily, she graduated from secondary school and then finished vocational school. Many years later, she invited Enkhzul to her house and introduced her family and a new apartment, which they bought after having worked in South Korea. This was, as Enkhzul stresses, one of the happiest moments of her life. 

Impacts of Covid 19

The children with disabilities are hit hard by the COVID-19. Unlike public school students, visually impaired students cannot learn through the government-run tele-education. For example, some areas do not receive the channel (e.g., Ekh Oron channel) which delivers the tele-schooling for the third graders. Many children do not have access to computers and the internet. Students with visual impairment need to use their phones to listen to their teachers, but many of them do not have sufficient data. The students of the 116th school have been comfortably learning through touch, but now they may begin to lose these special skills. Hence, the teachers are expecting an immense workload to help students catch up and overcome these challenges. 

There Is Progress, But…

In comparison to the 1980s, much progress has been made. People are gradually changing their views about children with disabilities. A new law was passed to promote inclusive education. This is extremely helpful for children with disabilities, as they can now transfer from the special schools to join public schools. In addition to Russian specialists, teachers have been working with specialists from Japan and South Korea. Many international organizations are providing support to special schools. Early diagnosis and rehabilitation have been improved, but many challenges remain. Only two of six special schools have lifts while all other public schools do not have lifts – so, how can we promote inclusive schooling? There are many nice talks about the barrier free environment, however, ultimately standards are not complied with, and it thereby remains a lip service. Some accessibility roads are even dangerous for anyone who would use them. Looking at these half-baked, crude attempts is heartbreaking. The state officials need to enforce their laws and standards because these children with disabilities are carrying a load bigger than themselves. 

After working for over 34 years, Mrs. Enkhzul still always loves to talk about her students. And she told us that she worries about their future, especially about whether they will find jobs and make a living. Throughout the interview, she repeated that these beautiful children captivated her and she overcame the prejudices that she held against the children with disabilities, particularly regarding the 25th special school during her formative years. She did not leave her job, even during the economic difficulties of the 1990s when the school could not pay their teachers on time. 

The Untold podcast and blog post are made available by the generous support of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation in Mongolia. We also want to thank our editor Riya Tikku.

Posted in Education, Health, People with Disabilities, Podcast, Uncategorized | Tagged | Leave a comment

10-Year Anniversary

By Julian Dierkes


We’ve been blogging for 10 years!

We had hoped to hold a public event in Ulaanbaatar for this anniversary, invite some past authors, perhaps give some readers a chance to say a few things about the blog… but alas, COVID will not allow for that this summer.

Origins, Coverage and Authors

Byambajav, Julian and Mendee (from left) in 2017

It all started with conversations between Byambajav Dalaibuyan, Mendee Jargalsaikhan and myself in the office. Those led to the very first blog post on July 29 2011 where Mendee summarized his MA thesis on anti-Chinese attitudes.

From then on, we have written over 700 posts on many different topics and many different authors have joined us. I’ve never calculated the average length of posts, but 700 words would be a conservative estimate.  That suggests at total of over 500,000 words.

For the variety of topics, just see the category cloud in the right margin. These are mostly clustered around economic, political and social developments, though we sprinkled in sports, updates on visible change in Ulaanbaatar and the countryside, the arts, etc. We have always seen spikes of readership around national elections in part because we also posted a lot of analyses around these elections, but perhaps also because international interest in Mongolia is relatively selected and elections are an occasion to write even for international media.

Our initial crew of three was joined for a time by Brandon Miliate, and later by Bulgan Batdorj and Marissa J Smith.

Adding guest authors to our core crew, 70 authors have written for the blog. 9 of those authors have been or are affiliated with UBC.


As it turns out, when you keep writing, they will come to read!

Our posts have been read over 440,000 times by 160,000 readers. These readers are based in some of the world’s population giants (China, India, the U.S.), but also in Mongolia (just under a quarter of readers) which we’re especially happy about.

If you imagine the 500,000 words we’ve written to be an edited volume, that sure would be an academic bestseller, though, of course, few – if any, other than myself – of those readers have read all posts.

And yes, 440,000 pageviews!


No concrete plans for changes. Some of us have other demands placed on our time, pandemics interfere with country visits, but our interest remains strong and our readership seems pretty steady. We’ve toyed with donation systems like “Buy me a Coffee”, but in the end, it seems too much trouble and we’re writing for a greater understanding of contemporary Mongolia, not for pay. We’ve also thought about other formats, perhaps most likely a podcast, but the blog format still serves our needs well, so perhaps we’re just sticking to what has worked in the past.

But, you should definitely feel free to buy any of us a coffee or perhaps even a beer when you see us. Please also let us know how useful the blog is to you, it’s always nice to have testimonials like that, not least to insert into annual reports, etc. And, we’re also happy to be invited to podcast conversations.

If you have more serious challenges, you can always hire us for consulting via the Mongolian Institute for Innovative Policies.

And yes, we are hoping to have a public event in summer 2022 for our 11-year anniversary, pandemic times permitting.

Posted in Reflection | Tagged | Leave a comment

Untold Blogpost Episode 11: Let’s Remove Small Barriers of Communication

By Mendee Jargalsaikhan 

Our guest is a third-year student at the Mongolian International University (MIU). From her home soum in Bayankhongor Province, Ms Lkhamsuren shares with us her experience of secondary and post-secondary schools, her dream of educating the young generation, and her thoughts on an inclusive society.

Kind-hearted Teachers in Bayankhongor

She started to lose her eyesight from the eighth grade. It became worse as she went on to the ninth grade, when she could not read and write anymore at all. But her teachers and friends helped her with the lessons by reading them for her and teachers let her take oral exams, although this practice was not formally accepted. She will never forget these kind-hearted teachers and classmates in Bayankhongor. Once it became clear for her that she could not continue her schooling, she stayed with her parents who were herders. As she recalled, it was so exciting to hear about school life (‘rumours’) every time her sisters and brothers returned home during the school breaks but saddening to farewell them back to school dorms. At that time, the most difficult decision for her was whether to burn or keep her diaries.  Those contained the most valuable memories of her childhood, but she could not read them. Though she accepted the fact of blindness, she could not stop thinking about schooling. Luckily, her parents were brave enough to send their daughter to the country’s only secondary school for vision-impaired children in the capital city Ulaanbaatar.   

Photo: Lkhamsuren herself (with the permission of Lkhamsuren)

The 116th Secondary School

The first few months were so difficult, she sighed. Although she eventually learned the Braille alphabet within a month, her fingers were at first not cooperating, and the reading was most challenging. However, she made new friends who helped her to get over the challenges of Braille and the homesickness. In the first year, her dad used to visit almost every week, travelling over 800 kms from Bayankhongor to the capital city, just to check if their daughter was doing fine. She was thankful that her parents made such a brave decision to support their daughter’s dream of studying and becoming a teacher. During her study at the 116th secondary school, she noticed the significant improvement of the school’s facility and technology related to the Braille program. The school is now equipped with the Braille printing technology and software. However, young teachers need to be prepared to work with the students. There were three common problems with these new teachers: (1) some have personal issues, especially biases against the students, (2) lack of knowledge of the old and new Braille technology and programmes, and (3) no or little psychological or mental preparation. It would be extremely helpful if they had a short, practical job training before working at the secondary school. Otherwise, the students would suffer as these teachers are trying to overcome these challenges by making mistakes and increasing pressures on the students. 

Studying at the University

Now Lkhamsuren is pursuing her dream of becoming an English language teacher at the Mongolian International University (MIU). After graduating from university, she wants to teach at a language learning centre or regular secondary schools, not only to show that a girl with impaired sight can pursue her dreams but also to spread knowledge about disabled people in our society. One day, her students, who will then be knowledgeable about people with disabilities, would help many understand the concept of an inclusive society. At university, she has been busy with numerous important projects. She was a member of a team composed of people with other types of disabilities. Her team successfully participated in the national as well as the regional Asia-Pacific IT competitions. Furthermore, she conducted research to assess the toilet accessibility for the people with disabilities and presented her results at an academic conference. Except for the toilets in a handful of business and service centres, most toilets were not accessible to people with disabilities – not even for a person without disabilities. 

Photo: Lkhamsuren participating in Global IT Challenge 2018 (with the permission of Lkhamsuren)

What Should Be Done

The laws, regulations, and standards, need to be complied with by the construction companies in order to improve the accessibility of the infrastructure for people with disabilities. The statements of our earlier guests resonate with Lkhamsuren: buildings, roads, and washrooms, should be universally accessible for all people (elders, sick, or with small children).  Therefore, it is not an issue that concerns only people in wheelchairs or people with walking sticks. According to our guest, two things should be done: (1) the standards must be inspected and hold responsible those failed to comply these standards, and (2) people who are designing and building should consider the users of these facilities.

Another suggestion for improvement is to increase the use of the internet for the dissemination of information to people with disabilities and to parents with disabled children. The government organizations and non-governmental organizations could provide more information about their activities to the public. Instead of targeting only people with disabilities, the online platform should be used to promote the idea of an inclusive society. They could create contents and programmes for adults, school children, and even kindergarteners. Why do we not, for example, create cartoons about five friends, and one of them has a disability. This will help small children learn about children with disabilities, and eventually change their attitudes towards their friends with disabilities. It would teach them that a person in a wheelchair could dance, and a blind person could read. 

Education – Everyone Should Promote

Our guest was constantly emphasising the importance of education. Education will help people with disabilities unlock their potential and pursue their dreams. There are three reasons for which children with disabilities cannot pursue education. First, they and their parents do not know about their capability to learn and develop. Second, there are only a handful of schools with limited space. For instance, there is only one secondary school for children with impaired eyesight in the entire country. Parents, especially those residing in the countryside, cannot send their children away due to financial constraints. Third, parents just do not want to send their children to school because they want to keep them close by. To change these types of negative attitudes, the government should send out positive messages about schooling children with disabilities to the parents, as well as their children. Lkhamsuren hopes that social influencers could take a lead in this regard. In that way, they would encourage parents to send their children to school and contribute to better public awareness about disabilities. 

Impacts of the COVID-19

The pandemic hits everyone hard. It was quite difficult financially when she was at the dormitory during the lockdown, even though the school provided some support. Once she was back with her siblings in the home soum, things got better. However, she could not visit her parents who are herding the cattle in the countryside. Her brothers and sisters have fallen behind in their schooling. For her, online schooling became the new normal. Indeed, we all hope things will go back to normal and that Lkhamsuren can visit her parents as often as she pleases.

There were many topics we could talk about with Lkhamsuren, and we know there are many stories which she would like to share. Here is one piece of advice for our readers and listeners. In our conversation, several examples came up about how people get nervous when they meet or talk to people with impaired eyesight. She advised that we should treat any person with disability just like any other normal person. Of course, there are some challenges these people experience – but they want to be treated as equals.  So, if you want to talk to a person with a white cane or a person in a wheelchair, speak and act normally.  

The Untold podcast and blog post are made available by the generous support of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation in Mongolia. We also want to thank our editor Riya Tikku.

Posted in Education, Higher Education, People with Disabilities, Podcast, Primary and Secondary Education | Tagged | Leave a comment

What’s Wrong with Chinggis Studies?

By Julian Dierkes

Okay, the enforced brevity of tweets got me into some trouble here.

Bolor Lkhaahjav was right for calling me out for my tweet.

And so was Kenny Linden for chiming in.

So, let me see if I can make a more reasonable argument with a bit more space/words.

Relative Allocation of Scarce Research Resources

Mongolia’s resources that can be devoted to social science and humanities research are scare. Similarly, the academic attention to social/cultural aspects of Mongolia (past, present and future) is limited internationally.

If you set those domestic resources at an imagined 100 units, then my feeling is that most decision-makers (politicians, but also research and academic managers, two groups that often overlap given the political appointments to research leadership positions) would allocate somewhere around 60 units to Chinggis Studies, 20 to Mongolian as a language and the remaining scraps to all kinds of other topics.

If you think of international social science and humanities research interest in Mongolia at a similar 100 units, the proportion devoted to 13th century is much lower but still significant, perhaps 20 or so. A much greater variety of topics commands attention with clusters of interest focused on Buddhism, animal husbandry and pasture management, etc. I would not attempt to come up with a complete list here. Though, very notably, there are some very different approaches and very different emphases on language with Eastern Europe and much of Asian academic interest being very philological, i.e. rooted in very deep engagement with language and focus on culture, while Western Europe, North America, and Oceania is a bit more social sciency in predominant interests, though with a heavy dose of archaeology and historical work sprinkled in.

My Perspective – in the Abstract

On a global scale, there is nothing wrong with any of that. I would always make the case for the greatest possible variety of academic interests and strongly believe in the value of Orchideenfächer (orchid-ology, or seemingly obscure niches of academic interest) to humanity and not just in the sense of benefitting by enabling development or anything like that, but very much by benefitting humanity by expanding our knowledge. It’s one of the reasons I am very happy to teach at a very large university where many different research interests can be supported.

Note that my own interest in contemporary Mongolia seems very odd, niche and possibly obscure to many of my colleagues. Likewise with my research on Japan. That’s okay and I am grateful that these niches exist and would always defend them.


You knew from the previous paragraph that a big “But…” was coming.

What drives research interests? All kinds of factors from the very personal/autobiographical, to accidents, to opportunities that present themselves. The development of research interests (including my own in Mongolia) is thus somewhat  haphazard and that’s how it should be. I don’t believe in “science policy” that starts from the premise of utility to make the case for differential founding – contrary to what my tweets may have suggested, I fear.

Yet, it is contemporary Mongolia that I find so rich in potential research topics, not centuries’ ago history.

Yes, that is in part because I am fundamentally more interested in modern society and that’s a matter of taste. It’s also because I believe – as a sociologist – that while we carry all kinds of historical imprinting on our social behaviour, ultimately this collective behaviour can change through contemporary action, including policy, we are not determined by our past even though it continues to reverberate.

But when I take the bus across Ulaanbaatar or when I have a chance to chat with a political activist in a far-flung soum, many, many research questions come to my mind where the dynamism of Mongolian society (demography, political/institutional change, the herding economy, the geopolitical situation, religious dynamics etc. etc.) are unusual in the world and thus lend themselves to comparative research where Mongolia is not merely an exoticized case study, but rather a useful case for comparison.

Many of those questions (or their answers, though, of course, social science and humanities answers are not always crisp, clear or straight-forward) have a direct impact on the choices that today’s Mongolians are making. Research that examines these choices would offer a type of understanding that will inform subsequent decisions more directly than a better understanding of long-ago historical dynamics, as fascinating as those are.

Side-Note: Impact of Chinggis-Focus on International Perceptions

Maybe a Chinggis Museum is a good idea for tourism, for Mongolia is famous for Chinggis Khaan, after all. So, perhaps more tourists will visit the Museum than used to visit the Museum of Natural History. Maybe. But what this along with the policy-preference for Chinggis Studies as expressed in Pres Khurelsukh’s campaign platform will do is, it will lock Mongolia for the foreseeable future into a cage of the exotic, quaint and irrelevant.

Again, that may be a good marketing scheme for tourism and probably also for cashmere and other natural products. I cannot see individual Mongolians benefitting from this strategy other than in those sectors. If I, as a German, wandered the world telling everyone how fascinating Carolingian history is ,who would accept me as a student (other than scholars of Charlemagne), who would want to talk to much less do business with me? With their focus on Chinggis, policy makers are very much limiting the opportunities of young Mongolian scholars, or at least of those of those scholars who happened not to want to be Chinggis scholars. Yes, members of an International Association of Chinggis Studies will be ferociously loyal to contemporary Mongolia, of course, except for those engaged in Chinggis Studies in Southern Mongolia where such scholars may be more numerous but their motivations and the state’s support is highly suspect. But to everyone else, this will always remain an obscure niche.

Side-Note: Contemporary?

Yes, history. I am fascinated by history myself, a fascination that led straight to a dissertation on history education in Japan and the Germanys, albeit from a sociological perspective. Through my exposure to Mongolia scholarship I have learned more and become very interested in Central Asian history, including long-ago history. What an array of language and cultures, but also forms of state organization, etc.

And yes, there are many aspects of Mongolia history that are hugely fascinating. But my personal preference directs me at contemporary or, at least, modern history, call it the late 19th, 20th and 21st century. From what I have been able to read in non-Mongolian sources (my limitation for scholarly work at least), I still don’t really have a strong sense of what happened from 1911 through 1930 or so. Even though things get a bit clearer by the time of the democratic revolution, it took Mendee’s dissertation for me to get a better sense of how that revolution was possible and what impact it had. There are episodes in contemporary history that I find fascinating, such as the disbanding of the Mongolian military prior to the Sino-Soviet split. But really, where I get more actively interested is from 1990 on.

Bottom Line

Please, as researchers, follow your interests even if those include the 13th century. But as policy makers, consider what niche you want your budding researchers to be locked into and whether you don’t want to document and understand all the changes that are occurring in Mongolia right now. My allocation of research units would be closer to the opposite of what I observe, namely Chinggis Studies 20: contemporary Mongolia 80.

And yes, as will be clear to many readers, this is a self-serving argument coming from me.

And no, for now, there will not be a “Chinggis” category on this blog. ????

Posted in History, Reflection, Research on Mongolia | Tagged | Leave a comment

Untold Blogpost Episode 10: Don’t Advise, Just Be a Friend

By Mendee Jargalsaikhan 

We asked Mr. A. Khash – a host at the MGLRadio – to tell his story of inspiring our first guest Mr. Battulga Ganbaatar when he lost hope. So, we asked what the magic was that unlocked Battulga’s perseverance and fight for life.


Just Want to Talk

One day, Mr. Khash decided to see someone at the hospital because he knew how difficult it is to be in hospital when there is no one who visits. So, he made lapsha – a noodle soup – and went to the Hospital for Injury and Trauma. “It’s always hard to start,” he said, but he went to the reception and asked if there was someone who never received visitors. After answering many questions from a surprised nurse, he met a guy who had lost his legs, was abandoned by his wife, and left with their daughter. Khash told the guy that he would see him at 2 pm every Tuesday. Khash said it was a good feeling that every Sunday his new friend at the hospital called him and asked for the time of his arrival. For them, food or snacks were not important, but the conversations and the feeling that someone needs you, as Khash stressed, Goyo [nice]. And he adds that he did not go to a hospital out of generosity, but rather to make his life interesting. In other words, although he did this for selfish reasons, it helped him realize the value of life. After visiting his friend for over six months, his friend asked Khash if he would continue to see him -once he was discharged from the hospital- in his home in the ger district in Bayankhoshuu, an outskirt area of UB. And of course, since it is not a project with end date, Khash continues his friendship with him. 

Photo: Khash himself (with the permission of Khash)

Meeting with Battulga

Some time later, while Khash was driving, he heard his new friend talking about him on the 104.5 radio station and he was thinking about making more friends. After listening to this broadcast, Battulga’s dad called Khash and asked him to see his son. So, Khash visited a handsome young man, who had a terrible accident and he looked at Khash with a puzzled look. Hence, Khash explained that his dad asked him to talk to him and they just talked. One thing that he realized throughout his life is to never give advice or try to change a person. Because when you give advice, it helps little, and instead creates additional stress for that person. Whenever he visits Battulga, he just talks about what happened or what he did – sometime, he would frankly talk about his terrible day and things he had done. And he just listened to Battulga. According to Khash, if you don’t feel his pain or have a similar experience, you are just lying and not helping. 

Telling the Truth

For Khash, Battulga was a strong man who tried to use the bar to do pull ups and dumbbells. Battulga often asked “Khash brother, I will stand up, right?” Khash never answered that question because he didn’t know the answer. But one day, Khash asked Battulga if he believed his life would only continue after he stood up and he thought his life stopped when he was on the bed. Khash told Battulga what he would do if he could not stand up – he would be just waiting in vain. As Khash recalled, this conversation helped him to understand the reality and it was thought provoking. Another moment which Khash shared with us was about Battulga’s dream of learning English. Battulga kept telling him that he wanted to learn English and complained about not having someone who would practice English with him. After hearing this for a while, Khash told him what a demanding and spoiled person he was. If he were in prison, he would ask from the prison authority to bring him an English-speaking person to practice with him in the prison. There are many people who learned 2-3 languages while in prison. Here, Khash explained his understanding of advising or talking about reality. People should avoid giving advice on things they do not know about or advice they don’t trust themselves. Instead, they should be frank about things that they see and understand. 

Being Selfish Makes Your World Smaller

Throughout the podcast, Mr. Khash explained how selfishness would make life boring. Once someone becomes self-centered and selfish, their worldview becomes narrow, and one is easily isolated from social interactions.  As you start talking to people and listening to their views, you begin to feel connected. This eventually helped him to find his place in the world – being a talk show host. During this pandemic, he stopped visiting people, but he still talks to them over the phone and keeps his friendships intact. Before the pandemic, he joined other colleagues who visited the people who were struggling and felt abandoned. And he did not want to publicize his good deed efforts. Frankly, he told us, he hates campaigning or doing humanitarian activities for political or even social credits. 

Helping out a Chinese Woman

One interesting story, which would be worthwhile to share, is his story of helping an old Chinese woman to cross the road during the anti-Chinese period of the 1970s. He was an 8-year-old boy when he saw a Chinese woman, who had bound feet and was trying to cross the street. Without thinking about the consequences of helping the most-hated minority in Mongolia at that time, he quickly held her hand and helped her cross the street. While on the road, he hoped that she would walk quickly and was afraid of being noticed by other children of the neighbourhood. After crossing the street, the old lady held his hand and graciously thanked him. At that moment, Khash felt the joy of helping others. 

This was the last episode of our Untold podcast and, another touching one. Especially, when he told about the moment when our first guest was asking Khash to bring a gun to end his difficult and hopeless life. Encountered with that moment, Khash did not know what to say, but managed to say that he would come back tomorrow. We don’t know if that sentence left Battulga realizing that there were people who would come for him and talk. Let’s end here with Khash’s word – just talk to people and help them with all your heart. 

The Untold podcast and blog post are made available by the generous support of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation in Mongolia. We also want to thank our editor Riya Tikku.


Posted in Health, Mendee Jargalsaikhan, People with Disabilities, Podcast | Tagged | Leave a comment

Recollections of an Airport

By Julian Dierkes

An international airport is a gateway to a country. For me, apart from a Transsiberian trip in 1991 (watch my Twitter account later in July for a mini 30-year commemoration of my trip), the Ulaanbaatar airport has been my gateway for the past 15 years. While I’ve complained about having to transfer in Beijing with its – at best – surely officials, or about the long layovers that transferring in Seoul inevitably seems to produce, arrival at Buyant-Ukhaa International Airport and thus in Mongolia has always been a joy and departure has come with some sorrow. My first-ever blog post here was about arriving at ULN.

Now, there is a new airport and we’ll switch from ULN to UBN as my dream destination for flights.


First Arrival

I’d have to look up the exact date, but I think it was in 2005 that I first arrived in Ulaanbaatar at the beginning of discovering my “Inner Mongolian”. This was a follow-up to a state visit that Pres N Bagabandi paid to Canada in 2004. I arrived nominally to assess whether there were exchange opportunities for UBC in Mongolia and my initial contact then was the Mongolian National Univ of Medical Sciences (АШУҮИС). I had been in touch with officials there prior to the visit and thought that I had made some arrangements, but I really did not have much of a plan. I am pretty sure that I arrived in the middle of the night, probably having transferred in Beijing. Something did not quite go right with the pick-up, but I forget what exactly. I do remember standing in front of the airport (which had not made much of an impression) thinking to myself, “What have I got myself into?” Little did I know!

Somehow I did get picked up and headed into the city, staying at the Ulaanbaatar Hotel that time, I think. The drive into the city was quite memorable and I was starting out of the window the whole time, of course.

In 2005, the city had not spread beyond the Tuul toward the airport. That end of town was really quite dark and the intersection that comes on the way into town just after passing the power plants still had the police box very visible, something that I only knew from childhood visits to Eastern Europe.

The Ride from the Airport

If I searched through photo collections or old posts, I’d probably find some photos or other posts, but will just recollect here.

On some winter-time visit, I was amazed by the decorations of the big street into town, trough Khaan-Uul. It was lit up in so many colours blinking away like a giant horizontal Christmas tree.

That street sure changed over the years. All kinds of developments sprung up, even while that miserable Mongolian-Japanese tree planting project did not exactly produce a wind barrier, but rather a line of scraggly trees that seem not to have grown in the 15 years that I’ve noticed them.

I also remember once taking a photo of a bunch of cows grazing on the lawn in front of the airport with its vaguely Mongolesque tower. That was a nice photo!

Now, there is a much bigger bridge across the Tuul and the mountainside road, the various horseracing, archery and wrestling venues, giant malls, etc. When you arrived into ULN in recent years, that sense of having landed in a far-off place has largely dissipated with the arrival of legitimate taxis and urban encroachment in the direction of the airport.


For the first five years of regular visits to Mongolia, the only route seemed to be MIAT or Air China through Beijing. Or, maybe it was just the cheapest and I had not developed the professional clout to refuse Beijing connections yet. Regardless, it seemed like every third CA flight did not land. Ugh, the misery of the PEK airport with the ULN flight inevitably scheduled to leave from the darkest, furthest-away gate. Either this was after a long transpacific flight or, worse, a night spent in Beijing. Then, approach to ULN… and the pilot turned around to dump us back at the gate at PEK where no plans would be communicated and passengers were left to their own devices until we were herded back onto a plane in a great hurry to depart. Yes, those cross-winds, apparently. And thus a strong preference for MIAT pilots who did not seem so challenged by landing at ULN.

VIP Section

Once I had the dubious honour of being afforded VIP treatment at ULN. That did not work out so well since I had checked luggage and the system to identify VIP luggage seemed to be to wait until all luggage was collected and whatever was left must have been this VIP’s. I did not rely on connections to be allowed the VIP treatment in the future, though I did request this once. A UBC executive was coming to Ulaanbaatar for some discussions. I called ahead and had them met at the door of the plane and whisked to the VIP terminal. This official travelled for a living (my impression), but had not received the VIP treatment before and was absolutely thrilled!

Notable Events: Attempted Akçay Abduction

Remember when the Erdogan regime tried to abduct Turkish educator Veysel Akçay from Ulaanbaatar in summer 2018? There was a long standoff between protestors who also gathered at the airport and a small jet that had arrived with four Turkish officials, but was meant to depart with five passengers.

Every once in a while I saw curious airplanes at the airport. Visiting Arabian princes of sorts (in Mongolia for falconry, perhaps), giant cargo planes to shuttle Mongolian peace keepers, various foreign government planes, etc.


I have not been excited about the new airport. The train line was never going to get built, so now the long drive into the city seems pretty daunting. Hopefully the cross-winds won’t menace landings so much anymore and I am really hoping that new international services, esp. also the resumption of Asian flights into UBN that allow for a Star Alliance connection from Vancouver without visiting Beijing or flying CA, will mean that service will be a bit more reliable.

More connections into Ulaanbaatar was supposed to be the point of a new airport, but we’ll have to see whether landing slots will actually be made available. Who knows whether I might not still fly into ULN some day.

But even then, flights directly from N America seem quite unlikely, so I will always be exhausted, so the long drive into the city will not be welcome. And, this will also mean even earlier departures for the airport to account for the vagaries of traffic and the insistence on pre-departure early arrival. But I know that I will still be so happy when landing in Ulaanbaatar to come to visit in the future!

Posted in Change, Infrastructure, Social Change, Tourism, Ulaanbaatar | Tagged | Leave a comment

Young Voter Turnout

By Julian Dierkes

There has been some debate around the low turnout rate in Mongolian election. The overall turnout was under 60% and thus much lower than the first round in 2017 and a continuation of the long-term trend of declining participation.

This long-term trend is something that Adhy Aman has looked at in a blogpost for the Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA). His focus on the youth vote is also reasonable even in simply eyeballing turnout by five-year cohorts as the General Election Commission done and as is reproduced by, for example.

While 18-19 year-olds voted at nearly the national rate, turnout drops significantly for voters in their 20s and even in their 30s.

Voter Registration as a Reason for Low Voter Turnout

Obviously, the greatest concern about the lack of political participation of young voters is that they are disengaged and unconcerned about elections and democracy.

But there may also be a host of other reasons that might keep young voters from voting.

In discussions, a number of people have pointed out that challenges in the registration process coupled with COVID restrictions may have generally depressed turnout and especially so for young voters.

One of the measures that has been adopted to combat air pollution in Ulaanbaatar is a restriction on migrating to the city. Or, more administratively, a restriction on new residence registrations to the city.

This puts migrants to the city in the situation that they are unable to register locally. Not only does this have an impact on their access to social services, but it also means that they are unable to vote in Ulaanbaatar if that is where they are residing.

The additional twist in this year’s election would be that COVID restrictions would have also prevented voters to travel to their places of registration to vote there.

Voter Registration and Young Voters

How does this affect young voters in particular?

  1. It is generally assumed (and there probably is evidence for this in the census) that migrants to Ulaanbaatar are disproportionately younger.
  2. University students who are younger will have been affected even more this year by the early election date. While elections in the past had been held in late June when students might have returned to family homes, the early June election date, especially under pandemic conditions, will have prevented them from voting. This may also explain the big drop-off from the 18-19 year-old voters to the next older cohort of 20-24 year-olds, from 56.5% to 43.7% (the lowest turnout of any age group).

What about Absolute Numbers of Young Voters?

But turnout out only tells part of the story, what about absolute numbers?

Clearly, the Mongolian population pyramid looks very different from that of Canada or Germany, for example, with very large birth cohorts of young people (see, for example, multiple tables/charts provided by the Mongolian Statistical Information Service). In 2020, people under 30 were more than half of the total population and the single largest 5-year cohort was Mongolians from 5-9 at nearly 390,000. By contrast, only 85,000 Mongolians were over 70 years old in 2020, only 2.5% of the population.

Given this demographic reality, the small percentages of younger Mongolians voting still translate into large absolute numbers and thus a lot of political power.

The total turnout for the under-30 was thus only 46.8%, but that still translated into 251k votes, or roughly 1/5 of all the votes casts.

By contrast, older voters participated much more actively (73.3% of the over 70 age group), but their votes added up to much fewer votes than the under 30s (63k in total).

So, yes, it certainly is a concern that younger voters are participating in lower numbers than older Mongolians. This is perhaps even more surprising, however, when considering that younger Mongolians by the sheer power of their absolute numbers hold considerable power.

Posted in Demography, Elections, Presidential 2021, Younger Mongolians, Youth | Tagged | Leave a comment

Untold Blogpost Episode 9: Хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэд хотод нуугдаж амьдардаг

Мөнхбатын Сайнбуян

Энэ удаагийн зочин болох Анне Тулкин маань АНУ-аас холбогдлоо. Тэрээр АНУ-ын хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй оюутнуудад зориулсан Нээлттэй Коллеж (Accessible College)-ийг үүсгэн байгуулсан ба одоо захирлаар нь ажиллаж байна.

Хатагтай Тулкин 2007-2008 онд “Сургуульд суралцагч хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй хүүхдийн асуудалд хандах Монгол багш, сонирхогч бүлгүүдийн хандлага”-ын тухай магистрын ажлын судалгаа хийжээ. Бидэнтэй “Сайн байцгаана уу” хэмээн Монголоор мэндлээд, өөрийгөө манай улстай зүрх сэтгэлээрээ холбоотой нэгэн хэмээн танилцуулсан юм. Тэрээр анх 2003 онд АНУ-ын Энх тайвны корпусын сайн дурын ажилтнаар Дорнод аймгийн Чойбалсан хотын ерөнхий боловсролын 8-р сургуульд хоёр жил ажиллаж, тус сургуулийн багш нарын заах арга зүйг сайжруулах чиглэлээр Энх тайваны корпусын төсөл хэрэгжүүлжээ. Хожим АНУ-д магистрантурт суралцаж байхдаа Фулбрайтын хөтөлбөрийн тэтгэлэгт хамрагдан, өмнө дурдсан судалгааны ажлаа хийн, дахиад жил гаруй Монгол Улсад амьдарсан байна. Монголд элгэмсэг хатагтай Тулкин хуримынхаа бал сарыг хүртэл манай улсад тэмдэглэжээ.

Хөдөө орон нутагт хөгжлийн бэрхшээл илүү ойр мэдрэгддэг

Энх тайваны корпусын Монгол амьдрал, ахуйтай танилцах сургалтаа Хатагтай Тулкин Сэлэнгэ аймгийн Баруунхараа суманд хийжээ. Хөдөөний айлд гурван сар сууж, Монгол соёл, ёс заншилтай танилцаж, хэлний эрчимтэй сургалтад хамрагдсан тэрээр шууд алс зүүн хязгаарын Чойбалсан хотод ажиллахаар болжээ. Тус хотод  ажиллаж байхдаа тэрээр ерөнхий боловсролын сургуульд нь хэд хэдэн хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй хүүхдүүд байхыг анзаарчээ. Тухайн үед оюуны бэрхшээлтэй хүүхдийг эргэн тойрных нь хүмүүс “тэнэг хүүхэд” гэж дууддаг байсныг тэрээр дурсаад, аливаа хүн хөгжлийн бэрхшээлийг хэрхэн тодорхойлж байгаа нь тэдний хандлагаар илэрхийлэгддэг болохыг онцолсон. 

Мөн хөдөлгөөний бэрхшээлтэй хүүхдүүдийн хувьд сургуулийн орчин хүртээмжтэй бус, саад ихтэй байсан хэдий ч үе тэнгийн найзууд нь тэдэнд ихээхэн тусалдаг болохыг тэрээр ажигласан байна. Хоттой харьцуулахад хөдөө, орон нутагт хүн амын тоо бага учраас хүмүүс бие биенээ сайн таньдаг. Иймээс хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй нэгнийг нуух боломжгүй. Ийм нөхцөл байдлын улмаас хөдөө дэх хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэд хот суурин газартай харьцуулбал нийгмийн харилцаанд түлхүү ордог. Нутгийн иргэд хөгжлийн бэрхшээлийг Бурхны шашинтай холбон тайлбарладаг. Тухайлбал, өмнөх төрөлдөө муу зүйл үйлдвэл энэ төрөлдөө хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй болж төрнө гэх ойлголт Монголчуудын дунд зонхилж байсан нь хатагтай Тулкины гайхлыг төрүүлж байсан аж.  

Тэрээр Улаанбаатар хотод судалгааны ажлаа хийх явцдаа хотын амьдралтай танилцаж, хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэдийн амьдрал ахуй, тэдэнд хандах хүмүүсийн хандлагын талаарх бодлоо бидэнтэй илэн далангүй хуваалцсан юм. Хөдөөтэй харьцуулахад хотод хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй хүмүүс гадуур бараг л харагддаггүй, зөвхөн гуйлга гуйж байгаа юм уу эсвэл гэр оронгүй хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй хүмүүс л гудамжинд харагдагддаг. Учир нь Улаанбаатар хотын хувьд дэд бүтэц хүртээмжтэй бус, ээлгүй байгаагаас хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэд гадуур чөлөөтэй зорчиж чаддаггүйтэй холбоотой хэмээн тэр тайлбарлав. Мөн хотод хүмүүс илүү хаалттай төдийгүй хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй хүүхдээ бусад хүмүүсээс нуух тохиолдол ч байдгийг хатагтай Тулкин анзаарчээ.

Анне судалгаандаа хэд хэдэн чухал асуудлыг хөндсөн. Жишээлбэл, хөдөө орон нутагт хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэд илүү гадуур гарч, хүмүүстэй харилцдаг ч энэ нь яг тэгш хамруулалт байж чадах уу? Монголчуудын хувьд  тэгш хамруулалт гэж яг юуг хэлээд байгааг ойлгохыг оролдсон нь цаашид түүнийг  тусгай боловсролын чиглэлээр судалгаа хийхэд нь чухал нөлөө үзүүлжээ.

Зураг: Анне Чойбалсан хотын 8-р сургуулийн багш нарын хамт Хэнтий аймгийн Дадал сумд, 2004 он (Аннегийн зөвшөөрөлтэйгөөр оруулав)

Алдагдсан боломжууд

АНУ-ын хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэдийн эрхийг хамгаалах хууль эрх зүйн орчин нь хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэдийг  хамгаалах, дэмжихэд чухал нөлөө үзүүлснийг хатагтай Тулкин бидэнд онцолж байв. Ялангуяа, хоёр хуулийг ( The Rehabiliation Act 1973, Americans with Disabilities Act 1990) тэрээр тусгайлан дурьдаж, энэ нь АНУ зэрэг  хөгжингүй орнуудад дээр үеэс хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэдийнхээ  эрхийг хамгаалах, тэднийг хөдөлмөр эрхлэлт болон боловсролын салбарт  ялгаварлан гадуурхах явдлыг зогсоох, орчны хүртээмжийг сайжруулах зэрэгт анхаарч ирснийг сонсоод атаархаж сууснаа нуух аргагүй. Гэтэл манай  улсын хувьд хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэдийн эрхийн тухай хуулийг тавхан жилийн өмнө анх баталсан нь энэ хоёр нийгмийн хооронд асар их ялгаа байгааг түүнтэй ярилцахдаа мэдэрсэн юм. Хэдийгээр орчныг бүх нийтэд хүртээмжтэй болгох тухай хууль, дүрэм журам, стандарт нь батлагдчихсан боловч эдгээрийг хэрэгжүүлэх, хянан шалгах тогтолцоо сул байна. Үүнийг манай зочин онцолж, бид хууль тогтоомжоо хэрэгжүүлэхгүй, хяналтгүй сул орхисноор хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэд ээлтэй орчин буй болгох боломжоо энэ их хурдацтай хотжилтын үйл явцад алдсаар л байна. Анхнаас нь чанарын стандартын дагуу барихгүй, налуу зам барьсан гэсэн нэр төдий байх нь эргээд хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэдэд учрах орчны саадыг арилгаж чадахгүй юм. Хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэд  гадуур чөлөөтэй, саадгүй явдаг байж л нийгмийн амьдралд тэгш хамрагдаж, өөрсдийн эрхийг хамгаалахаар гарч ирж, дуу хоолойгоо хүргэх болно гэдгийг тэрээр онцолсон юм. 

АНУ-ын хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэдийн эрхээ хамгаалуулахаар тэмцэж буй баримтат кино (Crip Camp)-г үзэхийг хатагтай Тулкин бидэнд санал болгосон. Энэ нь манайхан ч гэсэн АНУ-ын нэгэн адил  хүний эрхийг дээдлэдэг ардчилсан орны хувьд иргэд дуу хоолойгоо чөлөөтэй илэрхийлээсэй, хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэд маань эрхийнхээ төлөө тэмцээсэй гэж хэлэхийг зорьсон мэт. Ярилцлагын явцад зочин маань Монгол хүмүүст байдаг сайхан чанарыг олонтаа дурсаж байв. Тухайлбал, Монголд гудамжинд явж буй хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэдийг хараад хэн ч уриалгахан тусалдаг нь нөгөө талаараа тэдэнд өдөр тутамд тулгардаг орчны саадыг нь давахад тусалдаг гэсэн юм.

Зураг: Анне найз Сараагийн ахын хамт Дорнод аймагт, 2004 он (Аннегийн зөвшөөрөлтэйгөөр оруулав)

ХБИ-ийн талаарх ойлголтыг нэмэгдүүлэхдээ

Хатагтай Тулкин 2008 онд хийсэн судалгааны ажилдаа манайд хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэдийн талаарх ойлголт, хандлага муу байгаа нь нийгэмд эргээд олон сөрөг асуудал үүсэхэд нөлөөлж байдаг талаар бичсэн байдаг. Хэрхэн хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэдийн талаарх ойлголтыг нэмэгдүүлж, хандлагыг эерэг болгох талаарх бидний асуултад тэрээр ямар ч эргэлзээгүйгээр мэдээллийн хэрэгслүүдээр хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэдийн төлөөллийг оруулцуул, олон нийтэд таниулах хэрэгтэй гэж хэлсэн юм. Хэдийгээр нийгэмд  энэ асуудлаар бусад хүмүүс ярихгүй байсан ч гэсэн дуу хоолойгоо тасралтгүй хүргэх хэрэгтэй гэж тэрээр үздэг аж. Мөн Монголчуудыг Солонгос олон ангит кино үзэх дуртайг анзаарсан тэрээр хөгжлийн бэрхшээлтэй иргэдийн  талаарх дэлгэцийн контентыг нийтэд хүргэх нь үр дүнтэй аргуудын нэг хэмээн онцолсон юм. Эцэст нь хэлэхэд, зочин маань Монголд байхдаа Шар хадны эмнэлэгт (СЭМҮТ) оюуны хувьд ямар ч бэрхшээлгүй  тархины саажилттай хүүхдүүдийг байлгаж байсныг хараад  хэрвээ тэр хүүхдүүд АНУ-д төрсөн бол амьдрал нь ямар өөр байх байсан гэсэн бодол төрсөн гэдгээ хуваалцсан нь бид цаашид ямар их зүйл хийх хэрэгтэй, АНУ зэрэг орнуудаас хичнээн хол байгааг ахин нэг удаа ухааруулсан юм.  

М.Сайнбуян – Монголын Бодлогын Инновацийн Хүрээлэнгийн төслийн зохицуулагч бөгөөд Канадын Вотерлүүгийн Их Сургуульд улс төр судлал болон БНСУ-ын Ёнсей Их сургуульд эдийн засгийн чиглэлээр магистрын зэрэг тус тус хамгаалсан. Энэхүү подкастыг Фридрих-Эбертийн сангийн дэмжлэгтэйгээр хийлээ.

Posted in Education, Human Rights, People with Disabilities, Podcast, United States | Leave a comment

Party Support Across Aimags and the City

By Julian Dierkes

In 1996, the predecessor(s) of the DP won 50 of the 76 parliamentary seats at a time when P Ochirbat was still serving as president, having been swept into office by the democratic revolution. That was the last time a single political grouping (not quite a party yet) was as dominant as the MPP is now, having secured the presidency for U Khurelsukh after winning a landslide victory in the 2020 parliamentary election. The 1996 election seemed to herald a fundamental shift away from the then-MPRP, while the current situation represents the resurgence of the now-MPP and the demise of the DP seems increasingly likely. There will be much speculation and observation of the DP in the coming years, but here, I want to briefly focus on the election results of the three candidates/parties.


Talk about a landslide! Not only the biggest margin of victory in any presidential election, but some pretty astonishing margins in specifics aimags. Sure, aimags like Gobi-Altai or Sukhbaatar are not very populous (around 40k registered voters) but shares of the vote of 84.6% and 87.2%, respectively, are pretty astonishing in an election where voters had three other choices (if you include the blank ballot as an alternative) and were free to actually make that choice.

The 82.5% support in Khentii can at least be explained by that being Khurelsukh’s home province, but some of the other results? Yes, Gobi-Altai and Sukhbaatar had backed M Enkhbold in 2017 as well, but barely. Gobi-Altai in particular is surprising as the aimag had backed S Ganbaatar with over a third of the vote in 2017. While some of that might have been MPRP loyalists who might have voted MPP this time, a good number of those voters must have been protest voters (i.e. anti-MAHAH) and thus not likely Khurelsukh backers.

In Gobi-Altai, Khurelsukh garnered over 18,000 votes where M Enkhbold had received just under 9,600 or about half. [I will use approximate numbers below in case preliminary results are further adjusted. I’m working with’s summary of results because it is graphically most attractive.]

Khurelsukh’s “weakest” results came in the two almost-urban aimags of Darkhan-Uul and Orkhon, and in the Ulaanbaatar city districts, of course. Of the provinces, Selenge returned the weakest result for Khurelsukh with a still-astonishing 69.9%, but Selenge also had a very low turnout at 51.2%.

The city is a different story. Ignoring the smaller satellite districts, Khurelsukh’s strongest result came in Songinokhairkhan (67.3%, close to the national result of 67.7%), while the weakest result was still a majority of voters in Bayangol district (52.6%).


My Twitter bubble was pretty enthusiastic about Enkhbat’s candidacy. Perhaps more enthusiastic even than about KhUN in last year’s parliamentary election. And, perhaps, no surprise there, as foreign-trained, professional Ulaanbaatarites were assumed to be a strong source of support and are also represented disproportionately among my contacts. The greatest fear about Enkhbat’s chances probably was whether he was known by/would connect with rural voters.

His 20.3% really seems like quite a success in light of those questions. Yes, he did not come close to challenging Khurelsukh, nor even to forcing a run-off, but his candidacy certainly caught many voters’ attention despite his relative lack of political visibility since leaving parliament in 2012, and the very short campaign period to allow him to make himself better-known.

Some of the strong showing for Enkhbat surely is linked to the disaster that was the DP campaign. But note that Enkhbat came ahead of Erdene in all aimags except for Arkhangai and Bayan-Ulgii and his lead was typically greater than the share of blank ballots which most likely were DP protest voters.

Mongolians living abroad overwhelmingly supported Enkhbat, but that support only added 4k votes overall as voters had to come to embassies, something that might have been doable in geographically smaller countries like Japan or Germany, but a massive hurdle in Canada and the U.S., for example, particularly during pandemic travel injunctions.

In the populous city districts, Enkhbat received more than 30% of the votes in Bayangol, Bayanzurkh, Sukhbaatar, and Khaan-Uul while still receiving more than 20% in Songinokhairkhan and Chingeltei. Clearly, this vote went much, much beyond a bubble of foreign-educated urban elites. In those six populous districts, Enkhbat received more than 160k votes, hardly an elite in a city of 1.some million inhabitants.

Addendum June 24, 2021: Another way to think of that urban-rural difference is that of the total of just under 250k votes that Enkhbat received, approximately two thirds were cast in Ulaanbaatar while the remaining third were from other towns (Darkhan: 7,800, Erdenet: 8,000) and aimags. [Thanks to my colleague Brendan for asking about the share of absolute number of votes in a conversation!]

The most interesting result for the imminent future here is Songinokhairkhan, as D Sumiyabazar relinquished his parliamentary seat from that district when he became governor of Ulaanbaatar, necessitating a by-election for that seat. Vote shares here were Khurelsukh 67.3 (79k) Enkhbat 22.7% (27k) Erdene 4% (5k) blank  6% (7k) on turnout of 58.8%. Surely, KhUN will want to capitalize on Enkhbat’s success in the presidential election in that by-election, perhaps even by nominating Enkhbat and integrating him into the party.


There are so many ways in which this election was a (largely) self-inflicted disaster for S Erdene and for the DP.

There are no bright spots in the election results for Erdene or for the DP. Even if we assume that the majority of blank ballots cast were disaffected DP voters, the DP barely received over 20% in Arkhangai, an aimag where Battulga (barely) came ahead of M Enkhbold in the 2017 run-off. In Khovd, Ts Elbegdorj’s нутаг, the combined Erdene vote and blank ballots barely reached 13.3%, just ahead of Enkhbat at 12.7% and that assumes that all the blank ballots cast were DP voters.

In some of the most populous Ulaanbaatar ridings, Erdene barely received over 4% of the votes. 4%!

Posted in Democratic Party, Elections, Mongolian People's Party, National Labor Party, Party Politics, Politics, Presidential 2021 | Tagged | Leave a comment

Presidential Election Analyses & Outlook

Public Podium Discussion

Friday, June 11 18h (PST)/Saturday, June 12 9h (Ulaanbaatar)


Moderator: Julian Dierkes, Univ of British Columbia

Observations on the Ground

  • Enkhtsetseg D, Open Society Forum: Domestic Election Observations
  • Jana Zilkova, Caritas Czech Republic in Mongolia: International Election Observations
  • Anand T, Journalist: Covering the Presidential Election

Observations from Afar


Posted in Democracy, Elections, Events, Politics, Presidential 2021, Research on Mongolia, Video | Tagged | Leave a comment

More on the DP’s Platform – Future Directions in Human Rights and Governance?

By Marissa J. Smith

Last week I wrote a post overviewing the final section of the Democratic Party candidate S. Erdene’s campaign platform. I have had a chance since to read the remainder of the program closely, and am struck by the rest of the program’s specificity as well.

So what, you may ask? Especially now that the vote has come in, with Erdene dead last, with only six percent of the vote (just ahead of the “blank ballot” vote).

The DP platform intrigues me because it calls out with specificity issues with human rights and governance that have been at the forefront of policy debates for months, and though they have not been named in either the MPP (nor, notably, the KhUN) platforms, are not likely to go away. Their presence in Erdene’s platform also, I think, hints that there may be more unity in the DP than they have been given credit for (though the DP itself seems unlikely to be the vehicle through which these issues will be pressed, in the near term at least).

Balance of Power

While naming constitutional limits on the powers of the President, limits aggressively pursued by the MPP during the term of the DP president Battulga, the DP platform of candidate Erdene makes very specific proposals to change the structure of government. The platform points out remaining concerns about the powers of the National Security Council, and the hierarchical structure of prosecutors’ organization, as in need of reform. Limiting the investigation of grand corruption to the Anti-Corruption Agency is also proposed. These are in alignment with issues that have been at the forefront of conversations about political reform for some time now, but again, are absent from the MPP platform. (In this vein, Enkhbat’s platform is notable for calling for a legalization of the proportional electoral system, 4.3.)

In proposals that are more directed at checking the MPP’s power (and perhaps also checking loss of centralized control on the part of the DP), the DP platform also proposes to increase transparency over party finances, and to place limits on the elaboration of local party organization. (“Considering the huge amount of empty politicization and divisions at the primary and middle levels of government, a policy will be developed to create a legal environment that restricts the establishment of branches and units of political parties at the soum, bagh, district and khoroo levels.“)

Human Rights

As with the excerpts I previously covered, there is detail the DP platform about pressing human rights issues. While the MPP platform merely names “freedom of the press” as a human right that will be protected, the DP platform states (albeit in a section on anti-corruption) that it will protect whistleblowers (Mongolia has no whistleblower protection law). As previously covered, however, the platform also proposes to “abolish criminal liability for exercising freedom of the press.” The MPP platform notably makes no mention of Mongolia’s horrifying record of violence against women documented in 2017 by the UNFPA, and according to the UNDP of additional concern during the pandemic, while the DP platform calls attention even to workplace harassment (while gains have been made criminalizing domestic violence against women, sexual harassment has not yet been criminalized, despite the activism of many Mongolian women).


There is some overlap with the MPP’s platform. Both include statements about relationships with the global Mongolian diaspora, including with children who have been born abroad. Both also highlight the European Union in statements in the platform about broadening visa-free travel for Mongolian citizens. Both platforms also highlight violence against children as an issue to be tackled. Finally, while the DP lacks the detail of the MPP’s program on specific “mega-projects” and development plans for particular cities and regions, it is notable that the DP program states that only “at least ten percent” of state enterprises such as Erdenet be privatized via the Mongolian stock exchange.

Divergences on Military, Foreign Relations

(See also Bulgan’s post on this. She raises the very interesting issue of the difficulty of the Mongolian president’s position being prominent in international relations, but with limited powers.)

While both the MPP and the DP platforms discuss third neighbor policies and the military, there are notable differences. The DP platform highlights a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership with the US and Japan as a goal, while the MPP platform notes “third neighbors,” but the only two countries specifically named are Russia and China. (Reference to “two foreign global languages” in secondary and higher education, “once the mother tongue is mastered,” is also made.) Regarding the military, the DP names a “Strong and Fast Army” program with recruitment of university students in computer technology, math, physics, and a focus on cyber security. On the other hand, the MPP platform proposes broader military participation — “The military unit and branch should be developed as a school for patriotic upbringing of young people, physical development, mental strength, acquisition of certain professions, human development environment and civic development” (2.2.9) and programs of military training for university and high school students( (3.1.15) (perhaps recognizing the fallout over Oyun-Erdene’s comments on the occasion of this past Women’s Day, young women’s participation is proposed to be strictly voluntary.)

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Presidential election candidates platform

By Bulgan B

The presidential election campaigning has ended officially on June 8 2021. The campaign lasted for ten days, and tomorrow, June 9th, we are likely to have a result or a likely decision on whether a second vote will be necessary as was the case in 2017.

Although late, I wanted to briefly survey each campaign platform on three main areas: Foreign Affairs and Military issues. According to the amendment to the constitution, the president would have a certain power in symbolic terms or executive terms (see article) over these three domains. Although judiciary is another area where previous President’s try to leverage power through appointments judges, prosecutors with the amendment to the constitution (Mongolia focus blogged extensively on it, please see here, and here for more information) the powers are restricted.

Before diving into the two categories, a short synopsis of the platforms is included below.

Right Person Electorate Coalition candidate D Enkhbat’s platform

Slogan/Motto: Do not include their campaign slogan. Their campaign slogan was “Mongolia can” – or “Mongolia is able” (See Marissa’s article for slogans for details and nuances).

General Summary: Compared to the other two candidates’ platforms, D Enkbat’s platform is only half as long, only seven pages. The platform includes a short introductory paragraph where it makes reference to Mongolia’s Sustainable Development Goals 2030. The platform continues with nine sections that are named as a declaration: [I] Shall be a President that:

  1. Enables unity, justice and equity.
  2. Protects national security and independence.
  3. Supports education policy that is based on sophisticated/developed systems and leading technology.
  4. Strengthens parliamentary democracy and human rights.
  5. Supports (pro) environment and sustainable development.
  6. Supports a sustainable economy that ensures innovation, free and healthy competition.
  7. Prioritizes national interests, and meets international standards, and respects foreign relations that are equal (balanced).
  8. Cherishes healthy Mongolians and Mongolian future.
  9. Rely on the citizen, not on any interest groups.

Democratic Party candidate S Erdene’s platform

Slogan/Motto: A country that respects individual rights – was the slogan for the platform. The campaign however used “Mongolia without Dictatorship” (see Marissa’s entry on slogans).

General Summary: The platform is 14 pages long, and has six sections. The introduction section includes references to “respecting the parliamentary governance”, “foreign policy that targets third neighbours” and reviving Democratic Mongolia. The intro section includes four bullet points declare to strengthen:

  • Mongolia’s foundational/root interests,
  • Mongolian’s human rights, and freedom,
  • Private property and economic rights and
  • Rule of law, and just government.

The six main sections are:

  1. National unity – Democratic governance
  2. Mongolian – Mongolian ethnos
  3. Foreign Relations – Neutrality policy
  4. Defence
  5. National Security
  6. Others

Mongolian People’s Party candidate U Khurelsukh’s platform

Slogan/Motto: The platform did not include its campaign slogan as part of the platform. U Khurelsukh’s campaign slogans are: “Owners of your wealth” and “Let’s serve/strive for Mongolia”  (see Marissa’s article for more). However, each subsection had motto/slogans or vignettes included that are different than the general campaign slogans.

General Summary: The length of the platform was the same as S Erdene’s, 14 pages long. The platform is divided into three main sections and each section has three subsections. The main sections are 1. Justice, 3. Unity and 3. Development. Below are the sections/subsections.

  1. Justice includes 1.1. Responsible Government – Just society, 1.2. Inclusive economy (not quite the translation – Иргэндээ хүртээмжтэй эдийн засаг) – fair distribution (of wealth). 1.3. National heritage and values to cherish.
  2. Unity includes 2.1. National unity to prioritize and protect, 2.2. National foundational/root interests and security, 2.3. A foreign policy to lead us to development.
  3. The development includes 3.1. Mongolian – Mongolian wealth, 3.2. Green Development – Mongolian Future; 3.3. Rural and Urban – Developmental Balance (equity).

Candidates’ stand on Foreign Affairs issues

The powers of the president on foreign affairs are limited.  Following three are the general areas of responsibility and rights:

  1. President holds power to represent Mongolia in foreign relations and can establish international contracts on behalf of Mongolia based on discussion with the parliament.
  2. President appoints and recalls ambassadors to other countries based on discussion with the parliament.
  3. President receives a letter of credence and recall of foreign heads of diplomatic missions.

Candidates have expressed their agenda on the first items – where they focus to improve relationships with the third neighbours and continue to respect the friendly relationships with the two neighbours.

The language/tone much differed between MPP ruling party candidate Khurelsukh and the other two candidates. U Kurelsukh’s language has not considered the limitations of the Presidential powers – and proposed implement activities. On the other hand, candidate D Enkhbat’s platform appeared general and S Erdene’s platform also struggled to remain within the established boundaries of the presidential powers.

D Enkhbat: Section 7. [I] shall be a President that prioritizes national interests, and meets international standards, and respects foreign relations that are equal (balanced).

Proposes to abide by the National Security Concept Paper as well as the Third Neighbour Policy and develop foreign relations policy that will support the joint implementation of big/mega projects. He also included friendly economic relations with the two neighbours China and Russia.

In terms of impact, will continue to advocate Mongolia as a centre for international dialogue, discussion and high-level meeting platform through active participation in the international community initiatives.

He includes that awareness and understanding of the existing economic structure, barriers, dependence and vulnerability and asserts that he will not tamper with the existing ecosystem (read the influence of China and Russia).  At the same time, he proposes to focus on mitigating these challenges and improve immunity and support a self-relied economy.

Domestically, he proposes to improve public servant’s knowledge, skills and capacity in the foreign relations area.

S Erdene: Section 3. Foreign Relations – Neutrality policy

Also, continue to respect the two neighbours and will improve the relationship with the third neighbours. He mentions the USA, UK, Japan, EU, India, Korea and Turkey – as examples of countries that he would pursue to strengthen the third neighbour policy. Also, his platform proposes to improve the “strategic bilateral relations” to “comprehensive bilateral relations” with the USA and Japan.

On the two neighbours, the platform proposes that S. Erdene will hold a trilateral meeting of Russia, China and Mongolia in Ulaanbaatar – and will have a balanced, flexible and pragmatic policy in dealing with the neighbours.

Some specific action items included are:
-eliminate the Schengen visa for Mongolians by 2027;
-firmly support the goal of a peaceful solution to the Korean Peninsula issue and
-becoming an exporter to the Asian transport and energy networks (roads, airways, railways, etc.).;
-will work to have the parliament approve the initiatives on open/free zone to attract international investment in technology, industry and environment;
-work to include the participation of journalists in the peacekeeping missions;
-integrate into Asian transportation routes (road, railroad and air routes);
-one window policy for Economy and Foreign Relations;
-establish a new council foreign relations promotion (Гадаад харилцааны сурталчилгааны)under the President;
-work to open branches of international organizations, such as UN-affiliated organizations on human rights and education.

U Khurelsukh: Section 2.3. A foreign policy to lead us to development.

Similar to the other two candidates, the continued relationship with the two neighbours and improve outcomes from the engagement with the third neighbour. Compared to the other two candidates, the language shows the tone that I will get it done despite the fact that President’s power is limited.

He has specific sections on the international reputation of Mongolia, UN participation, foreign investment to help development, strong Mongolian passport (increase visa-free countries twofold), health diplomacy (pandemic related policy – nothing specific), cultural diplomacy and improving the capacity of the diplomatic missions as well as the officials.

Candidates’ stand on Military issues

The president is the Chief of the General Staff of the Mongolian Armed Forces and is the head of the National Security Council (Prime Minister and Speaker are members).

The powers that the president holds as the Chief of General Staff and Armed Forces raises certain concerns as it is a big power – and incumbent president Kh. Battulga and MPP candidate U Khurelsukh – directly and indirectly, make references to use the power of the military. Regarding the Head of the National Security Council – this is a consultative body – not an executive body.

D Enkhbat: Section 2 [I] Shall be a President that protects national security and independence.

Enkhbat made references to independence, territory and borders, unity, human rights, parliamentary democracy, corruption, ethics in the national security sections. There were two paragraphs (subsections) 2.6 and 2.7 explicitly referenced defence policy and defence sector, and reference to the armed forces is that he will work to support strategic, scientific and technologically enabled resources for the armed forces. On defence, he says he will continue to support the existing policy and will intensify the reform of the sector.

S Erdene: Section 4. Defence and Section 5. National Security

Section for 4. The candidate proposes that as the Chief of the Armed Forces – will initiate “Strong and Fast Army” and within the first 100-days in the office will implement “Military Police”. He will establish the International Centre of Peacekeeping in Mongolia, through it will attract investment to establish hospital engineering, infrastructure and advanced technology. In addition create student-soldier for professions in computing, mathematics and physics – to help with the non-traditional cyber units.

Followings are activities proposed in this section as well:

  • establish a special unit (and its resources) to prevent cyber threats,
  • implement policy to a couple professional army and citizen protection,
  • improve modernize the conscripted soldiers program, and implement emergency management to military units;
  • initiate a law that creates a body that prevents (and fights) and is able to respond to non-traditional security threats (pandemic, cyber attack, disinformation)

In section 5. National Security – The DP candidate included wide compassing issues, such development/maturity of political parties, party’s financial transparency, poverty, natural resource wealth distribution, energy, nomadic animal husbandry, climate change, water issues, bio-safety and reforming of the religious institutions.

As the head of the National Security Council – he proposes three agendas that include submitting law to reform the roles and responsibilities, reform emergency structure and response through a participatory process and will prevent the President to express personal positions that concern the issues of independence and foreign policy.

Another major piece under the section is on “Corruption” – that he declares corruption as the “enemy” that threatens national security and he proposes the five initiatives.

  1. Disclosure of income sources of the senior public servants;
  2. Initiate law that voters can withdraw MPs from the parliament if they deceived voters and lost voters trust;
  3. Enable a legal environment where senior officials violate existing laws and legislation that ensures transparency;
  4. Improve the system where the political party’s financial information is public through participatory hearing, discussion and process.
  5. Educate the anti-corruption body, and create a legal environment to separate the criminal functions.

U Khurelsukh: Section 2.2.National foundational/root interests and Security 

On national security, U Khurelsukh proposed to implement  “Mongolian citizen’s security/safety”, “Economic security” and “Pharmaceutical and food security” programs.

Also, he proposes to have a “National security integrated database” – to strengthen the government’s institutional memory.

On defence, the platform has two sections, 1. Armed forces with integrated management and 2. Mongolian soldier – peacekeeping soldier. The Armed forces with integrated management section involve further reforming the legislation of the military and create integrated management for armed forces and other administrative management. The improvement of the border units/regiments and national emergency


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